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This Study investigated Effects of Exposure of Mathematics-English-Concepts on the performance among SSII Students in Zaria Metropolis in Kaduna State”. The background of the Study was discussed, Statement of the Problem, the Objectives of the Study was also discussed, three research Questions were raised, the questions are: what is the difference between the mean scores of students who have been exposed to Mathematics-English-concepts and those who have not been exposed to. 2.Could Gender differences affect performance in MathematicsEnglish-concepts of students who have been exposed to. 3. What is the effect of school type on the Mathematical performance of students who have been exposed to Mathematics-English-concepts and those who have not been exposed to. The hypothesis postulated to be testing at 0.05 are:1. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students who have been exposed to MathematicsEnglish-concepts and those who have not been exposed to. 2. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female students who have been exposed to. 3. There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students from Public and Private schools who have been exposed to. Theoretical framework of the Study was discussed and related Literature were reviewed. The population of the Study is 5604 and sample selected is 280 students. Two instruments were developed and the reliability calculated to 0.85. t-test statistics were employed in analyzing the three hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance, one of the major findings was that those students that were exposed to Mathematics-English-concepts performed better than those who were not exposed to. Among the recommendation made by the researcher is that all Mathematics students should be made to take few courses in English Language.
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii Certification- – – – – – – – – – – iii Dedication- – – – – – – – – – – iv Acknowledgement- – – – – – – – – – v Abstract- – – – – – – – – – – vi Table of Content – – – – – – – – – vii List of Appendices- – – – – – – – – – viii
CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1.1 Background of the Study- – – – – – – – 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem- – – – – – – – 5 1.3 Objective of the Study- – – – – – – – 6 1.4 Research Questions- – – – – – – – – 7 1.5 Null Hypotheses- – – – – – – – – 7 1.6 Significance of the Study- – – – – – – – 8 1.7 Scope of the Study- – – – – – – – – 8
CHAPTER TWO: RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 9 2.2 Theoretical Framework of the Study- – – – – – – 9 2.3 English Language and Performance in Mathematics. – – – – 13 2.4 Concept of Mathematized Language- – – – – – 15 2.5 Mastering English Language in Learning Mathematics- – – – 18 2.6 Performance of Students in Mathematics- – – – – – 20 2.7 Problems of English Language in Teaching Mathematics –English-Concepts- 23 2.8 Gender and Mathematics-English-Concepts learning- – – – 27 2.9 Implications of Literature Review on the Present Study- – – 29
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 32 3.2 Research Design- – – – – – – – – 32 3.3 Population of the Study- – – – – – – – 33 3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure- – – – – – – 35 3.5 Instrumentation- – – – – – – – – 36 3.5.1 Mathematics Performance Test (MPT- – – – – – 36 3.5.2 Test of Language Skills in Mathematics-English-Concepts- – – – 36 3.6 Validity of Instruments- – – – – – – – 37 3.7 Reliability of Instruments- – – – – – – – 38 3.8 Pilot Testing- – – – – – – – – – 38 3.9 Administration of Instrument for Data Collection- – – – – 38 3.10 Data Analysis- – – – – – – – – – 38
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION.
