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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG NCE PHYSICS STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT ABILITIES IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA.

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  • Name: EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG NCE PHYSICS STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT ABILITIES IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA.
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ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effect of computer- assisted instruction on academic achievement of Nigeria Certificate in Education Physics students of different abilities, in Niger State, Nigeria. Six research questions were raised and six null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted pretest and posttest quasi experimental control group design. Two hundred and eleven (211) NCE II students from the two colleges of education in Niger State were used as research sample. Purposive sampling techniques was used to choose the two schools while balloting method was employed to assign the colleges into experimental and control groups. The researcher developed computer- assisted instructional package on Mechanics and Properties of Matter which was used as treatment instrument for experimental group while control group were exposed to traditional (lecture) teaching method. The instrument for data collection was Mechanics and Properties of Matter Achievement Test (MPMAT) which was validated by experts in science education. A 40- items multiple choice objective type achievement test covering six topics in Mechanics and Properties of Matter was used to collect data for both pretest and posttest. A reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained using the data collected from pilot test and analyzed using Pearson‟s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r). The data of the first five hypotheses were analyzed using t- test and the sixth hypothesis was analyzed using one way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) statistics. The findings of this study revealed that experimental group performed better than the control group, no statistically significant difference in the performances of both male and female students taught using CAI which implies that it is gender friendly and there is no significant difference in the academic achievement among low, medium and high abilities taught using CAI. It was recommended among others, that Physics Lecturers should use computer software in teaching physics in order to enhance student‟s achievement in physics and Physics Lecturers should acquire computer literacy, so that he/she can develop any computer assisted instruction package.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – x
List of Appendices – – – – – – – – – xii
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – – xiii
Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – – xiv
Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – – – – xv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – xvi
CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1.1 Theoretical Frame Work – – – – – – – – 5
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – – 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – – 7
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – – – 8
1.5 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – – – 9
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – – 9
1.7 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – – – – 10
1.8 Basic Assumptions – – – – – – – – – 11
vii
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – 12
2.2 Physics as a Teaching Subject at Secondary School – – – – 12
2.3 Science Teaching Methods – – – – – – – – 16
2.4 Science Teaching Strategies and Academic Achievement in Science – – 21
2.5 Computer – Assisted Instruction – – – – – – – 22
2.6 Conventional Lecture Method- – – – – – – 27
2.7 Concept of Ability Levels – – – – – – – – 29
2.8 Ability Levels and Students‟ Academic Achievement in Science- – – 31
2.9 Gender and Academic Achievement in Science.- – – – – 32
2.10 Overview of Similar Studies – – – – – – – – 34
2.11 Implication of Literature Reviewed on the Present Study – – – – 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – 38
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – – – 39
3.3 Population – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure – – – – – – – 41
3.5 Selected Topics for the Study – – – – – – – 42
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – – – 42
3.7 Mechanics and Properties of Matter Achievement Test (MPMAT) – – 42
3.8 Validation of Instrument (MPMAT) – – – – – – 43
3.9 Pilot Testing – – – – – – – – – – 44
3.9.1 Pretest Administration – – – – – – – – 45
3.9.2 Reliability of the Instruments – – – – – – – 45
3.10 Item Analysis of MPMAT – – – – – – – – 45
3.11 Facility Indices- – – – – – – – – 46
viii
3.12 Discrimination Indices- – – – – – – – 46
3.13 Administration of Treatment – – – – – – – 47
3.14 Control Group- – – – – – – – – 48
3.15 Data Collection Procedure – – – – – – – – 48
3.16 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – 48
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.
