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Number of Pages:114





Title i
Declaration ` ii
Approval iii
Certification iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgement vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Figures ix
List of Tables x
Abbreviations xi
Abstract xiii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the study 3
1.4 Significance of the study 3
1.5 Scope of the study 3
1.6 Organization of the dissertation 3
2.1 Nigeria power sector: Past and Present 5
2.2 Solar PV and diesel generators for electricity generation in Nigeria. 8
2.3 Solar Photovoltaic Power systems 11
2.3.1 Components of photovoltaic systems 11
2.3.2 Types of photovoltaic systems 24
2.3.3 Advantages and disadvantages of solar PV system 27
2.4 Diesel generator 27
2.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of diesel generators 29
2.5 Life cycle Cost definition 29
2.5.1 Fundamental concepts of Life Cycle Cost Analysis 30
2.5.2 Cost structures in Life cycle analysis 31
2.5.3 Life cycle cost process 31
2.6 Computer Software 34
2.7 Software Development life cycle Overview 35
2.7.1 Definition of SDLC 36
2.7.2 Prototyping process model 39
2.8 Python Programming 43
2.9 Gap in Literature 44
3.1 Rationale for design approach 45
3.1.1 Design methodology 45
3.1.2 Modeling and Requirements Engineering 46
3.1.3 Mapping prototype and requirements engineering 47
3.1.4 Defining the Problem Domain 49
3.2 Requirements Engineering in the Problem Domain 49
3.2.1 General Description 49
3.2.2 LCC Analysis Application: Statement of Needs 50
3.3 Requirements Gathering in the Problem Domain 50
3.3.1 Develop Stakeholder Requirements 50
3.3.2 Discover Business Processes 52
3.4 Analysis in the Solution Domain 64
3.4.1 Discover System Requirements 64
4.1 Results 68
4.2 Discussions 70
5.1 Summary 71
5.2 Conclusion 71
5.3 Recommendation 71
References 73
Appendix I 79
Appendix II




1.1 Background of the Study
An adequate and reliable electricity supply system is essential for any developing country, [1]. In
Nigeria, the electricity situation can best be described as epileptic. This epileptic power situation
affects the manufacturing, service and residential sectors of the economy which in turn affects
the country’s economic growth, [2]. At present about twenty million households out of about
one hundred and fifty million inhabitants lack access to grid electricity and for those who have
access to grid electricity, the supply is very poor, [3].
The erratic power supply and frequent outages in the country’s electric power system has
compelled a large percentage of the populace to rely on solar energy and diesel power generators
as alternative means of power generation.
Solar energy is energy from the sun. The solar energy conversion into electricity takes place in a
semiconductor device, called a solar cell. A solar cell is a unit that delivers only a certain amount
of electrical power. In order to use solar electricity for practical devices which requires a
particular voltage or current for their operation, a number of solar cells have to be connected
together to form a solar panel also called a PV module. For large-scale generation of solar
electricity the solar panels are connected together into a solar array, [4].
Based on semiconductor technology, solar cells operate on the principle that electricity will flow
between two semiconductors when they are put into contact with each other and exposed to light
(photons). This phenomenon, known as the photovoltaic effect, was first discovered by Edmund
Becquerel in 1839. Actual development of PV technology began in the 1950s and gained greater
impetus through the NASA space program during the 1960s. Research continues today at
national laboratories and within private industry, focusing on increasing conversion efficiencies
and mass production strategies to further lower the cost of producing PV modules, [5].
Solarphotovoltaic systems are widely known for their ability to generate electric power for
homes, water pumping, village electrification, rural clinic and schools power supply, vaccine
refrigeration, traffic lighting and lighting of road signs and commercial buildings, through the
absorption of energy from the sun’s ray,[6].
The simplicity of design and operation of diesel generators has sustained its usage as a reliable
means of generating electricity in remote and grid isolated areas of Nigeria. Availability of fuel
makes it an economic option.
However, the advocacy for the adoption of solar photovoltaic systems as an alternative source of
electricity generation is on the increase in Nigeria, due to its reliable, affordable and clean energy
source. Solar energy is widely available throughout the world and can contribute to reduced
dependence on energy imports, as it entails no fuel price risk or constraints; it also improves
security of supply. Solar power enhances energy diversity and hedges against price volatility of
fossil fuels, thus stabilizing costs of electricity generation in the long term.
There exists a Conflict of choice between these two alternatives of electricity generation. This
conflict is instigated by cost of acquisition and efficiency of the system.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Most often, procurement costs are widely used as the primary (and sometimes only) criteria for
the choice of alternative power generation systems based on the period it takes to recoup the
investment (simple payback period), [7]. For instance, a diesel generator of low acquisition cost
with high operation cost may be considered cost effective as compared to a photovoltaic system
whose cost of acquisition may be high with a low operation cost over same period. This criteria
result to poor financial decision.
To ensure cost effectiveness, Life cycle cost (LCC) analysis is required to demonstrate the
relationship between operational savings and investment cost of systems with different
economic lives. Simple payback criteria is a relative measure for only one case as it is frequently
used for small capital expenditures which are so clearly economical that the time and expense of
a full LCC analysis is not worthwhile, [7].
The complexity and time consuming nature of the mathematics involved in life cycle cost
analysis stands as a deterrent to an average Nigerian in making a choice of a cost effective
alternative power generation system. This dissertation develops software that analyzes the life
cycle cost of solar PV and diesel generator systems, with input variables in form of power rating
of the systems’ load requirement, resources, initial cost of system components, life cycle term.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to develop life cycle cost analysis software for a Solar PV and
diesel powered generator systems.
The study more specifically seeks to,
1. Assess the degree of inadequacy in the Nigeria power sector over the years.
2. Examine solar PV and diesel generators as alternatives for electricity generation in
3. Use standard procedures to ascertain the economic viability of a PV and diesel powered
generator system.
4. Demonstrate for educational purpose, a practical approach to implement prototyping
software development model.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study promises to make an important contribution in the academic search for developing
software for life cycle cost analysis of energy systems. It will enable individuals, government
and organizations to make reasonable choice selection on cost effective and efficient alternatives
of generating electricity. The developed software will create an easy platform for those who will
find life cycle cost calculations complex and tedious. As a means of increasing awareness of
solar PV technology for electricity generation, this study could not have come at a better time
since presently, the growth of Solar PV technology is hindered by perceived high cost of system
components. It will lead to change of mindset that a particular system is cost effective than the
other, considering only the acquisition cost.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The developed software is limited to Nigeria, for life cycle cost analysis of stand-alone solar
Photovoltaic and diesel generator systems.
1.6 Organization of the dissertation
This dissertation is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is the introductory chapter. This
highlights the reasons behind this research work, ranging from statement of problem, objectives,
significance, and scope. In chapter two, efforts were made to review research works that are
related to the subject matter of this research. This enabled the researcher to come up with gaps in
literature which this work fills. Chapter three covers the design methodology adopted for this
study, which is one of the most important parts of software development. Chapter four shows the
software implementation based on the research methodology adopted and also show test results
of the implemented software. Chapter five combines summary of the work, conclusion and
recommendation. All authors whose works were consulted in the course of this research are
acknowledged in the reference. The python source code of the software and its interactions on
the command line interface are presented in Appendix I and II respectively