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  • Name: EFFECTS OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SWEET POTATO AND SORGHUM
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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  • Length: [79] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated “the effects of processing methods on the physico-chemical properties of sweet potato and sorghum flour”. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an important food crop in the tropical and sub-tropical countries and belongs to the family convolvulaceae. Sweet potatoes are rich in dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and anti oxidants such as phenolic acids, anthocyannins, tocopherol and β-carotene. The proximate composition of sweet potato was determined and these include moisture, lipids, ash, protein, carbohydrates and fiber. In carrying out the analysis practically, methods used vary according to the food material. The anti oxidants were also determined alongside with phenol oxidase, pasting properties, minerals and sugar contents. Sorghum is a tropical plant belonging to the family of poaceae. More than 35% of sorghum is grown for human consumption. The analyses carried out in sweet potatoes are same with sorghum with the exclusion of phenol oxidase.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE

 

CERTIFICATION

 

DEDICATION

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

ABSTRACT

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

 

  • ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OF SWEET POTATO

 

  • DESCRIPTION OF SWEET POTATO PLANT

 

  • USES OF SWEET POTATO

 

  • NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SWEET POTATO

 

  • ANTI- NUTRITIONAL FACTORS

 

  • NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SWEET POTATO

 

  • POLYPHENOLS COMPOSITION

 

2.1.5.2.  ANTI-OXIDATIVE, ANTI-MUTAGENICITY AND ANTI-

 

CARCINOGENICITY

 

  • ANTI-DIABETES

 

 

 

 

  • ANTI-NUTRIENTS IN SWEET POTATO

 

  • ENZYME COMPOSITION OF SWEET POTATO

 

  • ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OF SORGHUM PLANT

 

  • DISTRIBUTION OF SORGHUM PLANT

 

  • USES OF SORGHUM

 

  • ENZYME COMPOSITION OF SORGHUM

 

  • NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF SORGHUM

 

  • ANTI-NUTRIENTS IN SORGHUM

 

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

  • MATERIALS

 

  • METHODOLOGY

 

  • PROCESSING OF SWEET POTATO TUBER

 

  • PROCESSING OF SORGHUM GRAIN

 

  • SWEET POTATO AND SORGHUM ANALYSIS

 

3.3.1.  PROXIMATE ANALYSIS

 

  • DETERMINATION OF FAT CONTENT

 

  • DETERMINATION OF ASH CONTENT

 

  • DETERMINATION OF CRUDE FIBRE

 

  • DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT

 

  • DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN

 

  • DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATES

 

  • ANTI-NUTRIENTS AND PHYTOCHEMICALS

 

  • DETERMINATION OF TANNINS

 

  • DETERMINATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID

 

  • DETERMINATION OF ANTHOCYANNINS

 

  • DETERMINATION OF PHYTATE/PHYTIC ACID

 

  • DETERMINATION OF MINERAL CONTENT

 

  • MAGNESIUM

 

  • IRON

 

  • ZINC

 

  • PHOSPHOROUS

 

  • POTASSIUM

 

  • DETERMINATION OF PASTING PROPERTIES

 

  • DETERMINATION OF PHENOL OXIDASE

 

  • DETERMINATION OF REDUCING SUGARS; FRUCTOSE, GLUCOSE AND SUCROSE

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

  • TABLE 1: PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF THE SAMPLES AND DISCUSSION

 

  • TABLE 2: MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SAMPLES AND DISCUSSION

 

  • TABLE 3: PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SAMPLES AND DISCUSSION

 

  • TABLE 4: PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF

 

SAMPLES AND DISCUSSION

 

  • TABLE 5: SUGAR COMPOSITION OF THE SAMPLES AND DISCUSSION

 

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION

 

REFERENCES

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an important food crop in the tropical and sub tropical countries and belongs to the family convolvulaceae. It is cultivated in more than 100 countries. ( Woolfe, 1992). Nigeria is the third largest producer in the world with china leading, followed by Uganda. Sweet potato ranks seventh among the world food crops, third in value of production and fifth in caloric contribution to human diet (Bouwkamp, 1985). Sweet potatoes are rich in dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins and anti oxidants such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, tocopherol and ß- carotene. Besides acting as anti oxidants, carotenoids and phenolic compounds also provide sweet potatoes with their distinctive flesh colours ( cream, deep yellow, orange and purple). Sweet potato blends with rice, cowpea and plantain in nigerian diets. It is also becoming popular as a substitute to yam and garri. It can be reconstituted into fofoo or blended with other carbohydrate flour sources such as wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and cassava ( Manihot esculenta) for baking bread, biscuits and other confectioneries (Woolfe, 1992).

 

The leaves are rich in protein and the orange flesh varieties contain high beta carotene and are very important in combating vitamin A deficiency especially in children.

 

Sorghum (sorghum bicolor (S. bicolor) is a tropical plant belonging to the family of poaceae, is one of the most important crops in Africa, Asia and Latin America. More than 35% of sorghum is grown directly for human consumption. The rest is used primarily for animal feed, alcohol production and industrial products ( FAO, 1995). The current annual production of 60 million tons is increasing due to the introduction of improved varieties and breeding conditions. Several improved sorghum varieties adapted to semi-arid tropic environments are released every year by sorghum breeders. Selection of varieties meeting specific local food and industrial requirements from this great biodiversity is of high importance for food security. In developing countries in general and particularly in West Africa demand for sorghum is increasing. This is due to not only the growing population but also to the countries policy to enhance its processing and industrial utilization

More than 7000 sorghum varieties have been identified, therefore there is a need of their further characterization to the molecular level with respect to food quality. The acquisition of good quality grain is fundamental to produce acceptable food products from sorghum. Sorghum while playing a crucial role in food security in Africa, it is also a source of income of household . In West Africa, ungerminated sorghum grains are generally used for the preparation of “to”, porridge and couscous. Malted sorghum is used in the process of local beer “dolo” (reddish, cloudy or opaque), infant porridge and non fermented beverages. Sorghum grains like all cereals are comprised primarily of starch.

 

The aim and objective of this work is to obtain diet low in sugars, with enriched nutrients intended for diabetics.

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