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Download the complete Business administration and management project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE (A CASE OF PYRETHRUM BOARD OF KENYA) here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

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Download the complete Business administration and management project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE (A CASE OF PYRETHRUM BOARD OF KENYA) here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE (A CASE OF PYRETHRUM BOARD OF KENYA)

The Project File Details

  • Name: EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE (A CASE OF PYRETHRUM BOARD OF KENYA)
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [32459KB]
  • Length: [67] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

The main objective is to establish effects of occupational safety and health programs on
employee performance at Pyrethrum board of Kenya. The study objectives were; To identify
Occupational Health and Safety programs in place that affect employee performance, To identify
the kind of health and safety problems that employees go through because of the type of their
work, To examine the impact of low standards of occupational health safety programs on
productivity, To establish the measures undertaken by management of pyrethrum board of Kenya
to curb the effects of occupational health safety of employees. The study adopted employed a
descriptive research design to agree on the effects of occupational safety and health programs on
employee performance at pyrethrum board of Kenya. A sample of 132 employees was derived.
The determination of the sample was done using Cochran’s (1977) formulas. Questionnaires were
used as the main data collection instruments and a pilot study was conducted to pre-test
questionnaires for validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics data analysis method was applied
to analyze numerical data gathered using closed ended questions aided by Statistical Package for
Social Sciences (SPSS Version 17). Pearson correlation was carried out to establish the
relationship between the research variables. The findings were presented using both descriptive
and inferential statistics methods. The study found that presence of occupational healthy safety
department affected employee performance. The presence of first aid and fire extinguishers at
precise points in the company affects employee performance. Pyrethrum Company does not
organize workshop, seminar and lecturers on safety precaution and presence of a hazard
assessment data affects employee performance. The study further concludes that employees
involved in an accident at work place are compensated employee work place is safe, there is lack
of hazard assessment data due to system failure that causes accidents. There is lack of
equipment, material and clothing for occupational health safety. Finally, the study concludes that
those employees have a safe place of employment. Employees have a safe means of access to
work. Employees are not aware of compensation in case an accident occurs at the place of
work.Employees do not know their legal rights concerning occupational health. The study
recommends that employer should provide safe working environment since feeling safe at work
ranks as a very important factor in job satisfaction. Part of the employer’s social responsibilities
toward employees, of necessity, should encompass industrial workers being given opportunities
to participate in periodic workshops, seminars and lectures to sharpen their awareness on safety
precautions. Every workplace should demonstrate respect for the natural environment and
occupiers should work towards achieving the goals of no accidents, no harm to people and no
damage to the environment. Employers should take it as their responsibility to ensure the
working environment is safe.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract v
Table contents vi
List of tables viii
List of figures ix
Operational defination of terms x
CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study J
1.1.1. Employee performance 4
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3. Objectives of the study 5
1.3.1. Main objective 5
1.3.2. Specific Objectives 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Significance of the study 6
1.6 Scope of the study 7
1.7 Limitations of the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1. Introduction 8
2.2 Theoretical review 8
2.2.1 Economic Theory 8
2.2.2 Social cognitive theory 9
2.2.3 Self-Efficacy 10
2.2.4 Outcome Expectancies 10
2.3 Empirical review : 13
2.3.1 Organizations and Occupational Safety and Health Act.. .14
2.3.2 The Impact of occupational safety and health on organizations 16
2.3.3 Health and Safety at Work .16
vi
IlI=NVATT1\ IfM1VCDc:’!TV I HlOADV
2.3.4 Government Role 17
2.3.5 Building an Effective Health and Safety Management System .!7
2.4. Conceptual Framework 19
2.5. Summary and gaps to be filled 20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21
3.1. Introduction 21
3.2. Research Design 21
3.3. Target Population 21
3.3.1. Sample size 21
3.3.2. Sampling procedure 23
3.4. Data Collection Instruments 24
3.5. Data Collection Procedures 24
3.6. Validity of Data Collection Tools 24
3.7. Reliability of the Study 24
3.8. Data Analysis and presentation 24
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 26
