Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner): SANI, ISAH DANTANI

3,000.00

Download the complete education project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED CONCEPT MAPPING AND DIGITAL VIDEO INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED CONCEPT MAPPING AND DIGITAL VIDEO INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY

The Project File Details

  • Name: EFFECTS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED CONCEPT MAPPING AND DIGITAL VIDEO INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1,008 KB]
  • Length: [209] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This study determined the effects of Computer Assisted Concept Mapping (CACM)
and Digital Video Instruction (DVI) instructional strategies on student‟s achievement
in chemistry. It also sought the effects of CACM, DVI on gender academic
achievement of students. The performance of students taught with CACM and DVI
were compared with those students taught with lecture method (LM). To carry out the
study, four research questions were asked and three hypotheses, were formulated and
tested. Related literatures were reviewed. A quasi experimental design specifically
the non-randomized control group design involving three intact classes was used. The
sample of the study consisted of 210 senior secondary two (SSII) chemistry students
from three government owned secondary schools drawn using purposive and simple
random sampling techniques from 16 government schools that offer chemistry in
Chanchaga and Bosso local government areas of Niger State. The three schools were
assigned to the two experimental groups CACM and DVI and one control group
(LM). One instrument, the Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) was developed and
validated. An internal consistency of CAT was computed and found to be 0.95 using
Kuder –Richardson formular 20 (KR 20). Before treatment commenced, the CAT
typed in white coloured paper was administered as pre-test to the three groups in the
sampled schools. The treatment lasted for one month of seven lesson periods for each
group. The actual teaching was done by the regular chemistry teachers who were
given special training for both experimental and control groups. After treatment
session, the same instrument (CAT) which was retyped in yellow coloured paper and
the questions reshuffled was re –administered to the subjects to obtain posttest scores.
Means and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions.
Hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), at 0.05 level of
significance. The result of the analysis indicated that CACM and DVI had significant
effects on student‟s achievement in chemistry, but students in the CACM group
achieved more. Gender was a significant factor in the student‟s achievement in
chemistry when treated with CACM and DVI. These findings imply that there is the
need for chemistry teachers to adopt the use of CACM as well as DVI in teaching
since they are effective in improving student‟s achievement in chemistry. Thus, it is
recommended among others, that state governments or their ministries of education
and professional associations should organise workshops, seminars and conferences to
train teachers on the use of CACM and DVI techniques. Finally, the limitations of the
study, conclusions of the study and the summary of the study as well as suggestions
for further studies were highlighted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page……………………………………………………………………………..ii
Approval Page……………………………………………………………………….iii
Certification………………………………………………………………………….iv
Dedication……………………………………………………………………………v
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………vi
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………….vii
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………ix
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………x
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………….xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………1
Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………9
Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………..10
Significant of the Study……………………………………………………………..11
Scope of the Study…………………………………………………………………..13
Research Questions………………………………………………………………….13
Research Hypotheses………………………………………………………………..14
CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………………15
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE………………………………………….15
Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………………..16
The need for science and technology education in Nigeria…………………………16
Concept of Chemistry……………………………………………………………….19
Importance of Instructional Media in education…………………………………….23
Information and Communication Technology and Education………………………25
Nature and Scope of Computer Assisted Instruction………………………………..31
Nature and Scope of Concept Mapping……………………………………………..42
Computer Assisted Concept Mapping as an Instructional Media…………………..47
Digital Video Disc as an Instructional Media……………………………………….47
Gender and Achievement in Science and Technology………………………………51
Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………………63
Skinner‟s Operant Conditioning……………………………………………………..63
Application in CAI…………………………………………………………………..65
Cognitive Theories…………………………………………………………………..66
Empirical studies on Computer Assisted Concept Mapping, Digital Video Instruction
and Gender influence on Academic Achievement in
Science……………………………………………………………………………….72
Summary of Literature Reviewed……………………………………………………91
7
CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………………….95
RESEARCH METHOD……………………………………………………………..95
Design of Study………………………………………………………………………95
Area of Study………………………………………………………………………..96
Population of the Study………………………………………………………………97
Sample and Sampling Techniques…………………………………………………..98
Instrument for Data Collection………………………………………………………99
Development of the Learning Instrument for the Treatment……………………….100
Validation of the Instrument/Packages……………………………………………..102
Item Analysis……………………………………………………………………….104
Reliability of Instrument……………………………………………………………105
Control of Extraneous Variables……………………………………………………106
Experimental Procedure…………………………………………………………….107
Method of Data Collection………………………………………………………….110
