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- Name: EFFECT OF DEFORESTATION ON THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT (WAWA, FUNAKAYE L.G.A GOMBE STATE)
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This research was carried out in Wawa, Funakaye LGA, Gombe State to determine the effect of deforestation on the physical environment of the study area. The study was based on field survey, in Wawa forest where the physical impact of deforestation is more felt in Gombe State. Indigenes of this town were interviewed with the aid of questionnaire. 50 questionnaires were administered using simple random sampling technique. Population count of tree species revealed that ficus polita, azadirachta indica, anogeisus leiocarpus were the abundant species in the study area. The study established the immediate and remote causes of deforestation in the study area as farming, fuel wood collection for sell, rural poverty, construction work and hunting activities, and the impact of deforestation as erosion loss of soil nutrient, loss of biodiversity, and change in plant cover. Polices geared toward eradication of poverty and population control were part of the recommendations preferred to help in forest re-establishment in the area. Economic policies are very crucial for the conservation of forests as people will continue to clear forest unless the government provides economic incentives for forest preservation. The study suggested that easement and management practiced in some developing countries should be adopted because they can provide incentives to conserve forests. The study recommended also that modern farming techniques that emphasised conservation tillage, as well as plantation forestry, should be embraced in response to deforestation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of figures – – – – – – – – – viii
List of tables – – – – – – – – – ix
Abstract – – – – – – – – – x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the research problem – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and objectives – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Research question – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope of the study – – – – – – – 4
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – – 4
1.7 Limitation of the study – – – – – – 5
1.8 Plan of the study – – – – – – – 5
1.9 Definition of terms – – – – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Causes of Deforestation – – – – – – 8
2.2 Effect of Deforestation – – – – – – 12
2.3 Rates of Deforestation – – – – – – 16
2.4 Control of Deforestation – – – – – – 18
CHAPTER THREE: STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Area – – – – – – – – 22
3.1.1 Demographic factors – – – – – – – 22
3.1.2 Geology and drainage – – – – – – – 23
3.1.3 Soil and vegetation – – – – – – – 23
3.2 Methodology – – – – – – – – 27
3.2.1 Population of the study – – – – – – 27
3.2.2 Sample Size – – – – – – – – 27
3.2.3 Sampling Technique – – – – – – – 27
3.3 Sources of Data – – – – – – – 28
3.3.1 Primary source of data – – – – – – 28
3.3.2 Secondary source of data – – – – – – 28
3.4 Method of data analysis – – – – – – 29
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents – – – 30
4.2 Analysis of Major Plant Species Identified in the Study Area – – 34
4.3 Analysis of Impact of Deforestation on the Density of Trees – – 37
4.4 Analysis of the Responses to Factors Responsible for Deforestation – 38
4.5 Analysis of the Impact Deforestation on Socio-economic Activities – 40
4.6 Analysis of Responses to Erosion in the Study Area – – – 41
4.7 Analysis of the Responses to Measures used in Protecting Forests – 42
4.8 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – 44
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 45
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 46
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 47
References – – – – – – – – 50
Appendices – – – – – – – – 54
This is the removal of trees from an area of land. However this paper using this form to cover the removal of both trees and other plant.
The clearing of forest across the earth surface has been occurring on a large scale basis for centuries. This process known as deforestation involves the cutting down, burning and damaging of forest. The effect of deforestation in the tropics is the subject of much current publicity and concern for both economic and environmental reasons. Unfortunately once deforestation has occurred, it is difficult to reverse it as this phenomena is one of the great factors of environmental degradation (Olefin, 1987).Rural deforestation creates hostile conditions for the majority of the original forest trees thereby contributing immensely to desert encroachment, increase in aridity, soil erosion and soil nutrient declined.
In any forest ecosystem, there exist a pool of nutrient which has accumulated over a period of time (Andrew, 1967) in temperate forests where the decomposition is slower, a high proportion of nutrient is held in the soil if the forest is cut down, regrowth is fast because the new trees can utilise the accumulated nutrients but all these are lacking in tropical regions and semi-arid areas. Both temperate and tropical woodlands are at great risk nowadays. About 1,113,000ha of forest in Brazil and 989,000ha in Canada were destroyed in 1985 (Mc Crory et al, 1997) as a result of excessive deforestation. The tropical rain forest which contains one half of the world’s total species (Dudley et al, 1995) has today been destroyed by human beings through deforestation.
