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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – – i Declaration – – – – – – – – – – – ii Certification – – – – – – – – – – -iii Dedication – – – – – – – – – – -iv Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – – -v Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -vi Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – -vii List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – -viii List of Figures – – – – – – – – – – -ix List of Plates – – – – – – – – – – -x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – – -1
1.2 The Research Problem – – – – – – – -6
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – – – -10
1.4 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – – -11
1.5 Scope of Study – – – – – – – – -11
1.6 Justification of study – – – – – – – – -12
1.7 Organization of the Study – – – – – – – -12
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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Concept of Dissolved Sediment – – – – – – – -13 2.2 Factors that Govern the Percent Dissolved Sediment – – – – -17 2.2.1 Climate: Temperature and Precipitation – – – – – -17 2.2.2 Vegetation – – – – – – – – – -19 2.2.3 Human Activities – – – – – – – – -22 2.2.3.1 Man`s Direct Channel Manipulation – – – – – – -23 2.2.3.2 Urbanization – – – – – – – – – -25 2.2.4 Rock Solubility – – – – – – – – – -27 2.2.5 Erodibilty of Materials in the Drainage Basin – – – – – -32 2.2.5.1 Texture – – – – – – – – – -36 2.2.5.2 Structure – – – – – – – – – -36 2.2.5.3 Soil OrganicMatter – – – – – – – – -37 2.2.5.4 Permeability – – – – – – – – – -37 2.2.6 Relief and Slope – – – – – – – – – -38 2.3Water Quality – – – – – – – – – -39 2.3.1 Microbial Aspect – – – – – – – – -41 2.3.2 Chemical Aspect – – – – – – – – -42 2.3.3 Radiological Aspect – – – – – – – – -43
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2.3.4 Acceptability Aspect: Taste, Odour and Appearance – – – – -44 2.4 The Concept of Water Pollution – – – – – – – -44 2.4.1 Point Source – – – – – – – – – -45 2.4.2 Non-Point Source – – – – – – – – -45 2.4.3 Man made Pollution – – – – – – – – -45 2.4.4 Natural pollution – – – – – – – – -46 2.4.5 Water pollutants – – – – – – – – – -47 2.4.5.1Toxicity – – – – – – – – – -48 2.4.5.2 Symptoms – – – – – – – – – -49 2.4.5.3 Detrimental effects – – – – – – – – -50 2.4.5.4 Remediation – – – – – – – – – -52 2.4.5.5 Benefits – – – – – – – – – -53 2.5 Related Previous Studies – – – – – – – – -53 CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Study area – – – – – – – – – – -57 3.1.1 Location – – – – – – – – – – -57 3.1.2 Climate – – – – – – – – – – -59
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3.1.3 Geology – – – – – – – – – – -60 3.1.4 Soil – – – – – – – – – – -63 3.1.5 Vegetation – – – – – – – – – -65 3.1.6Landforms – – – – – – – – – -66 3.1.7 Land Use – – – – – – – – – -66 3.1.7 Drainage Characteristics – – – – – – – -67 3.2 Methodology – – – – – – – – – -69 3.2.1 Reconnaissance Survey – – – – – – – – -69 3.2.2Types and Sources of Data – – – – – – – -69 3.2.3Techniques of Data Collection – – – – – – – -70 3.2.3.1 Collection, Preservation and Storage of the Samples – – – – -70 3.2.3.2 Stream Discharge – – – – – – – – -70 3.2.4 Dissolved Sediment Concentration – – – – – – -72 3.2.5 Mineral Composition and Heavy Metal Test – – – – – -73 3.2.6 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – -76 3.2.6.1 Rainfall-Discharge Relationship – – – – – – -76 3.2.6.2 Estimation of Dissolved Sediment Yield – – – – – -77
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3.2.6.3 Dissolved Sediment Concentration-Discharge Relationship – – – -78 3.2.6.4 Dissolved Sediment Discharge-Discharge Relationship – – – -78 3.2.6.5 Dissolved Sediment Concentration-Dissolved Sediment Discharge Relationship -78 3.2.6.6 Conversion of % Residue Sample to Mg/l – – – – – -79 3.2.6.7 Statistical Analysis – – – – – – – – -79 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Stream Discharge – – – – – – – – – -81 4.1.2 Rainfall-Discharge Relationship – – – – – – -89 4.2 Dissolved Sediment Concentration – – – – – – -96 4.3 Dissolved Sediment Concentration, Dissolved Sediment Discharge and Discharge Relationships – – – – – – – – – -103 4.3.1 Dissolved Sediment Concentration-Discharge Relationship – – – -103 4.3.2 Dissolved Sediment Discharge-Discharge Relation – – – – -107 4.3.3 Dissolved Sediment Concentration-Dissolved Sediment Discharge Relation – -110 4.3 Estimation of Dissolved Sediment Concentration Yield – – – – -112 4.4 Mineral Composition and Heavy Metals – – – – – – -119 4.5 Comparison of Analysis with NSDQW and WHO standard – – – -127
4.5.1 Aluminum – – – – – – – – – -130
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4.5.2 Manganese – – – – – – – – – -131 4.5.3 Iron – – – – – – – – – – -131 4.5.4 Nickel – – – – – – – – – – -132 4.5.5 Zinc – – – – – – – – – – -133 4.5.6 Titanium – – – – – – – – – – -134 4.5.7 Results of Major Findings – – – – – – – -136 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – – -137 5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – -139 5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – – -141 REFERENCES – – – – – – – – – -142 APPENDICES – – – – – – – – – -161

