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Floor finishes is a vital component in any building structure and lots of
defects happen to the floor finishes though many of them could be
traceable to the sub floor defect. The objective of the study is to clearly
identify the various types of floor finishing prevalent in Enugu Metropolis,
their strength and weakness, also to study the cause of failure in floor
finish and how to correct them. Finally the research will evaluate the
maintenance culture of occupants regarding their floor finishing within the
metropolis. The study commences with the review of some past relevant
literature with the intention of making use of the important facts.
Data were collected using the questionnaires and analysis of the collected
data also made line with the hypothesis and are processed by the use of
tables, focus was on the generation summary statistics such as
percentages. The result of the study showed that without a proper
maintenance culture on floor finishes, deterioration and failure in floor
finish will be a reoccurring decimal in our building structure. The study
revealed that most of the defects in floor finishes emanated from defects
in structural floors or the improper laying of beds or joint on which applied
floor finishes are laid and as a result of this, where defects occur relaying
of the finishes is the only answer to the problems but care must be taken
to avoid dis-stabilizing the stability of the structural floor and maintain even
level between newly laid finishes and old ones. The following
recommendations are made:
1. Before any material is used as floor finishes, it should be tested and
analyzed in order to determine and establish the compressive strength
and duration.
2. Emphasis should be laid on suitable materials /finishes than cheep
materials/finishes, so as to reduce failure in finishes.
3. Knowledge of finishes serviceability duration should be known.
4. A good maintenance culture should be maintained.
As this will go along way to enhance the life span of our various floor finishes.


Title page= ================================================ i

Certification =============================================== ii

Dedication ================================================ iii

Acknowledgment =========================================== iv

Abstract ================================================= v

Table of contents =========================================== vi

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction ========================================= 1

1.1 Background of the study ================================ 4

1.2 Aims and objective of the study =========================== 5

1.3 Statement of the study ================================== 5

1.4 Research questions =================================== 6

1.5 Research hypothesis =================================== 7

1.6 Scope and limitation of study ============================= 7

1.7 Definition of terms common in this study ===================== 7

Chapter two

2.1 Literature review ====================================== 9

2.2 Floors and their associated finishes ========================= 10

2.3 Concrete Finish =================================== 11

2.4 Terrazzo Finish =================================== 13

2.5 Granolithic Concreting ================================= 17
2.6 Thin Surface Finish =================================== 21

2.7 Jointless Floor finish ================================== 22

2.8 Linoleum =================================== 25

2.9 Cork Tiles and Carpets ======== ======================== 27

2.10 Appearance ========================================= 31

2.11 Slipperiness ========================================= 31

2.12 Warmth ============================================ 32

2.13 Quietness ============================================32

2.14 Resilience ========================================== 33

2.15 Resistance to abrasion ====================== =========== 33

2.16 Resistance to water and other liquids ====================== 33

2.17 Atmospheric moisture ================================ 34

2.18 Indentation ========================================= 34

2.19 Impact ============================================ 35

2.20 Resistance to sunlight ================================== 35

2.21 Resistance to moulds and fungi =========================== 35

2.22 Resistance to temperature and fire ========================= 36

Chapter three

3.1 Methodology design ================================== 37

3.2 Sample Size ======================================== 38

3.3 Method of collecting data =============================== 39

3.4 Primary data ======================================== 40

3.5 Secondary sources ==================================== 40

3.6 Questionnaire Design ================================= 40

3.7 Description of questionnaire ============================ 41

3.8 Technique for data organization/analysis ==================== 41

Chapter four

4.0 Data Presentation/analysis ============================== 42

Chapter five

5.0 Summary conclusion and recommendation ================== 52

5.1 Summary ========================================= 52

5.2 Conclusion ======================================== 53

5.3 Recommendation =================================== 53

Reference ============================================= 55

Appendix ============================================= 57



Floor finishes are the final substance applied on the surface of floor
before the floor is put to use. Most floor systems of a building are not
exposed to the climatic element and their weathering effects, since a
floor system must support traffic however durability, resistance to wear
and easy of maintain are critical factors in the selection of a floor
system and its finish. The desired finishes and their visual properties
(materials, color, texture and pattern) help to determine the choice of
floor system which can mostly support these finishes