Method of Data Analysis……………………………………………………………110
CHAPTER FOUR…………………………………………………………………………..112
RESULTS…………………………………………………………………………..112
Summary of Findings……………………………………………………………….122
CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………………………………………………122
DISCUSSIONS OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS,IMPLICATIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY………………………………………123
Discussion of the Results……………………………………………………………124
Findings on the effect of CACM on Achievement in Chemistry…………………..124
Findings on the effect of DVI on students Achievement in Chemistry……………125
Findings on the effect of CACM on Achievement in Chemistry by Gender………125
Findings on the effect of DVI on Achievement in Chemistry by Gender………….126
Findings on the treatment-gender interaction effect on students Achievement in
Chemistry……………………………………………………………………………126
Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………127
Educational Implications……………………………………………………………127
Recommendations…………………………………………………………………..129
Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………….130
Suggestions for further Studies……………………………………………………..130
Summary……………………………………………………………………………131
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………..134
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………151
8
List of Tables
Pages
1. Means and Standard Deviations of Students in CACM………………112
2. Mean and Standard Deviations of Students in DVI……………………114
3. Mean and Standard Deviation of Students in CACM by gender………116
4. Mean and Standard Deviations of Students in DVI by gender………….118
5. Analysis of CoVariance (ANCOVA) of posttest scores of Students in
CACM ,DVI & LM………………………………………………………….120
9
List of Figures
1. Cognitive Learning theory model…………………………………….68
2. Research Design Layout………………………………………………..96

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The growth and development of most nations are dependent on science,
technology and mathematics education. Science is that organized body of
knowledge, which enhances the ability to acquire skills. It is a search for
meaning or exploration of events in nature (Ifeakor 2006). Science and
technology related subjects that would enable students have a substantial
understanding of science and be able to apply scientific knowledge in solving
problems in their ever changing society are Mathematics, Physics, Biology,
Health Science, Introductory technology and Chemistry.
Chemistry is one of the compulsory subjects for one to study science/
technology related courses in tertiary institutions. It is the science that deals
with the properties of different atoms, the ways in which they join together to
form molecules, the interaction of various kinds of molecules with one another
and the accompanying energy changes. It is the heart or nucleus of science
(Adeyemo, 2005). The science of chemistry includes properties, composition
and structure of matter as well as structural, compositional and energy changes
involved in chemical reactions. From the foregoing therefore, the major
objective of teaching chemistry in our schools is to enable the students interpret
the universe, since the great variety of materials in the universe can be classified
12
into two great entities: energy and matter. Chemistry has developed knowledge
in all these areas of energy and matter which will significantly help in achieving
the objective of interpreting the universe (Adeyemo, 2005).
The technological development of any nation lies in the study of science
especially chemistry. The role of Chemistry in national development is
acknowledged in the whole world (Udofia and Udo, 2006).The significance of
chemistry in all fields of science and technology has made chemistry imperative
to be included in the curriculum of senior secondary school to be offered by
science oriented students. The Nigerian secondary school Chemistry curriculum
has the following objectives:
(i) Facilitate a transition in the use of scientific concepts and techniques
acquired in Integrated Science with Chemistry.
(ii) Provide the students with basic knowledge in chemical concepts and
principles through efficient selection of content and sequencing.
(iii) Show Chemistry in its inter-relationship with other subjects;
(iv) 12Show Chemistry and its link with industry, everyday life, benefits and
hazards;
(v) Provide a course which is complete for students not proceeding to higher
education while it is at the same time, a reasonably adequate foundation
for post-secondary Chemistry courses. (FME & CESAC, 2009p.
With the importance of chemistry and provisions made by the Federal
Government of Nigeria for effective teaching and learning of chemistry, the
13
objectives of its teaching and learning as stated in the Nigerian secondary
school chemistry curriculum is yet to be achieved. Chemistry is one of the
science subjects which have been taught using different methods for instance,
Ifeakor, (2005) used commercially produced Computer Assisted Instructional
package to teach chemistry, while Olorundare, (2009) used Concept mapping
and analogy to teach chemistry yet student‟s performance in chemistry is not
encouraging. The reasons for poor performance in chemistry as identified by the
following researchers include: poor instructional strategies (Bajah, 2000;
Olorukooba, 2007); abstract nature of science concepts (Nsofor, 2006; Ojiaku,
2003); lack of qualified teachers (Biodun, 2004); poor infrastructure and
inadequate laboratory facilities (Shalw, 2003); and non-availability and
utilization of instructional materials (Yusuf, 2004). Their findings are similar to
that of Olorundare, 2007 who found that inadequate laboratory facilities and
non-availability and utilization of instructional materials affect the teaching and
learning of chemistry in the secondary schools. Also the chief examiner, West
African Examination Council (WAEC, 2007), identified some areas of
weaknesses of the students/candidates which were reported as a contributing
factor to student‟s poor performance. The areas identified include: Poor
understanding of general principles and concepts, heat, energy changes, rates of
chemical reactions, reversibility of reactions and chemical equilibrium.