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of water, sanitation and hygiene for health and development has been reflected globally in series of International Policy forum. One of such conferences was the World Water conference held in mar del Plata, Argentina in 1977 and the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in Alama-Ata, Kazakhstan in 1978, which launched the water supply and sanitation campaigns of the 1981-1990, as well as the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) in 2000 and also, the outcome of the Johannesburg World Summit for Sustainable Development in 2002. In addition, the UN General Assembly developed the period from 2005 to 2015 as the International decade for Action,‘‘ Water for Life‘‘. Most recently, the UN General Assembly declared safety and clean drinking water and sanitation a human right essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights (WHO, 2011) however, despite the numerous calls by the International community on the importance of water to life. Water still remains a scarce commodity in the developing world.
Water is a natural substance which covers 71% of the earth’s surface (Central Intelligence Agency Report [CIA], 2013) and it is vital for all known forms of life on earth. 96.5% of the planet’s water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air) and precipitation. Only 2.5% of the earth’s water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an
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even smaller amount of the earth’s freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products (Gleick,1993). It was estimated in Nigeria that more than half of the population have no access to clean water, and many women and children walk hours a day to fetch water. Although, the water sector budgetery allocation by the federal governments between 1999 to 2007 is over 357.86 Billion naira to provide safe drinking water, yet there appears to be no solution in sight (Environment and Health, 2010). Millions of Nigerians depend on dirty and contaminated water for domestic use. Hundreds, die every year from water borne diseases (Garba and Egbe, 2007). According to the joint monitoring programme of the WHO and UNICEF, 53% of household in Nigeria are without adequate clean water (Anonymous, 2008). Sediment is a naturally occurring material that has been broken down by the processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and /or by the force of gravity acting on the particle itself. Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes), wind (aeolian) and glaciers. The total amount of sediments that are generated within the catchment area of a river and moved to a drainage basin to be deposited into flood plains, storage reservoirs, or carried to the seas is referred to as sediment yield, which is a function of many variables including nature of the geology and soil, relief characteristics, vegetation cover, drainage characteristic, climate, time, and land use pattern within the drainage basin (Prothero, Donald, Schwab and Fred, 1996). The greater part of sediment yield obtained for the Malmo stream is made up of suspended sediment load (Yusuf, 2009).
There are three kinds of sediments which include bed load; this is the portion of sediment load that is transported along the bed by sliding, rolling or hopping. Bed-load moves at velocities
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slower than the flow and spends most of its time on or near the stream bed in traction (rolling and sliding) and saltation (hopping) and then suspended load; this is the particulate sediment that is carried in the body of the flow. Suspended load moves at the same velocity as the flow. A small particle (e.g. clay and fine silt), with a large relative surface area, is held in suspension more easily because of the electrostatic attraction between the unsatisfied charges on grain’s surface and the water molecules. This force, tending to keep the particle in the flow, is large compared to the weight of the particle and lastly is dissolved load which comprises materials that are chemically carried in the water or solution by a river and capable of passing through a 0.45-μm filter membrane (Trimble, 2008). There are a number of factors that govern the percentage bedload, dissolved and suspended load of a water body such factors are the climatic condition which comprises mainly of temperature and precipitation and amount of vegetation cover type of the catchment area play significant role in the amount of load present in a water body. Others are human activities such as mining, construction, agriculture etc and rock solubility which arechemical process involving hard water in carbonate terrain and also erodibility of material in the drainage basin. Relief and slope also affect the Potential Energy (PE) of flow (Steven and Daniel, 1997).