4.1 Introduction 26
4.1.1 Response Rate 26
4.2 Demographic Information .27
4.3 Regression Analysis 34
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS 39
5.1 Introduction ~ 39
5.2 Summary of the Findings 39
5.3 Conclusion 41
5.4 Recommendation 42
5.5 Recommendation for further studies .43
REFERENCES ! ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• , 44
Appendix I: Introduction letter .49
Appendix 11:A Survey questionnaire 50
Appendix 1lJ: Determination of sample size for research activities 56

CHAPTER ONE

.1 Background to the Study
The right to safe and healthy working conditions has dramatically gained a lot of interest at the
global, regional and national levels. Countries around the world have recognized the universality,
inalienability, interdependency and indivisibility of the human right to safe and healthy working
conditions (Occupational Health and Safety Act, 2000). Occupational health and safety (OHS)
management protects the safety, health, and welfare of people at the workplace. In 1950, the first
session of the joint International Labor Organization (lLO) and the World Health Organization
(WHO) Committee on Occupational Health adopted a definition of occupational health. The
definition was subsequently revised in 1995 and states that “Occupational health should aim at
the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being
of workers in all occupations, prevent amongst workers from health disorders caused by their
working conditions and placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment
adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities” (Guidotti, 201 I).
Occupational health and safety has become a crosscutting disciplinary area concerned with
protecting the safety, health and welfare of peop,le engaged in work or employment. The human
resource managers today are faced with crucial issues of occupational health and safety than
before. The reason is that the workers, just like any other resources require maintenance and care
in order to maximize their productivity (Casio, 1996). It is against this background that health
and safety should not be viewed as a separate function or responsibility but as a broader initiative
that aims at improving productivity, profitability and competitiveness of a firm (Pike, 2000).
The EU sets basic legal requirements for OH&S legislation, but OH&S regulations are the
responsibility of each individual Member State. This means that within Europe OH&S
legislation differs. However, OH&S in the EU is characterized by cooperation between the
employer and the employee (through unions, work councils and worker representatives), and it is
recognized that a safe and healthy work environment has benefits for, both the employer and
employee (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2007a).
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In America, there is the Occupation Health and Safety Act 1970, which is supplemented by the
National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (Schuler & Huber, 1993). Moreover, there
is seriousness of health and safety at workplace illustrated by governments in most countries
making it a policy issue particularly in Africa. For example, in African countries, health risks and
safety programs in business and workplaces are not often measured. Therefore, it is important to
ensure employees are always free from any health and safety hazards because employees who
work in a good work environment are more productive (Schuler & Huber, 1993).
All occupational health and safety programs are geared towards fostering a safe working
environment. This area has dramatically developed a lot of interest in Kenya following the
enactment of the new Constitution of Kenya and the Occupational Health and Safety Act No.
154 that came into force on 26 October 2007. Occupational Health and Safety Act No. 154 saw
many workplaces, which had hitherto operated without institutional and individual capacity for
health and safety management having to develop the requisite mechanisms in order to improve
the safety of the working environment and escape liabilities (Odhiambo, 2011). The corpus of
law in Kenya dealing with occupational safety and health is contained in the international legal
instruments, which emphasize that everyone is entitled to the right to safe and healthy working
conditions.
Working conditions are the physical settings which employees are exposed to while carrying out
their duties. Most organizations are concerned with providing a safe and healthy working
environment for their employees. Safety and Health in this case encompasses security, protection
and well-being of workers, which is essential to their productivity. Not all situations affecting
employee Safety and Health can always be anticipated. Nevertheless, management has the
responsibility to implement, enforce, evaluate and review issues related to Safety and Health in
the organization, which is part of humanitarianism. International labor laws also require that
reasonable levels of Safety and Health be maintained in the work environment (Armstrong,
2006). Safety policies and programs are concerned with protecting employees and other people
from any dangers in relation to what the company produces or any activity that is part of the
company. Safety is the condition of being protected against failure, damage, error, accidents orharm.