4.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 41 4.2 Analysis and presentation of Result – – – – – – 41 4.3 Hypothesis Testing Null Hypothesis 1- – – – – – 42 4.4 Summary of the major findings – – – – — – 44 4.5 Discussion of Result — — – – – – – – 46
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – – 48 5.2 Summary- – – – – – – – – – 48 5.3 Major Findings- – – – – – – – — 49 5.4 Conclusions- – – – – – – – – – 5.5 Recommendations- – – – – – – – – 59 5.6 For further Studies
1.1 Background Mathematics has been defined in so many ways. Richard (2006) defined Mathematics as a subject that is concerned with numbers, space, and time. Mathematics has provided and continued to provide, the computational processes, structures for new scientific principles, new machines, calculators, computers, game strategies. Willoughby (2000) highlighted that the role mathematics plays today is significant in our daily Life. It was obvious that man‟s day to day activities such as buying and selling, social interaction, economic interdependence, political integrity, communication even domestic work like cooking, eating and many more require some mathematical precision. Harbor-Peter (2000) described mathematics as a culture that afforded man the opportunity to know and accessed things and objects within his immediate and remote surrounding. She went further to say that mathematics enabled man to be disciplined and order the pattern of his life. This was true because assessment of one required planning, setting objective, making decisions and taking better steps for a living. It has become clear that the command of the language brought much profit, and that the results of learning the language far more than justified the investment in time and energy and this has brought about the followings: 1. It enhanced easy access to communication in newspapers, periodicals and books, and the subsequent acquisition of knowledge and information. 2. It was recognized that the mastery of the English languages was indispensable for academic mobility, passing various examinations and earning commendations for „good mark‟ in respect of manuscripts, essays and memoranda. 3. For all higher examinations were conducted in the English language either in the European countries or on the continent of Africa itself. 4. The acquisition of the English language was also considered a weapon for social, political and economic emancipation. This was because those who had little exposure to the European language earned little in spite of their investment in time or energy on the field or in the farm. It had been recognized that a substantial achievement gap existed between language-minority students and native speakers of English (August and Hakuta, 1997). As concur by Briton et. al. (1975) that we used language to think and to learn, to communicate our thoughts besides using it as a tool for reflection as well as a tool for expression. In fact, whether alone or with others, we used oral language to think about and to make sense of what we were doing. Thus, Baroody (1993) suggests that by encouraging children to talk about their ideas is an excellent way for them to discover gaps, inconsistencies or lack of clarity in their thinking. Indeed, it was well documented that communicating mathematics promotes a deeper and more
lasting understanding of the subject. Thus, to improve English language and understanding mathematical concepts, we need to promote communicating mathematics. This means we need to encourage students to speak out and talk about mathematics. Students must be given the opportunity to discuss, to share and to explain mathematical concepts that they were learning. Student must be able to reflect on what they had learnt. They must be asked to present and to display their understanding in various way or forms, such as in writing works as well as orally to the whole class. By presenting their ideas or explaining to their peers, the students would not only understand the mathematical concepts better but this activity also helped to boost up the students confidence in mathematics. Bernado (2002), opined that language-minority students were less likely to be represented in mathematics-related majors in higher mathematics which affected their career opportunities and lifetime earnings. Mathematics achievement played a significant role in the academic and social stratification of man. Thus, English-language-learner (ELL) student’s mathematics achievement should be explored in light of new ways the English- Language- Learner (ELL) students could be guided to improve on the learning of English language. Under the standards-based reform movement in the late 1980’s the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM,1989) published curriculum and evaluation standard for school mathematics in (1989), specifying students‟ mastery of language for easy learning and retention of mathematics. (NCTM,1989) declared that a more problemsolving and higher order thinking-based curriculum should replace arithmetic and isolated facts-based traditional approach. The 2000 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards also conveyed the importance of mathematical literacy, especially students’ ability to communicate mathematically, so that they can read, write and discuss mathematics. While this curriculum movement was taking place, various states created new assessment programs that reflected the tenets of NCTM‟s new curriculum, which emphasize understanding concepts rather than algorithms, critical thinking, problem solving and communicating mathematically. Also National Council of Mathematics (1995) observed that the strength of Language Based Program Association of the State (LBPAS) lies in asking students to solve real-life problems by applying higher order and critical thinking skill based on conceptual understanding and they should be able to explain, in writing, how they solved the problems. The need for strong mathematical skills had never been greater. The No Child Left behind Act of 2002 required all states to assess students’ mathematics achievement every year from third grade to eight grades, (Olson, 2002). Under The No Child Left behind Act, EnglishLanguage-Learner students were lumped together into an accountability system that not only