The federal government of Nigeria made special provisions and
incentives through the provision of laboratory facilities, instructional materials,
14
training and retraining of teachers, provision of research grants and adoption of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve the teaching and
learning of science chemistry inclusive in our secondary schools. Since as part
of the requirements for any school to be enrolled for WAEC and NECO is that
the school must have science laboratories and with the importance of ICT in
nation building, schools have been provided with computer systems through the
school net programme. Furthermore, the federal government stated that “In
recognition of the prominent role of information and communication technology
in advancing knowledge and skills necessary for effective functioning in the
modern world, there is an urgent need to integrate information and
communication technology into Education in Nigeria (FGN, 2004:17). In
furtherance to government support for science education, information and
communication technology is adopted by the policy to apply to all levels of
education. Such provision for secondary level of education is contained in
section 5 number 30. She further states that “Science shall be taught in an
integrated manner in the schools to promote in the students the appreciation of
basic ideas”. For instance, schools in Minna are no exceptions as government
have provided the computers in almost all senior secondary schools in Minna.
Despite all the effort made by the Federal government, chemistry teachers and
researchers, students perform very poorly. In order to improve the teaching and
learning of chemistry the researcher is of the view that the use computer assisted
15
concept mapping and digital video to teach chemistry may lead to better
performance by the students.
Computer assisted instruction refers to instruction or remediation
presented on a computer. Computer assisted instructions are interactive and can
illustrate a concept through attractive animation, sound and demonstration. It
allows students to progress at their own pace and work individually. Computers
provide immediate feedback, letting students know whether their answer is
correct or not. If the answer is not correct, it shows how the students can get the
correct answer. So many researchers have used computer assisted instruction in
different subject areas to improve effective teaching and learning. For instance
Hall, Hughes, and Filbert, (2000), examined the effect of computer assisted
instruction in reading by students. Their findings indicated an improvement in
reading when computer assisted instruction is used for students. Also, Tapscott
(2008) investigated the effect of computer assisted instruction on academic
achievement in sciences; the result was also positive. Also Ifeakor (2005)
examined the effects of commercially produced computer assisted instructional
package on student‟s achievement and interest in secondary school chemistry.
In her study, she found that the commercially produced computer assisted
instructional package had positive effect on the students‟ achievement and
interest.
Concept maps are forms of graphical organizers which allow learners to
perceive the relationships between concepts through diagramming of keywords
16
representing those concepts. These concepts are usually enclosed in circles or
boxes of some type and relationships between concepts indicated by connecting
lines linking two or more concepts. The process of using these graphical tools
for organizing and presenting knowledge is referred to as concept mapping. For
some years now, the researches on the effectiveness of using concept mapping
instructional strategy to teach chemistry has been in place. These studies
includes that of Czerniak and Haney (1998) who used concept mapping to
improve achievement in physical sciences which includes chemistry, Nicoll,
Francisco and Nakhleh (2001) investigated the effect of concept mapping on
general chemistry achievement. Their findings showed a positive effect.
Concept mapping has been found to be a good instructional strategy used by
teachers to teach chemistry yet students fail the subject, this is evident in the
results of students in the WAEC and NECO, hence the researcher used
computer assisted instruction which incorporates concept mapping for teaching
chemistry concepts anticipating that it may improve the teaching and learning of
chemistry.
Computer assisted concept mapping is an instructional strategy that
incorporates the use of computer instruction with concept mapping. Not much
work known to the researcher have been done using these instructional strategy
to improve teaching and learning, even where it has been used, it is outside the
shore of Nigeria and no study has been found for chemistry. For example,
Chien-hsun Tu (2006), conducted a study on the effect of computer assisted
17
concept mapping learning in social studies. There was a positive effect on the
students‟ achievement in social studies.
Digital video instruction is an instruction presented through the use of a
television monitor and a digital video disc or digital versatile disc (DVD).