Natural and anthropogenic processes are the two main sources of sediment loads. Natural processes of sediment loads occur without any major human interference while the anthropogenic processes involve mainly the activities of humans upon the environment. The major anthropogenic sources of sediment to streams are agriculture (especially row-crop cultivation in floodplains and livestock grazing in riparian zones), forestry (with logging roads contributing far more sediment than other practices, including clear-cutting), mining, and urban development (construction and intensive use of unpaved, sandy roads, especially where such
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roads intersected streams). Of these, agriculture is by far the most significant source of anthro-pogenically derived sediment. It has been estimated that agriculture contributes about 50% of all sediment pollution in the United States while the natural sources of sediments to streams are volcanic eruption (lava flow), earthquakes, landslides etc. Where such natural phenomenon occurs, they add substantial amount of sediment loads to water bodies lying within the proximity of the occurrence of such disasters. Natural sources of sediments like the ones mentioned are usually difficult to control unlike the anthropogenic sources (Steven and Daniel, 1997). Deposition of sediment load into a water body can have a number of effects on the environment which includes, upsetting the dynamic balance in the biota and ecology of water body; disrupting the aquatic chemistry or natural buffer balance (cationic, anionic, acidic and alkalinity) of a water body; continuous deposition of sediments resulting to siltation into a water body leads to decrease of the depth or bank of a water; and lastly, the form and structure of a water channel (i.e. channel morphology) can change greatly as a result of sediment deposition. A study conducted on four streams at North Carolina near Fayetteville U.S.A on the effect of sediments on channel morphology and stream bottom characteristics between upstream and downstream sites proves this effect.
Another factor that can affect the environment as a result of sediment load is pollution. This is the contamination of a substance or a body that makes it unfit for desire or intended uses. Sediments carry a lot of debris containing harmful materials into water bodies which pollutes the water and makes it unfit for the intended use. Inputs of sediment into water channels may often be associated with dangerous agricultural chemicals from fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and also herbicides and pesticides which are washed down into water bodies by sediments (Steven and Daniel, 1997).
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All natural substances are linked to one or several of the over 4,660 known minerals identified and approved by International Mineralogical Association (IMA). A mineral is an element or chemical compounds that is normally crystalline and formed as a result of geological processes (Nickel, 1995). The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the earth`s chemistry. For example, silicate and oxygen constitute about 75% of the earth`s crust, which translate directly into the predominance of Silicate minerals with a base unit of (SiO4)4 – silicate tetrahedral (Dyar and Guntar, 2008). Since, these minerals are found free in nature, they are usually being absorbed through the food chain and/or water cycle by humans subsequently affecting them positively or negatively.
Heavy metals on the other hand are among the most dangerous natural substances that man has concentrated in its immediate environment. This is because they can neither be degraded nor metabolized, which means they persist in the environment for a very long period (Dupler, 2001). Metals enter into the environment or living organism either as inorganic salt or organic metallic derivatives. The metals are classified as ―heavy metals‖ when their specific gravity is more than 5g/cm3. There are known 66 heavy metals. They get accumulated in time, in soil, water, and plants which could have negative influence on the physiological activities of their host. For example, in plants, they influence photosynthesis, gaseous exchange, nutrient absorption, and in determining the reduction in plant growth, dry matter accumulation and yield. In small concentration, the traces of heavy metals in plants, or animals are not toxic however in excess amount they are detrimental to health. Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (As) are an exception, because they are toxic even in very low concentration (Ferner, 2001). Monitoring the endangerment of soil with heavy metals is of interest due to their influence on
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groundwater and surface water and also on plants, animals and humans (Clemente, Dickson, and Lepp, 2008). 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM Prior to 1973, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) water demand had always been met, though inadequate and irregularly, by the Zaria water treatment plant, located some 25 km south-east of the institution. The desire to achieve equilibrium between water supply and demand led the ABU authority, in 1973, to start the construction of a small earth dam across River Kubanni in order to retain water that would meet the community‘s present and future needs. At the completion of the dam, in 1974, it had a storage capacity of 2.6 x 106 m3 with depth of about 8.5m, a catchment area of 57km2, and a lake surface area of 83.4 ha and supply capacity of 13.64 million litres per day to cater for about 50,000 people (Committee on Water Resources and Supply, 2004). There is a hollow spill way in the dam, constructed to release excess water out of the dam. The utilization of the dam is however being threatened by pollution and siltation (Yusuf, 2006).