4.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 50
4.2 Data Analysis and Results- – – – – – – – 50
4.2.1 Answers to Research Questions- – – – – – – 50
4.2.2 Hypotheses Testing- – – – – – – – – 56
4.2.3 Test for Academic Achievement of Physics Students taught using CAI and
those taught using Lecture Methods in there Mean Scores in Experimental
and Control Group – – – – – – – – – – 57
4.2.4 Test for Academic Achievement of Low Ability Students Taught using CAI
and those Taught using Lecture Methods in there Mean Scores in Experimental
and Control Group- – – – – – – – – 58
4.2.5 Test for Academic Achievement of Medium Ability Students Taught using CAI
and those Taught using Lecture Methods in there Mean Scores in Experimental
and Control Group- – – – – – – – – 59
4.2.6 The Effect of Academic Achievement between High Ability Level Students
Taught using CAI and those Taught using Lecture Method- – – – 60
4.2.7 Test for Academic Achievement of Male and Female Students Taught using
CAI and there Means Scores in Experimental Group – – – – 61
4.2.8 Test for Academic Achievement of Low Ability, Medium Ability and High Ability
level Students taught using CAI.- – – – – – – 62
4.3 Summary of Findings- – – – — — — – 64
ix
4.4 Discussion of the Results- – – – – – – – 64
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
5.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 70
5.2 Summary of the Study- – – – – – – – 70
5.3 Summary of Major Findings- — – – – – – – 72
5.4 Conclusions – – – – – `- – – – – 73
5.5 Contribution of the study to Knowledge – — – – – – 73
5.6 Recommendations- – – – – – – – – 74
5.7 Limitations of the Study- – – – – – – – 75
5.8 Suggestions for Further Study- – – – – – – 76
References – – – – – – – – – – – 77

CHAPTER ONE

They further showed that the
interactive approaches to teaching significantly enhanced learning. Computer and Science are
inseparable transformational tool for increased productivity, income generation and security
awareness.
Physics, which is one of the science subjects, is highly needed for our nation‟s
technological breakthrough (Agommouoh & Nzewi, 2003). According to Okeke (1997), Physics
is the heart of science and the hub of all technological activities. For a nation to develop a sound
basis for modern technology, the study of Physics enhances an understanding of the inter-play of
forces in nature and forms a veritable amour against superstition which muddles technological
advancement anywhere (Agommuoh & Nzewi, 2003). In addition, Danjuma (2008) stated that
Physics as the soul of science plays a vital role in all human endeavour and serves as a pre
requisite for courses such as medicine, geology, computer engineering, forestry, space
navigation, agricultural science, pharmacy, among others.
Research findings of Bunkure (2007) indicated that CAI enhanced students‟ achievement
in physics but teachers did not often use it. Rather they used lecture methods and thus, there is
the need to try a new teaching strategy in line with global trends of using CAI, especially for
science teaching. Advancement in science and technology has recently changed the education
3
systems in societies. The increasing importance of skilled persons not only as users of
knowledge but producers of knowledge puts additional responsibilities on the educators of
science, (Gonen, Kocakaya & Inan, 2006). In the same vein, Kadıoglu, 1996; Ayas & Ozmen,
1998; Ozmen, İbrahimoglu and Ayas (2000) stated that physics, chemistry and biology have
many theoretical concepts that are difficult to understand by students, and if not properly taught,
students will encounter a lot of misconceptions that may alter learning. It is also known that
students do not or rarely link the knowledge gained from those sciences to their daily lives. In a
related development, Şahin and Parim, (2002); Saka and Cerrah, (2004) stated that in education
and learning process, traditional education and the existing educational materials neither helped
to solve the existing problems nor assisted in the development of conceptual learning.
However, the researcher observed that the use of CAI instruction creates and sustains
students‟ attention and curiosity in the learning process. The use of CAI is also likely to enhance
the learning of Physics concepts. In addition, with the use of computers in education most of the
knowledge which is related to natural phenomena is now available in the computer environment.
This is why teachers should use computers as a teaching tool in order to give the students the
ability to visualize in a three-dimensional form, the physical phenomena of some concepts
(Soylu & İbiş, 1998).
Gender roles can be referred to as the roles and relationships between men and women in
a given situation. On the issue of gender on students‟ achievement in science subjects, Shaibu
and Mari (1994) found that there was no statistically significant difference between boys and
girls‟ ability to solve problems requiring their understanding of process skills. Also James
(2000), Olorukooba (2001) and Bichi (2002) in their various studies found that there was no
statistically significant difference between boys‟ and girls‟achievement in science with reference
4
to their exposure to activity-based method of instruction in science. Therefore, this study
investigated the effect of CAI on gender among different ability levels of NCE Physics students
in Niger State.
Lecture method is the teacher-centered method, which is seen as the traditional talk
chalk method of teaching. Here the teacher does the talking while students serve as receiver only
by listening and taking down notes. Obeka (2009) described lecture method as a teacher-centered
method. He further stressed that the method enhances acquisition of subject matter pre
dominantly under the memorization and close supervision of the students by the teacher. Lecture
method is one of science teaching instructions that encourage rote learning and regurgitation of
information without necessarily facilitating understanding, and this does not enhance academic
achievement in science (James, 2000, Bichi, 2002 &Usman, 2008). Though this method has
some disadvantages, teachers often use it. Therefore, there is need to try an alternative teaching
strategy such as CAI in line with global trends.