failed to provide a level playing field, but that puts them at a severe disadvantage. Few suggestions were given as stated below. (1) According to NTCM’s standards, mathematics goes beyond that of algorithms and vote calculation; students were taught to reason mathematically and to communicate their reasoning (Madden et al, 1995). Krussel (1998) views languages as an essential part of the mathematics construct because language (English) is an indispensable tool in mathematics. It comes as surprise that English- Language- Learner (ELL) students were not successful at solving word problems loaded with difficult and unfamiliar vocabulary (Abedi and Loard, 2001. Solano-Flores and Trunbull, 2003). For English- Language- Learner (ELL) students who were just learning English, words such as least common denominator, ratio, or quotient had little meaning to them if not properly presented. In most cases, the concept was new and in addition, words might be used in ways that could be understood. The researcher from her fifteen years of teaching (Mathematics) experience found out that many teachers failed to explain the meanings of mathematical terms involved in the concept that would be taught. It was very necessary at the beginning of every chapter; the mathematical terms had to be explained in detailed that would bring the meaning into reality to students understanding. Oyetunde (2003) had clearly pointed out that it was already the concerned of educational administrators around the world to improve the quality of education generally (Mathematics inclusive) and how best to teach because there was a general dissatisfaction with the kind of teaching that goes on in the classrooms. Teaching for improved performance in mathematics as a subject of study in schools and colleges should be done in meaningful manner and this conformed to the widely acclaimed standard advocated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) where they emphasis acquisition of the skills of problem solving, reasoning, communication and connections among mathematics topics and other subjects (Herrera, 2001). Language is the expression or communication of thoughts and feelings by means of vocal sounds, and combination of such sounds, to which meaning is attributed to human speech (website’s dictionary 1999). Language awareness was very important, because one could develop their sense of writing skills through writing and reading. “Language is the highest and most amazing achievement of the symbolic human mind.” Susan (2001) In order to communicate properly, one must practice language skills, speaking, reading, and writing in that language for mastering. Then and only then would language skills began to flow wonderful, and become a natural part of the person‟s daily existence (Herrera, 2001). Understanding and application of mathematics were increasingly crucial to an individual‟s ability to function in society and succeed in the job market. Nevertheless,
students lacking proficiency in English often had been denied access to adequate mathematics education because educators believed that it was necessary to attempting to teach them more than basic computational skills (Korau, 1992). 1.2 Statement of the Problem Mathematics had been considered a necessary part of general education all over the world. It featured prominently in the school system from primary to secondary levels. In Nigeria, mathematics was a core subject for all pupils going through the education system. Unfortunately, the subject was hated by most students at the secondary school level (Korau, 1992) and for quite sometimes now; there had been public outcry and complaints over student‟s poor performances at general certificate examination/senior school certificate examinations (GCE/SSCE). Also there were several write ups that probably put the blame of students‟ poor performance on varieties or factors such as. i. Is instructional material consisting of textbooks, practice exercise and special devices not the cause of this poor performance? (Nkom, 1999) ii. Are the learners’ negative attitudes towards mathematics not the cause of this poor performance? iii. Are the teacher’s nonchalant attitudes and their boring teaching method not the cause of this poor performance? (Ibrahim 2008, Adetula 2009) iv. Most importantly, is lack of Mathematics-English-Concepts proficiency among the students and the teachers likewise not the cause of this poor performance?
There was a need to address the problem of language barriers as it affected students‟ performance. Therefore, the research felt it was necessary to conduct a study on Effect of Exposure to Mathematics-English-Concepts on mathematics performance of Senior Secondary Schools (II) students in Zaria, Kaduna State of Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study The major objective for this study was to investigate effect of exposure to MathematicsEnglish concepts on mathematics performance among SS II students who had been exposed to Mathematics-English concept and those who had not been exposed. Other objective was to: establish whether gender differences could affect performance in mathematics of students who had been exposed to Mathematics English concept and those who had not been so exposed.
1.4 Research Question The following research questions were formulated to guide the conduct of the study: i. What is the difference between the mean mathematical performance of students who had been exposed to Mathematics-English concepts and those who had not been so exposed ii. Could gender differences affect performance in mathematics of students who had been exposed to Mathematics-English concepts? 1.5 Null Hypotheses The following are the hypotheses formulated for testing at P≤0.05. HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean mathematical performance of students who had been exposed to Mathematics-English concepts and those who had not been exposed to. HO2: There is no significant difference between the mean mathematical performance of male students who had been exposed to Mathematics-English concept and female students who had been exposed to. HO3 There is no significant difference in the mean mathematics performance of students from morning and afternoon session in public schools whose have been exposed to Mathematics-English concept.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study was to determine the effect of exposure to Mathematics-English-Concepts on Performance of student in Mathematics. Therefore, this study was significant in the sense that:-
– This study unveil the role and effect of exposure to Mathematics-English-Concepts on performance of SS II students and henceforth discourage the use of local language in teaching Mathematics at this level of education.
-The research would also expose the teachers of Mathematics to some student‟s friendly attitudes and non-boring teaching methods.
-Since the medium of the instruction is English, mathematics cannot be taught without having a good working knowledge of the Mathematics-EnglishConcepts; therefore the research would go a long way in making the teacher improve their communication skills.
-The research would also be of benefit to other researchers who may want to borrow leave from this study when they go through.
1.7 Scope /delimitation of the Study. The research covered six (6) classes II of senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State of Nigeria. The basis for the selection of the schools and class was because of the fact that the SS III students were writing their examination as at the time of the study, while the time frame for the study would not permit any further delay. T-test was used to collect data.
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