The values of forest is often higher when it is left standing than it could be worth when it is harvested (Dudley et al, 1995), but according to the report made by the World Resource Institute, more than 80% of the plants natural forest had already been destroyed (Hatch, 1997) this scenario may have its origin on the fact that about one third of the world’s people depend on wood for fuel as significant energy source (Dudley et al, 1995). Similarly recent research have suggested that over 200,000km2 a year is either completely or severely destroyed and it is probably that one species becomes extinct every half hour as a result of terrifying scenario of deforestation which constantly reduces not only the genetic bank of the species but also reduces the species that could be beneficial to man (Olefin, 1987).
Earth without forest is a picture that most of human kind presently could not conceive. They are extremely important to humans and the natural world to humans they have aesthetic, recreational, historical, religious and medicinal values. In developing countries 80% of the people continue to rely chiefly on traditional herbal medicine for their primary health care. Different parts of trees species are used for disease and other heat the medicine goes back at least 100,000years and probably even longer (Walter et al, 1993).
To natural world forest protect the soil against erosion and reduces the risk of landslide and avalanches they may increase the rate at which water is released in water shade (FAO, 1983).Also they help to sustain fresh water supplies and therefore are an important factor in the availability of one of life’s basic needs. Forest also remain as an important source of oxygen although they play lesser role than was once thought (Anderson, 1990).
However the elimination of forest will lead to the destruction of potential sources for example there are species that are yet to be discovered and are destroyed due to habitat destruction when one destroyed these species it upset the ecosystem (Arthur, 1968).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The degradation of environmental variables such as forest, landscape, water, atmosphere and biodiversity as a result of human activities has reached an alarming proportion that the international community’s converge at several occasion to look into the menace example of such conferences held in the Stockholm (1972) at Sweden, Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in (1992) in Brazil and Johannesburg, (2002) South Africa.
Deforestation as one of the environmental degradation can ultimately, among others, lower the productivity of land, in fact the effect of deforestation on the ecology, human beings, soil and livestock survival globally cannot be over emphasised, untold hardship and destruction of lives and property remain the fundamental effects of deforestation (Cook, 1978).
In Kanawa Forest Yamaltu Daba (LGA) uncontrolled deforestation usually accompanied by poor soil management has led to land degradation decline in the productivity and general deterioration of the environment clearing and burning are the deforestation method employed by farmers and fuel wood harvest in the area increased soil erosion which has displaced people from native homes, let to destruction of property and collapse of buildings therefore the devastative effect of deforestation In Kanawa Forest Yamaltu Daba (LGA) forms the basis of the research work.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of rural deforestation on the physical environment of In Kanawa Forest Yamaltu Daba Local Government area Gombe State Nigeria.
The objectives of this work are as follows:
- To determine the tree species found in the study area
- To identify the major causes of deforestation in the area
- To determine the effect of deforestation on the physical environment of the study area.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
Based on the above objectives the following research questions are formulated.
- What are the tree species found in the study area?
- What are the common practices that lead to deforestation?
- What are the effect of deforestation and the physical environment of this area?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- Pressure from increasingly densely population and poverty is leading to increasing pressure both for forest product collection and opening of new areas for cultivation in the state. This work is significant because it will bring to the fore the problems of deforestation in the study area so far, information is scanty on the actual effect resulting from deforestation in the area. This study will provides data that will fill this gap the work will be useful to researchers and students, individuals as well as government and non-governmental organisations interested in preserving forest and ensuring environmental sustainability.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Deforestation is a problem with local and global consequences, this work focus on some of the local effects of deforestation such as soil degradation, biodiversity loss, loss of valuable species of medicinal and economic values, erosion and destruction of wild life habitat. It is also focus on human dimension to forest degradation In Kanawa Forest Yamaltu DabaLocal Government Area.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study has the following limitation.
The focus of this research has been the human dimension to forest degradation; the study was not able to determine the extent to which natural causes affects deforestation in the study area.
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