There are students with different academic ability levels, which are categorized as
low, medium and high ability levels. Students with marks from 0% to 39% are low-level ability;
those with 40% to 69% are middle-level ability and those with 70% and above are high-level
ability (Ofonime, 2007). According to Hummel andSprinthal, (1965) and Ashilley (2001), low
level ability students are said to be the group of students who perform poorly in tests and
examinations, are easily distracted, less able to set about tasks in an organized manner and less
able to control their own basic impulses and their destines. Ofonime (2007) also described the
low-level ability students as students whose academic potentials are judged below class average
while their achievement is described as poor. On the other hand, the high-level ability students
were referred to by Collia (2002) as those students who did not ascribe their fate to luck or to
5
vagaries of chance but rather to their own personal decisions and efforts. Ofonime (2007) further
stressed that the high-level ability students as whose academic potentials are above class average
and their achievement described as good. Some studies were carried out on teaching strategy on
academic achievement without considering ability level on how CAI would enhance students‟
achievement at NCE level while other studies were focussed on SSS. The Computer-Assisted
Instruction (CAI) was used in this study to see whether it would improve the academic
achievement of NCE physics students of different ability levels.
1.1.1 Theoretical Framework
The theoretical basis that guided this study on the effect of computer-assisted
instruction on academic achievement among NCE Physics students of different ability levels is
the constructivism theory of learning. Constructivism which means the ability of an individual to
construct ideas can be applied to the use of computers to enable the students learn some concepts
like the structure of atom, wave formation and many other related concepts. Thus, students can
learn best when they actively construct through their own understanding. In fact, CAI can help
students to build meaningful relation between what they know and what they are setting out to
learn. Constructivists consider learning to be a result of mental construction although students
learn by fitting new information together with what they already know. However, Vygotskii
(1978) observed that we can distinguish between “Cognitive Constructivism” which is about
how the individual learner understands things, in terms of developmental stages and learning
styles, and “Social Constructivism” which emphasizes how meanings and understanding grow
out of social encounters. Thus, Constructivism can be described as a dynamic and interactive
conception of human learning which essentially holds the view that scientific knowledge is
6
personally constructed and reconstructed by the learners, based on their experiences. This is
because learners bring to the class ideas which affect new information they receive and what
they learn. Therefore, learning results from interaction between their previous knowledge and
what is experienced during learning. Thus, in the constructivist model of instruction, students
redefine, reorganize, elaborate and change their initials concepts through interaction among
themselves and their environment (Nwosu, 2003). The experiences involved in CAI require that
students redefine, reorganize, elaborate and change their initial concepts through interaction with
computers which agree with the constructivist theory.
Therefore, the researcher used Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) to investigate its
effect on the academic achievement of Physics students of different ability levels at NCE in
Niger State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Generally, poor achievement of students in the science subjects has been a subject of
concern to many stakeholders in education (Olorundare, 1993 & Olatoye, 2002). According to
West African Examinations Council‟s (WAEC 2006, 2007 & 2008) examiners reported low
enrolment and poor achievement of secondary school students in science subjects. In addition,
most of the Physics teachers at secondary school levels were NCE teachers. The achievement of
Physics students in the external examinations conducted by WAEC or NECO were largely
disappointing as revealed in the reports of WAEC chief Examiners often (Ogunneye, 2003).
Available evidence shows that not much work has been done on the effect of using
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on academic achievement in science with regard to the
ability levels of students. And therefore, without considering ability levels of students, poor
7
academic achievement in Physics may still persist. Many studies in published literature indicated
that there was a strong relationship between the use of computers and students‟ academic
achievements in teaching and learning processes (Altun, Yigit & Alev, 2007). For instance, Yigit
(2005) found in his study that computer-assisted instruction had positive impact on students‟
perception about computer-supported instruction as well as on to their academic achievement.
Therefore, the problem of this study is to look at the effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction
(CAI) on the academic achievement of NCE Physics students in relation to their ability levels in
Niger State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was designed to determine:
1 Whether there is any difference in academic achievement of Physics students taught
with CAI and those taught with lecture method at NCE level.
