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The Project File DetaEFFECT OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAF FRACTIONS ON SERUM ELECTROLYTES AND RENAL FUNCTION INDICES IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS.ils
Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in the community, plant like Momordica charantia can be used to correct this disorder. Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon is a member of the family Cucurbittaceae. Seed, fruit and leave of this plant contain bioactive compounds with a wide range of biological activities that have been used in traditional medicine, in the treatment of several diseases including inflammation, infection and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia fractions on some serum electrolytes and renal function indices in an alloxan induced albino rats. Fourty albino rats (180-274 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups with five in each group. The rats were injected intra-peritoneally with single dose of 100 mg/kg alloxan induced. Multiple doses 200 mg/kg of various fractions of plant extract were administered orally once daily for 14days. The rats were then sacrificed at 14th day and blood was collected for renal function test and electrolytes analysis using spectrophotometric method. The result showed that there was significant decrease (p>0.05) in srum level ( Na, K, Cl-) and in renal function indices ( Urea and Creatinine) as compared to the diabetic untreated groups. In conclusion, it has been shown that the leaf fractions of momordica charantia has a significant difference (P>0.05) in serum electrolytes and renal function indices.
Title Page i
Table of contents vii
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
1.0. Introduction 1
1.1 Aims and objectives of the study 2
2.0. Literature review 4
2.1. Geographical distribution of momordica charantia 5
2.2. Habitat momordica charantia 6
2.3. Medicinal properties of momordica charantia 6
2.3. 1. Preservation of pancreatic β cells and insulin secretion 7
2.4. Kidney 7
2.4.1. Functions of kidney 8
2.4.2. Diseases of the kidney 9
2.5. Serum electrolytes 10
2.5.1. Functions of Serum electrolytes 10
2.5.2. Clinical relevance of Serum electrolytes 11
2.6. Alloxan induced diabetes 11
2.6.1. Mechanism of action of alloxan 12
2.6.2. Effect of alloxan 13
3.0. Materials and methods 15
3.1. Material 15
3.1.1. Chemical and reagents 15
3.1.2. Equipments 16
3.1.3. Biological materials 16
3.2. plant collection 16
188.8.131.52 Preparation of plant material 17
3.2.2. Maintenance of experimental animals 19
184.108.40.206. Induction of alloxan in rats 19
3.3.3. Preparation of extraction for administration 19
220.127.116.11. Preparation of Glibenclamide stock solution 19
18.104.22.168. Preparation of ethyl acetate fraction stock solution 20
22.214.171.124 Preparation of hexane fraction stock solution 20
126.96.36.199. Preparation of methanol fraction stock solution 20
188.8.131.52 Preparation of chloroform fraction stock solution 20
184.108.40.206. Preparation of aqueous fraction stock solution 20
3.4. Administration 20
3.4. Experimental design 21
3.5 Experimental procedure 21
3.6. Blood sample collection 21
3.7. Determination of different parameters 22
3.7.1. Determination of urea 22
3.7.2. Determination of sodium 22
3.7.3. Determination of creatinine 23
3.7.4. Determination of potassium 24
3.7.5 Determination of Chloride 25
3.8. Statistical analysis 26
4.0. Result 27
5.0. Discussion and conclusion 33
5.1. Discussion 33
5.2. Conclusion 34
1.1 Background of study
Diabetes affects one hundred and thirty five million people in one year worldwide (King et.al., 1999) and this figure is projected to rise to three hundred million in 2025 ((King et. al.,1998). It is obvious that diabetes, a chronic non communicable disease, continues to have a tremendous impact on society in terms of the quality of life and straining health care resources. The costs incurred in managing or preventing it are enormous, both in Kenya and throughout the world. The disease causes substantial morbidity, mortality and long-term complications and remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Africa, this disease continues to impact on the poverty levels of the people.
Diabetes mellitus is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose due to absolute oxidative stress may cause tissue to be more susceptible to oxidative damage and progression of disease in renal glomerolus (Brownlee, 2001; Yao et al., 2009).Histopathological evaluations on the diabetic kidney show expansion of mesangial matrix and uniform thickening of basement membranes in glomerulus and tubules (Ziyadeh and Wolf, 2008).
Since ancient times, plants have been a worthy source of medicine, which not only control hyperglycemia at low dosages but can also be taken for longer periods in contrast to synthetic hyperglycemic drugs (Grover et al., 2002). One of these plants is Momordica charantia (MC), also known as karalla, or bitter melon, which belongs to the cucurbitaceafamily, grows in tropical areas, including parts of the Amazon, east Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean, and is cultivated throughout South America as a food and medicine (Grover and Yadav, 2004).
The Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a widely used plant in the traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been shown that Momordica charantia (Mc) has hypoglycemic effects on animals and humans, however, we don´t know if this effect is present in a chronic time and if the plant extract (stem and leaves) participates in the antihyperglycemic effect.
The Momordica charantia (MC) contains anti-hyperglycemic chemicals include glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oils, triterpenes, proteins and steroids (Murakami et al., 2001; Erden et al., 2010). These chemicals are concentrated in fruits of the Momordica charantia (MC), therefore fruit of the MC has shown more pronounced anti-hyperglycemic activity (Grover and Yadav, 2004). Presence of antioxidants in the fruits and vegetables such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids, lycopenes and flavonoids are also important in prevent free radical injury (Semiz and Sen, 2007). Total flavonoid and phenol contents of Momordica charantia (MC) extract were analyzed and revealed that MC extract possess potent diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (Wu and Ng, 2008). Several studies have reported the anti-diabetic effects of MC on renal functional and histological changes in alloxan albino rats but only limited data is available on the anti-diabetic effects of MC on renal functional and histological changes in rats. 1.1. Aim
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia leaf fractions on some serum electrolytes and renal biomarkers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
1.1.0 Specific objectives
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