This study is on effect of instructional aids on the academic performance of junior secondary student. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administrative, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies





  • Background of the study

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner. To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate instructional aids that best suit specific objectives and bring about outcomes (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011). Until today, questions about the effectiveness of instructional aids on student learning process have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching techniques enhance success in students’ learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective instructional aids by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). The teacher initiates communication and influences students to think in a particular ways as guided by the instructional aids. However, whether the teacher authoritatively leads communication throughout the instructional process or whether the teacher takes up facilitation role is a matter of choice. The instructional aids used by teachers in sharing knowledge with students is considered as a factor capable of influencing students’ academic performance at all tiers of the education system (Tella, Indoshi, and Othuon, 2010). Instructional aids are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process (Bradley, Mbarika, Sankar and Raju, 2005). Among these items are textbooks, charts, magazines, newspapers, audio-visual, pictures, recordings, slides, transparencies and many more. The use of instructional aids in secondary schools has been widely researched and the findings indicate that the benefits of using them are immense. The integration of instructional aids in classroom practice is believed to bolster the quality of instruction by fostering student-centred pedagogies (Abdo and Semela 2010). Furthermore, according to Mateer,  Purdom, Ghent and Porter  ( 2012) the use of relevant instructional media in the classroom is invaluable since it engages students, aids their retention of knowledge, motivates interest in the subject matter and helps to illustrate the relevance of many concepts taught and enhance students academic performance. Instructional aids can be teacher-centered, learner-centered or mixed approach. Quite often, teachers prefer aids that make their work easier based on their beliefs, personal preferences and norms of their disciplines (Watson, 2003). In this regard, some teachers believe that lessons should be teacher-centered, where the teacher is the expert and the authority in presenting information (Ahmad and Aziz, 2009). Nevertheless, teacher-centered aids are associated with inadequate stimulation of students’ innovative capacities, intellectual thinking, and memorization, cramming of facts, poor knowledge retention and high dependency among students of business studies (McDowell, 2001; Tanner, 2009). Although teachers have the discretion to choose methods for delivering lessons to their students, Chika (2012) observes that learner-centered pedagogy is a powerful strategy for improving learning achievement in business studies’ examinations and application of knowledge and skills acquired. Business Studies is taught in the junior secondary school level as one of the basic subjects that will enable students acquire further skills which are common and fundamental to all personal and occupational activities (Inyang, 1998). Business activity affects the daily lives of all Nigerians as they work, spend, save, invest, travel and play. It influences jobs, incomes and opportunities for personal enterprise. Business has significant effect on the standard of living and quality of life of people, and on the environment in which they live and which future generations will inherit (Ekanem, 2008). Eventually, all students will encounter the world of business, whether they work in urban or rural areas. They must be prepared to engage in business activity with confidence and competence. According to Ikerionwu in Sola (2010) instructional aids are objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provide sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2005). Instructional materials are in various classes, such as audio or aural, visual or audiovisual. Hence, this study seeks to examine the effect of instructional aids on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School Student in Business Studies.

1.2    Statement of the Problem


 As noted by Odundo (2003), students of business studies who experience a mismatch between instructional aids used during teaching and their preferred styles often feel that their learning needs are being addressed using an unfamiliar language. The mismatch poses a difficulty for some students in internalizing the materials delivered, leading to lower grades. Similarly, Zeeb (2004) indicate that students whose styles are not matched with instructional methods that are chosen by teachers are less likely to develop interest in learning. In the absence of learner interest in a subject, concentration level drops and learning achievement is greatly impaired.

Business Studies like other subjects often record poor students’ performance both in national and international examination. Many factors contributed to the poor performance of students in examination (Okebukola and Jegede, 1997). These factors include:

The use of traditional method in teaching such as chalkboards, outdated textbooks etc.

Inability of the teachers to put across the concepts to the students

Lack of skills and competence required for teaching

Shortage of qualified introductory technology teachers

Lack of teaching materials and necessary equipment.

Lack of active participation of students in business studies

Another major problem faced by business studies students is inability to remember what has been learnt. This problem is often caused by too much theoretical expression by the teachers while learners are passive listeners. Students memorize and regurgitate facts and concepts. These problems confronting the teaching and learning of business studies can be handled using slide presentations, video presentation process and other interactive ICT software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment aimed at achieving certain instructional goals (Onasanya, 2002). It is against this backdrop that this research seeks to examine the effect of instructional aids on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School Student in Business Studies with a special reference to Educational District V of Lagos State



The objectives of the study are:

i.To investigate if there is any significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and students’ performance in business studies.

  1. To determine the effect of audio visual teaching aid on students academic outcomes.

iii.  To find out if the use of ICT enhances students’ learning in business studies.



For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0:    There is no significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and student’s performance in Business Studies.

H1:  There is significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and student’s performance in Business Studies.

H02: There is no significant relationship between ICT and students’ learning in Business Studies

H2: There is significant relationship between ICT and students’ learning in Business Studies


This study will give a clear insight on effect of instructional aids on the academic performance of junior secondary student. The study will be beneficial to students and ministry of education. The study will serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic


The scope of the study covers effect of instructional aids on the academic performance of junior secondary school student. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities



INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS: The word instructional aid refers to any material or device used to assist the instructor in: Preparation of the lesson(s) Presentation (teaching) of the lesson(s) Facilitates trainees’ learning. Importance of Instructional Aids.

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study




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