The choice of and preparation of specification for flooring systems to
protect substrates from chemical attach or provide hygienic finishes is
an exercise all too often couched in financial considerations.
Floor finishes except in a few special constructions do not contribute to
the strength of floor; they are therefore used for one or more of the
following reasons.

i. To provide an attractive appearance.
ii. To increase the comfort and safety to the user.
iii. To hide certain services like cable/pipes in the floor.
iv. Protect the structural floor from wear tear or corrosion.
Each of this primary function that is considered to be the most
important will depend on the proposed use.
Many materials that are used as finishes on floors, each one have
properties suited to a particular usage, durability and ease of cleaning
are essential in all. Case of specific services requirement may call for
special properties such as resistance to hard wear, comfort to users
and attractive appearance. At home good appearance and comfort will
be more important.
Any given floor finish must provide the desired balance of properties
and must be sufficiently durable. It will be expected to last for a period
commensurate with its initial cost, the cost of replacement and any
cost arising from disorganization associated with its replacement and
this implies that from all ramification of its need, a good value is
A lot of factors affects the life of a floor finish, most important is the
ever-present abrasive action of traffic, the action of liquid in producing
dimensional changes, erosion and corrosion, the impact of falling
object and the dent caused by heavy loads. There is therefore a series
of secondary requirement that the finish must fulfill, which will depend
on the condition of services though they must be considered in relation
to those four mentioned above.
When selecting floor finish many factors deserve consideration but not
all the factors are of equal importance, furthermore, requirement vary
in different parts of the building, for instance, resistance to oil, grease,
moisture is relevant in a kitchen but not on a bedroom, and
appearance could be important in a lounge but is of little consequence
in a store.
The essential properties to be considered are:
a) Durability: The material must have a reasonable life to avoid
premature replacement with resultant textured, cost and
b) Resistance to wear: This includes resistance to indentation
where the floor has to withstand heavy furniture, fittings or
equipment and resistance to abrasion in building subject to
heavy pedestrian traffic and moveable equipment.
c) Economy: Reasonable initial and maintenance cost, having
regards to the class of building and the particular building.
d) Resistance to oil, grease, and chemicals: This is particularly
important in domestic kitchen, laboratory and some factory.
e) Resistance to moisture: This is important in domestic
bathrooms, entrance passage and halls and in some industrial
f) Ease of cleaning: This is of increasing important in many classes
of building as the labour intensive cleaning cost continue to rise
in a disproportionate rate.
g) Warmth: Some finishes are much warmer than other and this
may be an important consideration.
h) Non – Slip qualities: These are particularly important in
bathrooms and kitchen where floors may become damp.
i) Sound absorption: Libraries need floor finishes with high degree
of sound absorption.
j) Appearance: This is an important consideration in many rooms
of domestic building, although the current tendency to fully
carpet rooms may not justify the provision of more expansive but
attractive floor finishes such as wood blocks and strip flooring.
k) Resilience: Some flexibility or “given” is often desirable.

For industrial installations, despite the importance of floor
specifications for floor finishes generally reflect short-term budget
rather than long term stability, inviting early failure. Financial
considerations for floor finishes should be confined to comparing bids
for the ideal specifications complied with the end use in mind.
There are many specific considerations to be taken into account when
deriving a suitable specification for a given situation, not least the
1. The location of the structure to be protected, its method of
construction and condition if it is an existing substrate.
2. The composition, concentration and temperatures of all fluids or
solids which may be in contact with floor surface as a result of
the inherent processes, if these vary from area to area it should
be clearly stated and designated area clearly marked to allow
selection of materials appropriate to each area.
3. Loading characteristics of the substrate and their ability to
withstand additional superimposed loads from toppings, tiles,
brick or composite surfacing.
4. Details of pedestrian and wheeled traffic, including wheel
loadings and the nature of wheel contact surface.
5. Detail of isolated activities such as drum handling and storage
and the loading involved, and the areas to which they apply.
6. The type of floor drainage contemplated i.e. outlets or drainage
7. The nature, concentration and temperature of all cleaning agents
which will be used on the floor including any materials used for
cleaning equipment and pipe work since these are usually
discharged on the floor or preferable into channels.
Comprehensive information from the end user in these respect will
give the specifier the maximum information with which to derive an
appropriate specification for a durable finish.