In the modern industries, Safety and Health management concerns go beyond the physical
condition of the workplace. It is also concerned with employees mental and emotional well
2
being. Because of the importance of Safety and Health, employees at all levels III the
organization should be involved (Dessler, 2001).
The importance of Safety and Health should not be overlooked as it affects production, quality
and financial results in any organization, instead it should be managed in the same way as other
aspects of the organization. There is an increasing problem of mainstreaming acceptable Safety
and Health standards in the industry. Incidents of Safety and Health causes are rising every year
especially in industries; therefore management has a mandate of establishing strategies and
policies that protect employees from risks associated with their working environment. The
human resource department is expected to emphasize the safety of employees at the work place
and ensure that there is no interruption in production and quality due to lack of safety precautions
(Dessler, 2001).
In Kenya, the Work Injury Benefits Act 2007 covers compensation for all employees, for injuries
sustained at the workplaces. It is an improvement of the earlier Workman’s Compensation Act,
which only covered selected group of workers: those earning sh. 400,000 yearly. However,
employers are resisting implementation claiming it will increase labor costs (Nyakang’o, 2005).
The Ministry of Labor reports that more than half of the industrial accidents and injuries in
Kenya go unreported. It estimates that reported occupational fatalities and injuries for the years
2000 to 2004 were 1528, 1923, 1332, 1599, and 1387. This is viewed against the background
that factories and other work places have to be registered by the Department of Occupational
Health and Safety but, by the end of 2004, only 11,387 such enterprises were registered
excluding the 1.3 million micro and small enterprises (Nyakang’o, 2005).
The Pyrethrum Board of Kenya was established in 1934 to oversee all activities related to the
production and processing of pyrethrum for the benefit of growers and consumers. Therefore, it
has to adhere to the Factories Act (2007), which was meant to make provisions for health, safety
and welfare of persons employed in factories and other places of work, and for matters incidental
there to and connected therewith (Muchiri, 2000). However, a number of occupational infections
and injuries affecting staff lead to decreased employee productivity. As the duration of a,
person’s employment in an unpleasant environment increases, his/her fitness is compromised
leading to reduced performance. Some of the tasks being done manually should be carried out
mechanically. Most areas of work in the industry are dark, dusty, hot and noisy. There are high
3
levels of absenteeism and ill health due to lack of sound occupational health safety (OHS)
programs leading to increased loss of working time (Muchiri, 2000). Therefore, it is important to
evaluate the effectiveness of Safety and Health programs in the industry on determine their
effects on employee and their performance.
1.1.1. Employee performance
Employee performance is higher when they are physically and emotionally able to work and
have a desire to work. Higher levels of employee performance lead to higher levels of
productivity, which in turn can lead to higher profits. Greater gains may be experienced through
the direct influence of positive worker health on individual or group productivity, improved
quality of goods and services, greater creativity and innovation, enhanced resilience and
increased intelligent capacity (Riedel et aI., 2001, P 167). However, increased occupational
injuries and infections have led to accident, illness, time lost, absenteeism, and turnover rates,
meaning that compensation costs led to the decrease in productivity of the employee and the
organization, Riedel et al( 2001, p 167).
Workplace injuries can force employees to miss shifts, or slow down their performance because
they are not physically capable of maintaining their typical pace. Long-term unsafe work
conditions cause long-term consequences such as repetitive stress injuries or respiratory ailments
from breathing unsafe particles without proper protection. These conditions interfere with an
employee’s ability to perform a job for long term, increasing turnover and forcing your company
to waste valuable time training replacements. Health and safety prevention and intervention
programmes playa critical role on employee’s performance as these types of programmes can
improve the physical. and psychological well-being of the workforce, which in turn reduces
absenteeism and presenteeism. Such programmes improve the organizational climate, which
enhances employees’ desire to work and directly raises human performance. Improved
organizational climate, morale, and employment relationships as well as higher profits have the
potential to reduce the health and safety risks (Oxenburgh, et ai, 2004).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
From the foregoing background studies, most companies have failed to implement the Work-man
Compensation Act that would ensure compensation of all injuries. Their excuse to failure of
implementation is that it would increase labor costs (Nyakang’o, 2005). The International Labor
4
Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) require that occupational health
should aim at the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and
social well-being of workers in all occupations. However, most companies have failed to comply
with the requirement claiming that it is costly for them to develop and maintain a good
Occupational Health and Safety System (WHO, 1995).