Therefore, siltation occurs because most dams are sediment traps and the ABU reservoir is one of them. The dams are usually constructed in such a way that materials such as eroded earth, weathered rocks, sand from erosional processes and other debris from flooding activities are emptied into the dam as sediments and with little or no means of flowing out. These sediments are trapped in the body of the dam andaccumulate over time to reduce the depth of the dam and as well as the volume of water the dam can retain thereby affecting the quantity of water production of the reservoir.A study by Iguisi (1997) on the effect of sedimentation in the ABUreservoir, recorded a reservoir depth of 5.2m as against the initial 8.5m which indicate a loss of about 3.3m that is, about 30% loss in storage capacity which occurred in 23 years and an average annual loss of about 14.3cm. This problem have been shown to be as a result of
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sediments transported and deposited into the reservoir from eroded materials of the catchment areas. A report by the ABU Committee on the protection of the ABU reservoir stated in 2008 that, from the year 2023, a process of rationing water to its consumers will begin; first from the dry season, and later both seasons. Furthermore, the Committee declared that from the year 2039, there will be no more water in the reservoir during dry season, and finally by the year 2059, the reservoir will completely silt up. Which means it will disappear from the map completely. In conformity with the present problem of sedimentation of the dam, Ologe (1973) remarked before the construction of the dam that there is high sediment generation within the Kubanni basin and therefore likely to silted up like the Daudawa dam in Katsina state, where dredging has been carried out in an attempt to restore the storage capacity of the dam. It also confirms the statement of Ogunrombi (1979) that high rates of sediment supply to the reservoir by sheet erosion and from gullies, which are widespread in the river catchment, should normally be expected.
Yusuf (2006) assessed the magnitude of suspended sediment produced by the northernmost (Malmo) tributary of the Kubanni River. A Channel Sediment Yield (CSY) value of 482 tons/yr was derived for the catchment area of the tributary. Again, Yusuf (2009) attempted a comparative analysis of the suspended and dissolved sediment yields of the same tributary using the suspended sediment yield acquired in his previous study in 2006. From the samples of the filtered river water (i.e. aliquot) from which the dissolved concentration (i.e. total dissolved solids) was derived and the discharge records which have been carefully kept, the dissolved sediment loads provide the basis for estimating the dissolved sediment yield. The results showed
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that the dissolved sediment yield is higher than the suspended sediment yield of the tributary. Although there is no statistically significant difference between them, the result is not quite representative of the geology of the study area that is predominantly basement complex; where it is expected that the suspended sediment yield will be higher than the dissolved sediment yield. In a recent study by Yusuf (2012) to assess the sediment delivery into the Kubanni reservoir for the four tributaries (i.e, Malmo, Goruba, Tukurwa and Maigamo), a direct relationship between suspended/dissolved sediment load and discharge was also established with the suspended load being higher than the dissolved load in all cases. Further studies carried out by Yusuf and Igbinigie (2010) then Yusuf and Iguisi (2012) on the tributaries of the Kubanni reservoir observed that, rainfall plays a significant role in the discharge of water into the streams, and subsequently, influencing the suspended and dissolved sediment loads discharges. These were attributed to human activities such as land cultivation, grazing etc which summed up to aggravate the rate of discharge of suspended/dissolved sediment into the Kubanni reservoir.
It is equally important to note that, while siltation of the Kubanni dam is posing a great risk to the continuous existence of the ABU reservoir as presented by Iguisi (1997), Yusuf (2006 and 2009), Yusuf and Igbinigie (2010), Yusuf and Iguisi (2012), as well as Yusuf (2012) respectively. Pollution which can mainly be examined by looking at the dissolved sediment may be posing an even greater risk to the survival of all forms of life in the dam and those who consume the water directly or indirectly because with the exception of physical pollutant where the polluting parameters are easily identified by the eyes, chemical, bacteriological and radioactive pollutants are not quite easily identified by the naked eyes, making them to be more hazardous and dangerous.
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In a recent study of the update on water quality of the Samaru stream by Garba, Yusuf, Arabi, Musa, and Schoeneich (2014), domestic and agricultural wastes were identified as the two main types of pollutants affecting the water quality of the reservoir. The domestic wastes were attributed to badly constructed or leaked latrines from houses, mechanics workshops and battery charging shops from Samaru town which are washed down through Samaru stream during raining season into the Kubanni reservoir while the agricultural pollutants includes organic or inorganic wastes from pesticides and fertilizers applied in farms and washed down into the Kubanni Reservoir during raining season as well and they are mostly from the other tributaries of the dam which therefore affects the quality of the water. Previous studies on the water quality of the reservoir have somewhat shown the dam to be in a polluted state, works by Udoh, Singh and Omenesa (1986),Yusuf (1992), Jeb (1996), Obamuwe (1998), Udoh (1999), Garba and Schoeneich (2004) have demonstrated this. Although, a large number of the studies attributed the pollution sources to be from agricultural activities particularly in the area of fertilizer and pesticides application such studies includes Iguisi, Funtua and Obamawe (2001), Garba and Schoeneich(2003),Ewa, Ewa and Ikpokonte(2004),Uzairu, Harrison, Balareba and Nnaji (2008) and Butu and Iguisi (2012).
