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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

SALIHAT BADAMASUIY

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: DO ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION CONDITIONS AFFECT MALARIA INFECTION RATES IN CHILDREN? A CASE STUDY FROM ABUJA, NIGERIA.
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [292 KB]
  • Length: [55] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This research was done using multiple methods case study to determine if
environmental sanitation conditions affect malaria infection rates in children of two
communities; one urban area and one rural area. Fasari settlement in Kuje Area
Council was the rural case study while Wuse zone 6-, Abuja was the urban case
study. The specific aim of this research was to investigate the incidence of malaria in
children under 5- in relation to environmental sanitation conditions in the two
communities. Fasari and Wuse Zone 6- was used because of the different
environmental conditions. The research was done within the months of February and April 2015, also
the study made use of all available records at the Federal Staff Hospital, Abuja.
Information was obtained from design questionnaire, a total of 50 cases notes were
studied and analysed.
My research didn’t specifically show that environmental sanitation is
responsible for different malaria rates in the two study areas. This was because the
respondents in Wuse Zone 6 were using prophylaxis for their children and the
respondents in Fasari rural settlement had no records of malaria incidence of their
children.
Conclusively, malaria is a treatable ailment that continues to cause death to
children under the age of five years. Environmental factors such as stagnant water,
bushy environment and poor environmental sanitation play an important role in
spreading the disease.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ……………………………………………………………………………………. i
Certification ……………………………………………………………………………….. ii
Readers’ approval ………………………………………………………………………. iii
Dedication ………………………………………………………………………………… iv
Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………….. v
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………….. vi-vii
Table of contents…………………………………………………………………… viii-ix
List of figures …………………………………………………………………………….. x
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Background ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Research Rationale (Importance of the Study) ………………………………………………………… 2
Environmental Sanitation ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Water-Related Diseases ………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Malaria…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Malaria Impact on Children’s Health …………………………………………………………………… 10
Statement of problem ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Specific aim ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Null Hypothesis (H0) ………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
Research Hypothesis (H1) ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Study Area ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Study Sites ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
Rural Area………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Urban Area …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Research Design ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Comparative Case Study …………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Prospective Case Study …………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Cross Sectional Case Study ……………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction
Background
Living in a clean environment, access to sanitation facilities and good health
is every child’s right. However, many children in developing countries such as
Nigeria lack safe and clean environment sanitation and good health (IRC
International Water and Sanitation Centre, 2001). School-going children also lack
environment sanitation facilities, leading to possible health effects. Lack of proper
maintenance and preservation of the environment causes potential danger to the
health of children at home and in schools. Provision of sanitation facilities does not
make healthy physical learning environment sustainable, but utilization of such
facilities and related hygiene behaviors that lead to accrued health benefits. In
schools, hygiene education aims to boost sustainable environment sanitation
practices that will help in preventing water and environmental sanitation-related
diseases. In practice, the sanitary situation in many schools and many homes in
Nigeria is unacceptable. Water supply and sanitation practices are inadequate to
many school-going children in schools and at home. Children use non-functional
toilets and latrines that lack water for flushing whereas some are open with freely
flowing sewage. These conditions make schools and homes unsafe places for
children where waterborne infectious diseases such as diarrhea and cholera and
water-related vector-borne diseases such as malaria are rampant (WHO, 1997).
Nigeria experiences high child mortality rates from malaria (30%) as one of
the water-related vector-borne diseases. Other diseases that kill include diarrhea and
dysentery. Carrier mosquitoes that breed in stagnant water cause malaria. Therefore,
poor environmental sanitation practices that result to stagnant water provides such
2
breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Consequently, the rates at which children are
infected by the deadly disease tend to increase. The millennium development goals
(MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000 aimed at reducing such diseases and
poverty. Accordingly, the first MDG’s objective was eliminating and reversing the
effects of malaria and other main diseases by 2015. Despite the fact that the MDGs
were set and adopted worldwide, many African countries failed to initiate the
strategies to combat malaria. The MDGs and the Malaria Declaration in Abuja in
2000 have had minimal impact on the spread of the disease and related death cases.
Additionally, Nigeria recorded a growing resistance of the malaria disease to first
line drugs. As such, infected people use the expensive ACT combination therapy.
Malaria in children is a prevalent issue in Nigeria, where more than half of the
population lives below the poverty line. Living under such conditions condemns
majority of the children to living in poorly preserved physical environment. Lack of
basic environmental sanitation practices leads to increased malaria cases.
Research Rationale (Importance of the Study)
Many diseases, including malaria are not only the result of malnutrition and
poverty, but also the result of environmental risk factors. As such, it is important to
consider environmental health issues that affect a child’s health. In addition, it is
paramount to discuss water-related diseases that pose danger to a child’s survival
especially in malaria-stricken areas. This study uses a case-study approach to
examine the relationship between environmental sanitation and malaria incidence in
rural and urban sites in Abuja; Nigeria. In order to attain sustainable results, there is a
need to improve preventive measures directed towards children’s health.
Additionally, preventive measures such as improving environmental sanitation are
3
