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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GEOGRAPHY: A CASE STUDY OF OYO EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.
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- Name: EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN GEOGRAPHY: A CASE STUDY OF OYO EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.
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This study designed to survey the effect of class size on academic performance of secondary school students. The study was carried out in Oyo East Local Government Oyo, Oyo State. Where six secondary schools was selected for the study. The finding of the study shows that as the population increasing the level of student performance is decreasing due to some factors like inadequate of teaching facilities, inadequate of proper caring of student i.e family background e.t.c. Finally, I hope the result of these findings will be used. The educational administrators parents and teachers will join hands together to see good education of the students in all level of education.
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In the past, the literacy rate in Nigeria is very low because people were not aware of the advantages of education, and there was not adequate knowledge about the existence of schools. This was probably so because the Nigerian people were primarily and pre-dominantly farmers due to the fact that the land and the climate favour agricultural practices.
The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a pe-plexing one for educators. Studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding, the teaching methods are all variables that affects student’s achievement (Molnar, et—-, 2007). Other factors that affect student achievement are school population and class size (Gentry, 2010, and swift, 2009).
The issue of poor academic performance of student’s in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the decline in standard in education. Since the academic success of students depend largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables of class size and school population on academic performance of students in secondary school.
Class size and over populated schools have direct impact of the quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because class size do not allow individual students to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance.
In order to best understand the skill levels of students it might be necessary to evaluate factor affecting their performance. These factors can include: school structure and organization, teacher quality, curriculum and teaching philosophies (Driscoll, Halcousis and Svorny, 2003). The ideas that school population and class size might affect student’s performance in consistent with the growing literatures on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangements and outcomes (MOE, 2004). The purpose of this study is to further examine the relationship to class size, school population and student academic achievement.
There is a large body of research on the relationship between class sized and student learning. A 1979 systematic review of the literature identified 80 studies. There are surely hundreds today. The vast majority of these studies simply examine the association between variation in class size and student achievement. The primary difficulty in interpreting this research is that schools with different class size like differ in many other, difficulty-to-observe ways. For example more influent schools are more likely to have the resources needed to provide smaller classes, which would create the illusion that smaller classes are better when in fact family characteristics were the reason. Alternatively, a school that serves many students with behaviour problems may find it easier to manage these students in smaller classes. A comparison of such schools to other schools might give the appearance that small classes produce less learning when in fact the behaviour problems were the main factors.
The most credible studies of CSR have utilized either randomized experiments, in which students and teachers are randomly assigned to smaller or larger classes, natural experiments in which, for example, a sudden change in class size, policy allows a before and after analysis of its effect, or sophisticated mathematical models for estimating affects that take advantages of longitudinal data on individual students, teachers and schools.
There is still little consensus on whether and how teaching is affected by small and large classes, especially in the case of students in the later primary years, individual attention in smaller classes, were a more active role for students and beneficial effects on the quality of teaching.
It is suggested that teachers in both large and small classes need to develop strategies for more I individual attention but also recognize the benefits of other forms of learning, for example, the group work.
We need, therefore, accounts of ways in which classroom processes are altered as a result of class size differences and in this paper, we examine the connections between class size and teaching. Logically, it seems likely that the number of children in a class will increase the amount of time that teachers spend in procedural matters and conversely, decrease the amount of time that can be spent on intrusion and dealing with individual children one-on-one teaching take place, children were more often the focus of a teacher’s attention, teaching take place and teachers more often attended to the children.
The trend towards individualization in large classes did not seems to be indicative of a passive role for the student; the opposite seemed more likely, that is, children in large classes spend less time actively interacting with teachers in terms of responding or initiating.
These components suggested that class size affected the amount of individual attention, the immediately and responsiveness of teachers to children the sustained and purposeful nature of interaction between teachers, knowledge of children in their classes and sensitively to individual children’s particular’s need.
Nigeria education research council (NERC) published a review of it studies of the effects of class, concluding that reducing class size alone would not increase student’s achievement. In classes of 25-34 students at the secondary level, the studies show some support for hypothesis the smaller class are related to higher achievement reading a mathematics, particularly if the students are socially or economically disadvantage or remain in small classes for at least two years (NERC,2006).
The national policy of education (revised 2009) stated that in one of the core curriculum which every student must take care curriculum which every student must take in addition to his/her specialties continuing, the policy stated that those core students are basic subjects which will enable a student to offer arts or science in Higher Education. The implication of the compulsory nature of the subjects demands much especially from the teacher.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The performance of secondary school student in class size calls for proper investigation. Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for the poor performance of students, few research have been dedicated to the correlation between class size, school population and academic achievement of student. This study therefore looks at the effect of class size on academic performance of students. A case study of Oyo East Local Government Area.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of this study is to find out the effect of large class size on student academic performance of secondary school students in Oyo East Local Government Area.
- Examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of students.
- Examine the relationship between school population and academic performance of student.
- Discuss the effects of over-population on classroom management and the teaching and learning.
- Analyze the impact of over-population on school resources/facilities.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Is there any correlation between class size and the student’s academic performance?
- Is there any relationship between school population and the student’s academic performance?
- Is there any relationship between over population and classroom management?
- Is there any relationship between overpopulation and school resources and facilities?
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses on the effect of class size on academic performance of secondary school students in Oyo East Local Government Area. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in Oyo East Local Government Area. However four public secondary schools will be used for the study.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is important for several reasons. Firstly, the finding will help teachers to identify the reason for the academic performance of students in class size with high population and how they can address the problems.
Secondly, it will provide comprehensive information for educational planners, educations and parent on how they can assist student to cope in large classes.
Thirdly, this research work will lead to further-in-depth study on the impact of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in Nigeria.
Lastly, it will serve as contribution to knowledge in the subject area. In this regard, it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Academic Achievement: knowledge attained on skills developed in school subject by test scores. Academic achievement is also the outcome of education to the extent to which a student teacher or institution has achieved their education goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects is most important procedural knowledge such as skill.
Secondary school (“also high school”) is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education.
Over population: This is when the number of students in a particular class exceeds the standard of student teacher ratio of 1:30.
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