However, Yusuf and Shuaibu (2009) viewed it differently. In a study conducted by them, on the effect of waste discharges into Samaru Stream, it was observed that solid and liquid waste materials from refuse dumping, domestic waste, market garbages, soak-away pits and open gutters generated in Samaru town are washed down to the major drainage system along Zaria-Sokoto road during raining season into the stream, finding its way into the A.B.U reservoir, thus posing a great danger to aquatic life, irrigated farms, cattles using the water for grazing and some
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neighboring villages who use the water for domestic purposes such as molding of bricks, washing clothes and some cases even for drinking purposes. The result obtained from the study infers that the Samaru Stream is, still well oxygenated and can be said to be safe. However, the safety of this stream is being threatened by the continuous deposition of waste into it from Samaru town. It is therefore of doubtful water quality and needs improvement especially as previous research on the stream have found the water to be in a polluted state and of low aesthetic quality. This research therefore, sets out to investigate the dissolved sediment component of Samaru Stream, a minor tributary contributing into the Kubanni reservoir, A.B.U Zaria, in a view to inform the relevant stakeholders on the pollution state of the water to ensure the good quality of treated water for public consumption. The research questions therefore include;
1. What is the concentration of the dissolved load of Samaru stream?
2. What is the discharge of the Samaru stream?
3. What is the total dissolved sediment generated by the Samaru stream?
4. What is the chemical composition of the dissolved sediment of Samaru stream?
5. What is the relationship of heavy metals in the dissolved sediment of Samaru stream with the recommended standards?
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The aim of the study is assessing the dissolved sediment delivery by the Samaru Stream into the Ahmadu Bello University reservoir Zaria, Nigeria. This aim will be achieved through the following sets of objectives, to;
i. determine the dissolved sediment concentration of Samaru Stream.
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ii. determine the discharge of the Samaru Stream.
iii. estimate the dissolved sediment yield of the Samaru Stream.
iv. analyze the mineral composition and heavy metals in the dissolved sediment loads of Samaru Stream.
v. compare result of analysis with NSDQW (2007) and WHO (2011) recommended standards
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Based on the aim and objectives of the study, the following hypotheses are to be tested:
I. There is no significant relationship between stream discharge and rainfall.
II. There is no significant relationship between dissolved sediment concentration load and stream discharge of the Samaru stream.
III. There is no significant relationship between dissolved sediment discharge and stream discharge.
IV. There is no significant relationship between dissolved sediment concentration load and dissolved sediment discharge.
V. There is no significant difference in the mineral composition between the compounds of heavy metals and compounds of non heavy metals in the dissolved sediment load of Samaru stream and the NESREA and WHO recommended standards.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Much emphasis in the recent past has been laid on the suspended load of Samaru stream. This research study however, is limited only to the dissolved sediment delivery of the Samaru stream, a minor tributary of the Kubanni River, with specific interest on its dissolved sediment
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concentration, dissolved sediment yield, mineral composition and heavy metals content in order to examine the water quality. The study will cover a monitoring flow period of the Samaru stream, from May to November, 2014. 1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY The justification of the research project is to assessthe pollution state of the Samaru stream through the dissolved sediment load, which previous studies have shown to be a high contributor of pollutants into the Kubanni reservior (Garba et al, 2014) which is the main source of treated water for the ABU community, as well as other communities surrounding the reservior, who still despite the banning and strict warning by the university authority to discontinue activities such as irigation farming, fishing and grazing, still, engage in such practises. Understanding the dissolved sediment load of the Samaru stream will therefore, go a long way in providing useful information to the management of the University in employing measures of hindering or minimizing the rate of sediment load pollution from the Samaru stream in reaching the reservior. Also, it will ensure adequacy of water treatment measures for the University consumption and safer water for other activities being engaged in the Kubanni Basin will be ensured. 1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one intoduces the study and presents the research problem, aim and objectives, hypotheses and the research justification while chapter two deals with the theoretical framework and review of relevent literatures. Chapter three gives the description of the study area andmethodology for data collection while the result and discussion is presented in chapter four. Chapter five presents the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study.

 

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