The management of the Pyrethrum Board of Kenya in Nakuru has neglected the safety and
health of their workers who work with defective and machines that rarely undergo maintenance.
Such demeaning conditions and defective machineries have resulted in high accidents within the
company, as workers are concentrated on company’s performance. They have failed to provide
protective clothing and devices that could protect them from the dust, and other harmful
emission during the processing of the pyrethrum. They have failed to provide adequate training
and educational programs that could provide awareness to employees on the hazards they are
prone to and how to avoid their side effects (Nyakang’o, 2005). This negligence on employees’
occupational safety and health status has led to increased occupational health and safety risks,
leading to illness, absenteeism and worker compensation thus affecting their performance and
that of the organization at large. Therefore, the study sought to investigate the effectiveness of
Safety and Health programs in the industry and determine their effects on employee and their
performance.
1.3. Objectives of the study
1.3.1. Main objective
The main objective was to establish effects of occupational safety and health programs on
employee performance at Pyrethrum board of Kenya.
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
I. To identify Occupational Health and Safety programs 111 place that affect
employee performance
II. To identify the kind of health and safety problems that employees go through
because of the type of their work
5
Ill. To examine the impact of low standards of occupational health safety programs
on productivity
IV. To establish the measures undertaken by management of pyrethrum board of
Kenya to curb the effects of occupational health safety of employees
1.4 Research Questions
I. What kind of occupational health & safety programs affecting employees’ performance?
II. What kind of health and safety problems encountered by employees at their place of work
111. What impact do low standards of occupational health safety have on productivity?
IV. How does the attitude of the management affect the occupational health and safety of
employees?
1.5 Significance of the study
The study explored the effects of occupational safety and health programs on employee
performance. This could act as an assessment on the employee performance in relation to the
effects of occupational safety and health programs and the results could be adopted by the
company in crafting strategies to cushion themselves from employee performance decline.
This study could be of great significance to policy makers in the organizations in that by
establishing the relationship between the occupational safety and health programs and employee
performance. Organizations could assess the performance of one using the other and in planning
for improving employee performance.
The study will enable Government and other employers who have the legal responsibilities to
provide safe workplace and systems of work, to consult with employees and to keep them
informed about health and safety matters.
The study would also suggest to employers to adopt Occupational Health Safety Management
System that would systematically eliminate the possibility of accident, illness, injury or fatality
in the workplace by ensuring that the hazards in the workplace are eliminated or controlled so far
as is reasonably practicable in a systematic manner, rather than waiting for a crisis to occur. The
6
study will benefit future researchers and writers about occupational healthy safety management
systems in various organizations by providing strong, further points of reference.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study was confined to Pyrethrum factory Nakuru that has 200 employees. The study
focused on sampled workers in the factory. The study focused on identifying the kind of health
problems that employees go through because of the type of their work, examine the impact of
low standards of occupational health safety on productivity and assess the attitude of
management towards the occupational health safety of employees.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Owing to the limitations of time and financial constraints problems, the study undertook a case
study of Pyrethrum Board of Kenya.
There are many companies, organization and government institutions such as Tea factory,
mining companies, hospitals, schools just to mention but a few, which have experienced
industrial unrest due to poor occupational safety and health programs in place, which in turn
affect the performance of employees. However, the study has selected the Pyrethrum Board of
Kenya and the findings and recommendation will not apply universally to all companies but it
will apply to Pyrethrum Board of Kenya.
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