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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris.

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  • Name: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCING Bacillus Species IN Citrillus vugaris.
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [522 KB]
  • Length: [80] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Effect of different carbon sources on the growth of antimicrobial producing Bacillus species in ogiri-egusi sold in Ogbeta, Orie, Artisian, Kenyatta, Enugu State were evaluated using standard microbiological and analytical methods. 12 bacteria were isolated and identified such as Bacillus subtilis,(33.33), Bacillus pumulis (41.66), Bacillus licheniformis (25) were identified based on their colony biochemical characteristics.The isolates of the highest occurrences is bacillus pumilus. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity against two pathogenic organisms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumulis, gave a zone of inhibition Escherichia coli 0.6mm and 0.8mm after 24 hours of incubation also carbon sources of 5% and 10% sucrose, Glucose and soluble starch were used to check their different carbon sources on the isolates using the spectrophotometer.5% had the highest optimum growth of 1.400 for glucose 1.545 for sucrose,2.376 for soluble starch which can be added in maximum quantity to a medium to produce antibiotics.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – vi
Table of contents – – – – – – – vii
List of tables – – – – – – – x
List of figures – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Aims and Objectives – – – – 1
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Traditional Fermented Foods – – – – 8
2.2 Ogiri – – – – – – – 12
2.3 Detail of some Traditional methods Employed
Manufacture ogiri-egusi – – – – 13
2.4 Microbial Ecology – – – – – – 15
2.5 Microbiology of Ogiri-Egusi – – – – 17

2.6 Biotechnological Changes – – – – 18
2.7 Antimcrobial Activity on Bacillus – – – 20
2.8 Biotechnology of Ogiri – – – – 25
2.8.1 Effect of different carbon – – – – 26
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials – – – – – – – 27
3.2 Sample collection – – – – – 27
3.3 Preparation of samples – – – – – 27
3.3.1 Isolation Techniques – – – – 29
3.3.2 Streak plate methods – – – – – 29
3.4 Identification of isolates – – – – 29
3.5 Gram staining – – – – – – 29
3.5.1 Starch hydrolysis – – – – – 30
3.5.2 Oxidase enzyme activity – – – – 30
3.5.3 Voges – proskeur Test – – – – – 31
3.5.4 Citrate utilization Test – – – – 32
3.5.5 Sugar fermentation Test – – – – – 33
3.5.7 Methyl red – – – – – – – 34

3.6 Effect of Different Carbon sources – – – 35
CHAPTER FOUR
Results – – – – – – – – 36
CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion, conclusion, Recommendation.
5.0 Discussion – – – – – – – 45
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – — 47
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – 48
References – – – – – – – 49
Appendix I – – – – – – 61

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Traditional fermented condiments (OGIRI-EGUSI) based on
vegetable proteins are consumed by different ethnic groups in Nigeria,
have been the pride of culinary traditions for centuries. It is evident
that these products have played a major role in the food habits of
communities in the rural regions serving not only as nutritious non
meat proteins substitute but also as condiment and flavoring agents in
soup.
Traditional methods of manufacture should take advantage of
biotechnological progress to assure reasonable quality and at the same
time assure safety of these products. The requirements for a
sustainable biotechnological development of Nigerian condiments are
discussed in the scope of the microbiology and biochemical changes
of the raw materials. Fermented vegetables, proteins have potential
food uses as protein supplements and as functional ingredients in the
fabricated food (Achi. 2005).

Seeds of legumes may account for up to 80% of dietary protein
and maybe the only source of protein for some groups. Their cooked
forms are eaten as meals and are commonly used as fermented form as
meals and are commonly used in fermented forms as condiments to
enhance the flavors of food (Odunfa, 1985). With high content of
protein, legume condiments can serve as a tasty condiment to sauce
and soups and can substitute for the food flavoring condiments are
prepared by traditional methods of uncontrolled solid subtract
fermentation resulting in extensive hydrolysis of the protein and
carbohydrate components (Fetuga et al. 1973).
Fermented foods are essential parts of the world, particularly
African (Odunfa. 1985). Fermentation is one of the oldest and most
economical methods of producing and preserving foods in developed
countries (David and Aderibigbe 2010). In Africa, many proteineous
oily seeds such as cotton seed (Gossypium hirsutum), African locust
bean (Parkia) and melon seed (Citrillus vulgaris) are fermented to
produce soup condiments (Odunfa, 1981 ), which give pleasant aroma
to soups and sauces. In many countries especially Nigeria and India

where protein calories. Malnutrition is a major problem, these
condiments serve as food source of energy, low cost protein and fatty
acids in diets (Odumodu. 2007).Ogiri is an oily paste produced by
fermented melon seeds (Citrillus vulgaris) in the western part of
Nigeria. Oyenuga (1986) have the composition of melon seed.
A melon seed has high protein and low Carbohydrate content.
Citrullus vulgaris is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae (Alfred,
1986). Ogiri is characterized with very strong pungent odour. Among
the consumers, there are preferences fir Ogiri produced from specific
locality. The production process being a local art makes the quality
varies. The fermented products are also stored at ambient temperature
(28+2) oC. For varied length of time (days or weeks). The population
and types of micro organisms involved during fermentation and
storage could have affected the quality of the product.
Fermented foods are essential parts of diets in all parts of the world
particularly Africa (Odunfa, 1985). Fruits, vegetables, cereals, root
crops, legumes and oil seeds are used in the production of fermented
food. Fermentation is one of the oldest and most economical methods

of producing and preserving foods in developing countries (David and
Aderibigbe, 2010). In Africa, many proteinaceous oily seeds such as
cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum), castor bean (Parkia biblobosa)
and melon seed (Citrullus vulgaris) are fermented to produce food
condiments (Odunfa, 1981 ), which gave pleasant aromas to soups and
sauces. In many countries especially Nigeria and India where
protein/calories malnutrition is a major problem, these condiments
serve as good source of energy, low cost protein and fatty acids in
diets (Odumodu, 2007). Thereby, supplement the nutritive quality of
the respective diets where they consumed
Ogiri is one of the condiments consumed in the Eastern and
Western parts of Nigeria especially by the Ibos. Ogiri is an oily paste
produced by fermenting melon seeds (Citrullus vulgaris) in the
Eastern and Western parts of Nigeria. Oyenuga (1988) have the
composition of melon seed to be dry weight (88.9%); crude protein
(32.6%); ether extract (50.2%); crude fibre (3.7%); silica free ash
(3.45%). Minerals (mg100g) content of shelled melon seed were
Calcium(112); Phosphorus (1777); Magnesium (578); Potassium

(538); Sodium (5); Chlorine (32); Vitamins (N/g); A (30.65); D
(11.20) and E (0.25). Melon seed has high protein and low
Carbohydrate content. Citrullus vulgaris is a member of the family
cucurbitatea (Alfred, 1986).
Ogiri is characterized with very strong pungent odour. Among
the consumer, there are preferences for Ogiri produced from specific
locality. The production process being a local art makes the quality of
the product varies. The fermented products are also stored at ambient
temperature (28.2+2)oC for varied length of time (days or
weeks),(David and Aderibigbe, 2010). The population and types of
micro organism, involved in fermentation can result in food
poisoning. Others are responsible for producing antibiotics (Obeta,
1983).

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1) Isolation of antimicrobial producing Bacillus species in
Citrullus vulgaris

2) To elucidate reasons data for preferences in ‘Ogiri’ from the
four different market in Enugu town.
3) To identify the characteristic ability of microorganisms
responsible for fermentation of Citrillus vulgaris to produce
Ogiri
4) To identify the potential microorganisms and to study the
effect of different carbon sources on isolates.

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