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Management needs a lot of tools to be able to administer effectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial action. Management by objectives can be described as a managerial method where by the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identify major areas of responsibility, in which they will work, set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards Derek (2005:156).
Management by objective is also called Managing By Objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have given impetus to its development as a system. Management by objectives refers to a structured management technique of setting goals for any organizational unit.
George S. Odiorne (1981:1) in his book management by objectives defined this concept as “a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member. Besides, Odiorne points out that management by objectives is a “system of management” an overall frame work used to guide the organizational unit and outline its direction. He went further to point out that “the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives”. In other words, it is a participative management procedure that requires commitment and co-operation. The definition deals with identifying the “results” that are expected. Thus management by objectives concentrates on the output of the organisation evaluating people by assessing their contribution to this output.
Management by objectives is a strategy where in the management sets specific goals for the employees to accomplish within a fixed time period. Management by objective is a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the company a need to clarify and achieve its profit and growth goals with the managers need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business.
Management by objectives can work in any size of organization if the procedures are understood and managers are patient in letting the system set in first. Management by objective is an effective planning, control and development system.
Management by objective was defined by Koontz and O’Donnell (1968:485) as a technique or system or method of management where by the superior and subordinate managers of an organization agreed on its broad goals, translate these goals into a chain of specific short term goals, defined each individuals major areas of responsibility in terms of result expected, continually reviewed the accomplishment as the sole basis of assessing and rewarding them.
Management by objectives gives the employee the opportunity to participate in decision making, the limits within these limits. It assumes that the employee has been properly selected and trained, and is informed that the employee will be responsible for achieving the desired results in the organization.
Organizations are ubiquitous. According to Mullins (2005:256), organizations are designed by people to overcome individual limitations and achieve individually. Hence, organization become a means of survival for the people and exerts an important daily influence on the life of the people and the way they live. The major decider for the survival of any organization is the presence of capable men and women with the right technique to combine the organization resources (man, machine, materials and money) to achieve organization goals.
It is appropriate to note that management of companies in Nigeria lack sufficient techniques to make them manage effectively. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objective is not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well co-ordinated managerial goal, but it is also a popular management technique that cut across or pervade all human activities namely business areas, educational, government, health care and non profit organisation.
Most of the techniques, system, tools of management are hardly understood resulting in losses and damages to the organisation. Besides, it is the wrong use of technique and unwillingness of top management to utilize the right tool to solve the management problems.
It is on these trends that the researcher intends to find out the prospect and problems of effective utilization of management by objectives by companies in Nigeria. In order to investigate some of the above problems, one of the leading financial institutions in the country, first Bank of Nigeria Plc Okpara Avenue Enugu has been chosen.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is pertinent to note that management of companies in Nigeria. Lack sufficient technique to make them manage well. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objective if not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well co-ordinated managerial goals, but it is also a popular management technique that cut across or pervade all human activities namely; business areas, educational, government, health care and non-profit organisation.
Most of these objectives are hardly understood resulting in losses, breakage’s and on so. The worse are business in the medium range where most banks fall. Most companies hand down objectives to subordinates without adequate explanation, hence failure of management by objectives in such cases. Management by objectives will remove all of these problems mentioned above and subordinates will now formulate objectives, set targets according to their strength and weaknesses, no stoppages, no delays, no losses to the companies. This will help subordinates to formulate realizable goals.
The broad objective of the study is to find out the prospects and problems of effective utilization of management by objectives in companies in Nigeria.
The specific objective of the study includes: –
In pursuit of the research objective of the study, the following research questions have been formulated.
Practicing management by objective will make the management of First Bank of Nigeria to be move assertive in their decision making. It will assist the subordinate in First Bank of Nigeria to be able to identify themselves with the objectives of the company and the role they will play.
It will assist subordinates to be able to formulate their individual or group objectives, which are reliable. This will result in total commitment to objective and efficiency and effectiveness will result.
This research work is limited to First Bank of Nigeria Plc Enugu and how different organisation can be managed better by the managers setting the goals and all the company members working towards achieving the goals.
There are many factors that act as constraint to the effort of the researcher in the course of writing this project. Most prominent of the factors are:
MBO: Management by Objective
Referrals. The amount of contacts i n the field that a counselor made to- ward finding vocational rehabilitation clients—this helped increase the number of referrals that the individual counselor received. Referrals were the names of potential clients that the counselor received over a period of one month.
Acceptances. According to federal regulations, a person must pass an eligibility test in order to qualify for services. This acceptance test involved several operations by the counselor in terms of paperwork and/or calls with several agencies.
Plans written. Once a client was accepted, the counselor would write a behavioral, objective plan for rehabilitation. If the client decided to change programs, a new plan would be written. Plans written, there- fore, were activities by the counselor toward completing the program of the client.
Rehabilitation. Once the client passed through the rehabilitation pro- gram and found employment for sixty continuous workdays, the counselor could consider the individual rehabilitated. Rehabilitations made were a good indication of the activity of the counselor in insuring that the individual progressed through the program and was successfully placed.
Koontz O. Donnel and weihrich (1980) “ Management” New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.
Mullins, L.J. (2005) “Management and organizational Behaviour” London: Pitman Publishing Imprint.
Derek, Laura et al (2005) “Human resource management” London: prentice Education Limited.
George S. Odiorne (1981) “Strategic Management and Management by objective” New York: Delay Constancy Services, INC.
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