Digital video disc is an optical disc with storage media format. Its main uses are
video and data storage. The digital video disc has a player which it uses to
retrieve what has been stored into it. Both the digital video player and the
television monitor require electricity to power them. The influx of home
video‟s/CD‟S is an issue of great concern that needs to be addressed. The
situation is such that parents and even youths of school age go after home
videos instead of getting/purchasing educational DVD/CD; S. These students
are allowed to watch these home videos for hours. It is therefore, the intention
of the researcher to see how this ability to watch home videos can be utilized to
achieve academic excellence in the classroom setting. Most researches that have
been conducted are on videotape instruction. For instance, Osokoya, (2007)
investigated the effect of video instruction on secondary school students‟
achievement in History. The findings showed a positive effect on student‟s
achievement. Also, Orisabiyi (2007), who determined the effect of videotaped
package on students achievement in biology found videotape instruction to be
effective. Furthermore, Gbodi and Laleye (2006), found videotape instruction to
be effective on students‟ achievement in Integrated Science. Digital video
instruction has been found to be effective in the learning of mathematics
18
(Adebayo, 2008) and so the study considered its effectiveness when used to
teach chemistry. From the studies made so far, no research known to the
researcher has been carried out on the comparative effects of computer assisted
concept mapping, digital video instruction and lecture method of teaching on
student‟s achievement in chemistry.
Historically, in most countries of the world the educational provision for
boys and girls was clearly differentiated. This difference in treatment through
education created and sustained gender gap, which also became visible in the
science, technology and mathematics education provided. The historical
background of the provision of education in Nigeria serves to give a picture of
how tradition and culture has placed women and girls at a disadvantage, and
restricted them to a narrow range of occupation and careers. Njoku (2009), in
his study on enhancing the relevance of chemistry curriculum delivery using
science, technology and society (STS), stated that female students underachieve
in science, technology and mathematics education relative to their male
classmates. Gender has been identified as one of the factors influencing
student‟s achievement in the sciences at senior secondary school level
(Anagbogu & Ezeliora, 2007 and Nsofor, 2007). Researchers (Ifamuyiwa, 2004;
Iwendi, 2009) have shown that males achieve higher than females in science
and technology concepts. It has been noted that males perform better than
females in chemistry (Ifeakor, 2005). No gender difference in student academic
achievement has also been observed (Yusuf and Afolabi 2010). The
19
contradictive evidences in academic achievement due to gender had necessitates
the need to verify how computer assisted concept mapping and digital video
instructional strategies can influence student‟s achievement in chemistry. This
study therefore, examined the effects of computer assisted concept mapping and
digital video instruction on students achievement in chemistry.
Statement of the Problem
The performance of students in science generally and chemistry in
particular has been quite unsatisfactory over the years (Olorukooba, 2007;
WAEC, 2010, NECO, 2010). The external examining bodies such as West
African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council
(NECO) have repeatedly reported poor performance in chemistry.
The report of the chief examiner, West African Examination Council
2004-2005 revealed that candidate‟s performance was poor. For the years 2006
and 2007 the report is that there is no improvement in the performance of
candidates who sat for Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in
chemistry. Furthermore, a critical look at the statistics of candidates‟ enrolment
and performance in chemistry in Nigeria between 2002 and 2007 (appendix A),
and candidates enrolment and performance in chemistry in Niger state for the
years 2000 to 2007 (appendix B), shows that the performance of the candidates
was poor. The percentage failure of chemistry students in the secondary school
certificate examination (SSCE) for the years 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and
2005 are 67.42, 60.99, 53.67, 41.40, 53.28 and 46.40 respectively while the
20
years 2006 and 2007 recorded 50.73 and 70.77 percentage failure. Also, WAEC
chief examiners report for 2008-2010 indicated poor performance. In the report,
2008 recorded 77% failure, 2009 recorded 79.67% failure while 2010 recorded
80% failure. The persistent poor performance, according to the chief examiner
for the years 2008- 2010 was as a result of: Poor understanding of general
principles and concepts, heat, energy changes, rates of chemical reactions,
reversibility of reactions and chemical equilibrium. This poor performance as
indicated by the results can be attributed to many factors which includes lack of
appropriate and effective use of media. This is evident from the results of the
senior secondary school certificate examination for chemistry in Niger state. See
appendix B. Despite all that has been done to improve students‟ achievement
especially in chemistry, students still perform poorly. Therefore, as a result of
this evident poor performance by students, the study determined the effects of
computer assisted concept mapping and digital video instruction on student‟s
achievement in chemistry.