successful in reducing children’s exposure to disease agents thus averting latent
infections. This literature review looks at the correlation between environmental
sanitation and malaria among children in Nigeria.
The main objective of this review is to provide required information to
decision-makers on the possible and appropriate policies to aid in the reduction of
children infections and deaths from malaria. The information will also help in
protecting the health and well-being of young children through providing sustainable
environment sanitation practices. This entails the reduction of the environmental risk
factors by offering suitable interventions that prevent exposure. In addition, this
review will also help in understanding the environmental risk factors, ways in which
the children are exposed, and how to alleviate the potential health impact.
Accordingly, the study will also provide a better understanding of the relationship
between environmental sanitation and malaria among children in Nigeria.
Environmental Sanitation
According to the WHO, environmental sanitation entails the control or
modification of the physical environment in order to avert the transmission of
diseases to humans. This involves access to a safe and adequate water supply-, and
sanitary disposal, free of human excreta. It also involves household waste
management and changing individuals’ behavior through hygiene education. The
International Drinking Water Supply Decade of 1981-1990 recorded a remarkable
increase in water supply and sanitation across the globe. As a result, over 1.6 billion
people could access safe water for drinking. However, in 2001, over 1.1 billion
people were without adequate sanitation and safe drinking water in the globe.
Further, in 2000, about 80% of Africans lacked improved sanitation and clean water.
4
In rural areas in China and India alone, over 1.3 billion people had inadequate
sanitation especially in rural areas. According to the WHO (2001), approximately
40% of the world’s population lacked adequate sanitation. Since 1990 to date,
efforts to achieve global coverage of sanitation and clean water have been
unsuccessful. This is attributed to rapid population growth that overwhelms the
improvements made and the extent of resources required to achieve the set goal. In
2011, about 2.5 billion people in the world use inadequate sanitation facilities and
approximately 1 billion people practice open defecation. In the same year, 64% of
the world’s population relies on improving sanitation amenities.
The situation in Africa alone is worse than other parts of the world. Africa
experiences the poorest environmental sanitation practices. According to 2000
statistics, only 62% of Africa’s population had access to improved sanitation and
clean water supply. The situation in rural areas in Africa was worse with only 47% of
the population enjoying adequate sanitation. Urban areas portray a different statistic
with about 85% of residents enjoying improved sanitation and clean water supply
(World Health Organizations, 2002). In 2012, sub-Saharan Africa recorded 44% of
the population that experience low sanitation coverage. An estimated 26% of the
population practices open defecation in this region (United Nations, 2011).
In Nigeria, the water situation and environment sanitation are also
unacceptable. The country’s population grows rapidly, with about 54% of the people
living in abject poverty. Even though the country has enough water to meet the
current drinking demand, lack of ability to distribute the water leads to inadequate
supply in some areas. Additionally, the population also suffers poor sanitation
amenities that pose public health problems to children. Efforts by the Minister of
Water Resources in the country initiated a program to improve water supply and
5
environmental sanitation. The efforts were successful where the country recorded an
improvement of 30% during 1999-2004 periods. In 2012, the country recorded
estimated improvements to 32% for improved sanitation. Despite these
improvements, the country still faces major challenges in achieving the Millennium
Development Goals.
The inability to achieve the MDGs through providing clean water and
environmental sanitation to its population is attributed various reasons. Bad
governance practices lead to poor environmental sanitation and inadequate of clean
water to the population. Numerous funds directed to sanitation and water sector from
the government and foreign aid are misappropriated and stolen through corruption.
This problem affects Nigeria and many other African countries. Consequently,
sanitation goals become difficult to achieve. Government officials also frustrate civil
society groups’ efforts in providing environmental sanitation practices. Secondly,
lack of political will and commitment by the government, civil societies and donors.
These stakeholders lack the commitment to ensure that environmental considerations
are implemented in order to achieve improved sanitation amenities. Such lack of
commitment is evident in health centers and schools that are built without toilets and
good drainage systems.
Water-Related Diseases
Water-related diseases are key barriers to sustainable development.
According to Toepfer (2004), disease statistics are especially tragic in the developing
countries such as Nigeria. Diarrhea and malaria are the largest causes of death in
children below the age of 5 years in Africa. Most of the deaths experienced are
preventable. Increased population, growing water demands and climate change have
6
led to vulnerability of water-related diseases. According to the WHO (2008), waterrelated
diseases can be categorized into, 1) waterborne infectious diseases such as
diarrhea and cholera and 2) water-related vector-borne diseases such as malaria.
Recent outbreaks of water-related diseases in parts of West Africa and especially
Nigeria have prompted different organizations towards establishing appropriate
methods to eliminate and prevent the spread. In earlier years, health and sanitation
education in Nigeria concentrated on teaching theory and memorization of facts on
water-related diseases. The official curriculum ignored the practical implementation
of sanitation through strengthening hygiene practices. Nigeria government offered
formal, non-specific civic and school education that failed in enabling people on how
to eliminate and prevent the spread of water-related diseases. The most affected parts
of the country are the rural areas where majority of residents lack basic water
sanitation practices. Additionally, schools topics on sanitation have been disregarded
because the curricula fail to accommodate adequate teachings on water sanitation and
hygiene. Nigerians also experience water shortages and water infrastructure
problems in the some urban and rural areas leading to difficulties in maintaining
water sanitation (Wright et al., 2004). Many people collect water for daily survival
from any available water collection points rendering the fight against water-related
diseases even more difficult (Newsom, 2006). In spite of all the efforts made by the
Nigerian government agencies, the non-governmental organizations, and local
interest groups, basic sanitation in schools and major cities remains poor. Both urban
and rural areas, schools and health centers have limited access to appropriate sanitary
facilities.

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