Effect of consumer buying behaviour on the purchase of insurance products. In this study, one Logit regression model was estimated to help investigate the determinants. The Logit regression coefficients, the z-values and the p-values were used for the evaluation and statistical significance of variables in the model estimated. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 was used to evaluate the descriptive statistics- bar charts and pie charts, while STATA 5.0 version was used for the analysis of the Logit regression model specified. The Logit model was evaluated or analyzed with both pvalues and the coefficients for the purpose of statistical significant of the explanatory variables in the model. Results of the study showed that 61.33% of the respondents mostly subscribe to Endowment policy followed by Term insurance policy (26.33 %) and then Whole life policy (12.33%). Consistent with previous results the Logit regression indicates a significant positive relationship between income level and the demand for life insurance products. The study found negative insignificant association between both the market rate of interest and level of savings and the demand for life insurance products. Price of insurance (level of premium) appeared to have no robust influence on life insurance consumption as showed by insignificant negative coefficient. Inflation on the other hand had an indirect association with life insurance consumption with statistically significant values. Education, employment status and the age of consumers had significant positive influence on life insurance consumption. But family size had statistically insignificant positive effect on demand. Overall, life insurance demand is better explained when the economic and socio-demographic factors are considered jointly.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Every day consumers buy things. Consumers exchange their money for goods and services, for their own use and for the use of their families: Consumers choose things they think will meet their needs on a day-to-day basis, and they occasionally make buying decisions which will affect their lives for years to come. At the same time, consumers make decisions about disposing of worn-out or used-up possessions. All these decisions and exchanges have implications for ourselves, our families, our friends, the environment, and the businesses we buy from, the employees of those businesses, and so on. And that is why Blackwell et al. (2001) asserts that consumer behaviour is the activities people undertake when obtaining, consuming and disposing of products and services.
While lamenting the critical state of insurance marketing in Nigeria, Osoka (1992) highlights the prevalence of confusion among insurance marketers between selling and marketing. According to the author, while selling is concerned with creating demand for the products that have already been decided, marketing is directed towards identifying the needs and wants of consumers and planning to satisfy those needs. Hence, in this context, the necessity of understanding consumer behavior and how it shaped needs and wants of consumers in purchasing insurance products could be liken to the bone, the tendon, and the ligament of businesses without which no articulation can take place (Gbadamosi, 2000). Accordingly, insurance marketers need to understand the attitudes of customers and prospects to their offerings in order to be able to take informed marketing-related decisions.
According to Bennett (1995) consumer behavior is essentially a dynamic interaction of affect and cognition, behaviour, and environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of their lives. Now, this position has the advantage that it regards consumer behaviour as dynamic, and emphasises the interaction of many different elements in determining consumer behaviour. This is the main reason why strategy for improving consumer purchase of insurance products needs constant review: a strategy that worked well in the past may not work nearly as well as in the present and future, because the forces that shape behaviour may have changed out of all recognition.
One of the present fundamental presumptions for the consumer behavior is the fact, that people often buy products not because of their main function but for their main subjectively perceived value. It does not mean that product’s basic functions is not important, but that’s the today’s role of products exceeds its service limits (Salomon 2004). Notwithstanding the fact that, individuals and groups determines the pattern of consumption, in trying to satisfy customers it involves in itself marketing, some creativity, offering and exchanging products or value that will appeal to the individuals and groups. Trommsdorff (2002) however opine that, there are no activities more important for the consumer behavior other than connected with consumption, Consumer behavior, attitudes enables better understanding and forecasting, not only of the subject of purchasing an insurance product but also of purchasing motives and purchasing frequency (Schiffman and Kanuk 2004).
Purely monetary decision making means that insurance consumers expect to obtain some financial return which is a stronger stimulus than the overall goal of protection. Consumers (tend to) expect a “dividend stream” from insurance (Krantz, Kunreuther, 2007). From these consumers’ point of view, they waste insurance premiums if they do not collect coverage on their policies for a certain period. Such behaviour indicates that consumers feel the need for justifying their actions to both themselves and others (Kunreuther, Pauly, 2005). Moreover, this suggests that they do not realise that “the best return on an insurance policy is no return at all” (Krantz, Kunreuther, 2007). Therefore, the undertaking of this research study will beam a search light on the Effect of Consumer Buying Behaviour on the Purchase of Insurance Products.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Research shows that many potential consumers of insurance products in Nigeria perceive insurance as an unnecessary expense, on the contrary, it is a form of investment in the protection of assets, whereas being uninsured is in the long-term the most costly option for an individual, the economy, and society.
Now, the wasted time in decision making by individuals and groups and their willingness to part with their money resources is a big setback on sales and performance of insurance companies. The major decision a buyer makes in a group and how his or her choice influences others is a problem in consumer behavior. To undertake and investigate a study of how purchase decisions are taken in individuals and group structure or settings and how this affects volume of sales and profits of the insurance company is still a major problem to researchers. And at the same time, lack of information devices by the insurer in reaching the individuals and groups at the right time and place, to fasten purchase of insurance products is an issue in ascertaining the behaviour of consumers.