2 If there is any difference in academic achievement between low ability level Physics
students taught with CAI and those taught with lecture method at NCE level.
3 Whether there is any difference in academic achievement between medium ability level
Physics students taught with CAI and those taught with lecture method at NCE level.
4 If there is any difference in academic achievement between high ability level Physics
students taught with CAI and those taught with lecture method at NCE level.
5 If there is gender difference in academic achievement between Physics students taught
using CAI at NCE level.
8
6 Whether there is any difference in academic achievement among Low Ability (LA),
Medium Ability (MA) and High Ability (HA) level Physics students taught with CAIat
NCE level.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were set for answering;
(1) What is the difference between academic achievement of Physics students
taught using CAI and those taught using lecture method at NCE leve?
(2) Is there any difference in academic achievement between low ability level
Physics students taught using CAI and those taught using lecture method at
NCE level?
(3) What is the difference in the academic achievement between medium ability
Physics students taught with CAI and those taught with Lecture method at NCE
level?
(4) Is there any difference in the academic achievement between high ability
Physics students taught with CAI and those taught with Lecture method at NCE
level?
(5) What is the difference in the academic achievement between male and female
Physics students taught with CAI at NCE level?
(6) Is there any difference in the academic achievement among low ability (LA),
medium ability (MA) and high ability (HA) level students taught with CAI at
NCE level?
9
1.5 Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated at 0.5 level of significance to answer the stated
research questions,
H01: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement between Physics
students taught using CAI and those taught using Lecture method in Physics at NCE level.
H02: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement between low ability students
taught using CAI and those taught using Lecture method in Physics at NCE level.
H03: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement between medium ability
students taught using CAI and those taught using Lecture method in Physics at NCE level.
H04: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement between high ability
students taught using CAI and those taught using Lecture method in Physics at NCE level.
H05: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement between male and female
students taught using CAI in Physics at NCE level.
H06: There is no significant difference in the academic achievement among low ability, medium
ability and high abilitystudents taught using CAI in Physics at NCE level
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study would hopefully uplift the standard of Physics education in the
following ways:
The study would contribute to the improvement of teaching and learning of Physics
in Nigeria‟s institutions of learning. That is to say it would help to improve teacher effectiveness
and confidence in the classroom during instruction and hence improve students‟ achievement in
Physics concepts.
10
It would promote further research. For example National Institute of Physics (NIP),
National Educational Research Council (NERC), Science Teacher Association of Nigeria
(STAN) and private individuals that carry out research, discuss and disseminate research
findings might wish to consider the result of this research work with a view to using the CAI to
promote further research.
It would encourage active participation of the students in teaching and learning of
Physics which would lead to meaningful learning outcomes, to stimulate the curriculum
developers and administrators to encourage lecturers in all subject areas to acquire skills and
attitude for developing CAI instructional materials for teaching, to enable administrators of
higher institutions to organize and sponsor workshops, seminars and in-service trainings for their
lecturers with a view to making use of CAI as one of the methods of teaching at NCE level.
Learning difficulties may be reduced using CAI and this will help to remove the
abstractness of some concepts. Fellow researchers will benefit from the findings of this study by
gaining access to recent literature and to be acquainted with present solutions of using CAI in
teaching Physics at NCE level. This study would also serve as a foundation for further studies in
the teaching of Physics.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to two colleges of education in Niger State i.e. Federal
College of Education, Kontagora and Niger State College of Education, Minna, because they are
the only Colleges of Education in the state. The Colleges selected were accredited by National
Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and were similar in terms of academic activities,
quality of staff and infrastructure. The study was limited to Physics students in NCE II (200
11
Level) of the two Colleges of Education under study.The study was also limited to Mechanics
and Properties of Matter with the following concepts: Inertial of Rigid body, Energy and
Gyration of Rigid body, Angular Momentum, Gravitation, Surface Tension and Oscillatory and
Circular Motion.
1.8 Basic Assumptions
For the purpose of this study, the following assumptions were made:
1. Computer Assisted Instruction is not used in teaching physics in the selected schools.
2. The study sample i.e NCE II students of different ability levels have been taught by
qualified physics teachers.
3. The concept under study have been taught using NCCE minimum standard syllabus.
4. The Colleges are homogenous in the area of provision of equipment, instructional
materials, staff qualification, motivation and students enrolment.

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