Finishes generally do not contribute to the strength of the floors but it
adds beauty or co lour to the floor. There is wide variety of material for
floor finishes and each should be evaluated within the context of
Enugu Metropolis in relation to the above mentioned requirement, so
that it can be suitable for any particular type of usage.
Enugu is the capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria. It has a population of
668,862 (2007 estimate). The people of Enugu belong largely to the
Igbo ethnic group, which is one of the three largest ethnic groups in
Nigeria. Enugu was originally the capital of the Eastern Region from
Nigeria’s independence in 1960. On May 27, 1967 Enugu was made
the capital of East Central State, while on May 30, 1967, it was
declared the first capital of the short-lived nation of the Republic of
Biafra. Enugu became a major center for the mining of the coal
discovered by Albert Ernest Kitson in the Udi plateau. The Nigerian
coal corporation has been based in Enugu since its creation in 1950.
In this study, the research will evaluate the floor finishes in building as
prevalent within the Enugu Metropolis (Residential, Industrial and
Office buildings). The research will also study the cause of failure in
finishes and means of handling the causes so as to improve on the
performance of different floor finishes.
The research will identify maintenance medium of floors in order for
the serviceability strength of these finish to be maximized.


The aim of this study is to ascertain the durability of some floor
finishing in building projects within Enugu Metropolis.


1. The various types of floor finishing prevalent in Enugu
Metropolis, their strength and weakness.
2. To study the cause of failure in floor finish and how to correct
3. To evaluate the maintenance culture of occupants regarding
their floor finishing within the metropolis.

The decision to investigate the durability of some floor finishes in
building projects (A case study of floor finishing within Enugu
metropolis) stemmed from the fact that finishes are very critical aspect
of any building structure for it to be habitable, and there are greater
tendency to experience failure floor finishines have a wide range of
materials which will be evaluated in relation to serviceability
With the afore stated in mind, the main problem here therefore is what
is the cause of failure in floor finish and how to correct them.


1. What are the factors that affect the choice of a particular floor finish. 2. What are the common types of floor finish prevalent within Enugu Metropolis

3. How frequent should maintenance work be carried out in the various floor finish prevalent in the metropolis.

4. Can the failure in floor finishes be caused by functional failure in the structure.

5. Can the cost of Maintaining floor finishes affects the maintenance culture of such floor finishes.

6. Are there relationship between failure in floor finishes and maintenance culture



The following research hypothesis will enable the researcher make a
detailed study on the subject.
1a. there is no relationship between failure in floor finishing and
maintenance culture.
1b. there is relationship between failure in floor finishing and the
maintenance culture.


The work will be limited to the evaluation of finishes in building with
emphasis on floor finishing as prevalent within Enugu Metropolis
covering Residential, office and Industrial area within the metropolis.


1. FINISHING: These are the final substance applied on the
surface of floor, wall or ceiling before the compartment is put to
2. FLOOR: This is the surface of a room on which one
stands or walks.
3. FAILURE: This is the state of being inadequate or not
functioning as expected.
4. MAINTENANCE: The act of keeping something in good condition
by checking or repairing it regularly.
5. ACID Substance that contains hydrogen, which may
react with bases to form salt but burns off wood or other
materials the pour on.
6. ALKALIS: A corrosive substance like soda ammonia or
potash that eats off materials but react with acide to form salt.
7. APPLIED TOPPING: A type of finishing with cement aggregate
carried out after concrete surface of floor sets.
8. GRESE: A thick semi-solid substance used as lubricant,
it can be of animal fat.
9. INTEGRATED FINISH: Finishing laid within three hours; the base
was cast to minimize differential shrinkage base and finish.
10. OIL: Liquid which does not mix with water obtained
from animal and plant.
11. OPERATION: An ongoing and repetitive endeavor undertaken
to create a unique product or services.
12. RESILIENT: Tendency for materials to recover their original
shape when hard materials fall on them or heavy traffic passes
13. SETTLEMENT: The tendency of a building to take up another
level after it has been completed such that all has been
completed such that all loads on it adjust its position on the
bearing ground.


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