Despite the growing population and economy, Nigeria is still lagging seriously behind in the African insurance market consumption ranking. The performance of Nigerian insurance industry has been one of sub-optimal. Recently NAICOM data shows that more than three millions Nigerians have some form of insurance, from less than 1million in 2007. However, the coverage rate varies into higher level for property and auto mobile insurance and low take up personal policies such as life or health. With greater acceptance of insurance products premiums and assets have soared over the 8 years. Gross premiums rose to from less than N100 billion ($502m) in 2007 to N320 billion naira ($1.51b) at the end of 2014 , while assets values more over same period, from N347.1 billion ($1.74b) to N711.4b ($3.57b).
A further look at the insurance penetration ratios in Africa as shown by Oyetunji (2015) for the first half of 2015 reveals that, South Africa leads the continent with a 15.4% penetration ratio, Namibia is having 7.7%, Kenya is 3.4%, Morocco is 3% while Nigeria being the most populous and richest in the continent is sitting at the bottom with just 0.6% at the same level with Egypt a country presently undergoing socio-economic cum political uprising. This indicates that the insurance industry in Nigeria remains largely underdeveloped. Given the existence of untapped potential in the Nigerian insurance market, this consumption level is worrying. The consumption level has been attributed to a number of factors among them are consumers perceptions, attitudes and financial illiteracy (Omar, 2005). It is against this backdrop that this research is being carried out to examine the Effect of Consumer Buying Behaviour on the Purchase of Insurance Products with a special reference to Alimosho Local Government Area (LGA) in Lagos State.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the determinants of the demand for life insurance products in Nigeria. Specifically the study seeks:
- To identify the type of life insurance product that consumers normally buy.
- To find out the level of association between economic factors and the demand for life insurance products.
- To establish whether socio-demographic factors influence the demand for life insurance products.
- To find out the challenges that consumers of life insurance products face in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research aims at finding answers to the following questions.
- What type of life insurance products do consumers normally buy in Nigeria?
- What is the level of association between economic factors and the demand for life insurance products?
- To what extent do socio- demographic factors influence the demand for life insurance products?
- What challenges confront the buyers of life insurance products in Nigeria?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significant role played by the life insurance sector in economic development of Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Life insurance serves as a vehicle for saving mobilization, a product for risk protection, a medium for long-term investments and contributes to the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. The insurance industry has become highly competitive with the influx of private life insurance products to the consuming public. It is one of the vibrant areas of the fast growing financial service sector in Nigeria. It has experienced reforms over the past decade in an attempt to meet customers at their point of need. This study focuses on the factors that influence the consumption of life insurance products. The study seeks to add to knowledge and fill research gap in the subject of life insurance by focusing on Nigeria where the subject is virtually unexplored. Thus, the available literature on life insurance will be built on and improved upon with this research as well as serving as the basis for further research work. It will therefore enable practitioners and competitors in the industry gain an understanding and appreciation of these factors and customer characteristics that affect them.
The results of the study is expected to assist policy makers identify the economic and socio-demographic influences on the demand for life insurance products in Nigeria. Outcome of the study, it is hoped, may prescribe new plans for building promising
Life Insurance markets so as to increase the reach of life insurance products to a larger market. It is envisaged that the study will provide the framework and the guiding principles for new entrants in the life insurance industry for designing their products so as to capture a fair share of the market. It is hoped that the findings of this study will enable life insurance companies revise their distribution strategies and develop new ones that best meet the needs of the sophisticated customer.
The study seeks to add to knowledge and fill research gap in the subject of life insurance. Thus, the available literature on life insurance will be built on and improved upon with this research as well as serving as the basis for further investigations and research work. It will also be used by researchers and practitioners as a reference material.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work investigates the major factors (economic and socio- demographic) that determine the consumption of life insurance products in Nigeria. Coverage of the study will also include the review of relevant topical themes such as types of life insurance and the theoretical predictions of life insurance consumption. Empirical studies conducted by earlier researchers on the topic will be taken care of.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The main limitations of this research are time and financial resource constraints. The limited time span to complete this study as well as financial challenges, the study is confined to Alimosho L.G.A, Lagos state, Nigeria. More life insurance companies should have been studied to make the results of the study more representative. The study is also limited by the lack of time series data that will enable the researcher study the trend of the critical factors that impact strongly on the demand for life insurance products in Nigeria or to study the degree of association between the various factors and life insurance consumption over the years. The study is therefore restricted to the use of interviews and questionnaires as the only sources of data. There are bound to be challenges with this form of data collection with regards to responses of human subjects.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research is arranged into five main chapters as follows: Chapter one deals with the introduction of the study which involves a discussion of the background of the study, the problem statement, research objectives and research questions. Other topics covered by this chapter are the significance of the study, the scope of the study and limitations as well as the organization of the study. In Chapter two, related literature relevant to the study is thoroughly reviewed. Relevant sub themes are selected from books and journals. The full description of the methodology used to collect data is captured in chapter three. The sources of date, target population, sample size and sampling procedure are dealt with in this chapter.
Chapter four covers presentation and analysis of data, the discussion of the information and responses from respondents. Chapter five presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations for policy implementations. It also addresses the challenges encountered during the collection and analysis of data and the opportunity for future research on the topic.
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to email@example.com. We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 - 48 hours to process your request.