Purpose of the Study
This study determined the effects of computer assisted concept mapping
and digital video instruction on secondary school students‟ academic
achievement in chemistry.
Specifically, the study determined, the
i. Effect of computer assisted concept mapping on secondary school
students‟ academic achievement in chemistry.
21
ii. Effect of digital video instruction on secondary school students‟
academic achievement in chemistry.
iii. Effect of computer assisted concept mapping on secondary school
student‟s achievement in chemistry by gender.
iv. Effect of digital video instruction on secondary school student‟s
achievement in chemistry by gender.
Significance of the Study
Theoretically, the findings of this study will help teachers to give students
task in hierarchical order. It will help teachers to move from simple to complex
task. Since learning new knowledge is dependent on what is already known,
curriculum planners will always consider the entry behaviour of students as they
plan the curriculum.
Also, it is expected that the teaching and learning process, students,
teachers, teacher trainees, curriculum developers, policy makers, parents,
government and the nation at large would benefit from the findings of this study
in the following ways:
The result of this study will have positive impacts on teaching and
learning of chemistry in secondary schools, as it will re-emphasize the need for
teachers to always enrich the teaching and learning process with instructional
media. This will encourage head, hand and heart co-ordination and promote
harmonious interaction between learners and materials to be learnt. This in turn
would relieve passivity, monotony, excessive verbalism, thereby preventing
22
chemistry from being taught in a manner that produces in the mind of learners a
feeling of boredom and distaste for chemistry.
The results of this study is expected to be useful to the learners as it will
provide opportunities for students to practice basic skills, learn some basic
concepts on their own and at their own pace. Also it can lead to arousing
students interest in science especially chemistry, make them to be creative and
help in the generation of ideas to solve world problems. By the use of digital
video instructional package, the interest of the learners for irrelevant movies and
entertainment programs could systematically be transferred to a more
productive and educative pursuit. Also the learners listening skill which is vital
to efficient learning would be improved upon.
Since students learn differently and at different pace, abstract concepts
are simplified and individualized learning will be encouraged. The result will
encourage teachers to use multiple media in presenting instructions to students.
It will also help teachers to vary their instructional approaches, develop creative
skills and help in making their lesson interesting as well as making their
instructional objectives to be achieved.
The findings could hopefully assist curriculum planners to include in the
curriculum for secondary level instructional materials/strategies that would help
in bringing about meaningful learning. It may also provide locally produced
computer instructional package, the use of which would consequently build up
teacher‟s and learners confidence in the subject matter and to be information
23
and communication technology (ICT) compliant. This is to give direction and
confidence to the teacher whose job it is to put the curriculum into use and to
ensure the attainment of specific objectives of learning science.
The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to the nation as it
could lead to the turnout of learners with solid foundation in science (chemistry)
to meet the demands of science and technology of the new millennium. This
study may be a spring board for future researchers who might wish to embark
on a similar study in chemistry or other discipline such as biology or physics.
Scope of the Study
This research examined the effects of computer assisted concept mapping
and digital video instruction on the academic achievement of students in
chemistry. Minna metropolis was used and three schools were covered. Two
schools served as the experimental while the remaining one served as the
control. The study was limited to Senior Secondary II (SSII) of the Senior
Secondary Schools selected in Minna. The topics or subject matter covered are
energy effects Chemical equilibrium, reversibility of reaction and le chatelier‟s
principle which are topics in Senior Secondary II Chemistry syllabus.
Research Questions
The study was guided by the following questions
i. What is the effect of computer assisted concept mapping instructional
strategy on secondary school student‟s achievement in chemistry?
24
ii. What is the effect of digital video instructional strategy on secondary
school student‟s achievement in chemistry?
iii. What is the influence of gender on secondary school student‟s
achievement in chemistry using computer assisted concept mapping
instructional strategy?
iv. What is the influence of gender on secondary school student‟s
achievement in chemistry using digital video instructional strategy?
Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated.
HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores
of students taught chemistry using computer assisted concept mapping,
digital video instruction and lecture method.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male
and female students taught chemistry using computer assisted concept
mapping, digital video instruction and those taught using lecture method.
HO3: There is no significant treatment-gender interaction effect on the
academic achievement of students in chemistry as measured by their
mean achievement scores in Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT).
25

 

See more education project topics and materials

GET THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER:
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 - 48 hours to process your request.