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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Before the “Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)” can be clearly
defined, one must have a better understanding of the situation into which it
was introduced. At the conclusion of a Debate/Symposium on “Devaluation”
held in 1982 at the Institute of International Affairs, the consensus emerged
that the economic problem of Nigeria was structural.
The intention of SAP is to adjust the structure of the Nigerian economy,
but what is the structure of the economy and why does it need adjustment?
The relevant dictionary meaning of the word “structure” is “the arrangement
or interrelation of all part of a whole”.
At the summary of overall economic level which the economist call “The
macro level”, the structure f the economy is its composition as seen through
the shares or proportion of the various component parts or economic
aggregated, in the total sum of goods and services produced in a period
usually a year.
Therefore, the structure of the economy is shown by the shares of the
various economic sectors in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Just like any other theory, accountants have discovered that they need to
make certain assumption before they can prepare financial statements. These
assumptions, which underline the preparation of financial statements, are
also known as principles, postulates, conventions, concepts, and standards
etc. The originate from such concepts as entity, going-concern, periodicity
realisation, matching, consistency and historical cost concept.
They have been described as the basic points of agreement upon which
the preparation of financial statement are based. They act as filters in the
process of preparing financial statement and therefore assist immensely in
selecting data to be processed and also indicating the processing method and
thereby affecting the final result.
Accounting Principles are usually rules and conventions, which have
been adopted as a general guide to action by the accountancy profession.
These principles are formulated in such a way that the practical details of
accounting may differ greatly from one company to another. To ensure
acceptance, an accounting principle must be useful in coping with a practical
recording problem, it must be reasonably objective, that is, provide a similar
answer in the hands of qualified practitioners, and it must be feasible, that is,
it should not be expensive to apply.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
This research work tends to give an appraisal on the effect of the SAP on
accounting principle. Exchange rate devaluation was considered a setback in the
progress of the SAP. Therefore the under listed problem was discovered:
i. Over emphasis on the restoration of balance of payment
ii. Undermine the economy and limit its role for socio-economic intervention
through a fixation on deregulation, privatisation and instability of the
economy in the name of “free market”
iii. Exacerbate the disparities between rich the poor by facilitating income
concentration by the wealthy and the exclusion of the poor from decisions
and control over resources.
iv. Lack of transparency, accountability and public participation in their design
v. Make many necessities inaccessible to local people as currency devaluations
drastically reduce buying power in local wages.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aims to find out the objectives which include;
i. To find out how adopting a more just and equitable approach to resolving
the debt crisis can restore the balance of payment
ii. To find out how to increase the role of socio-economic intervention through
governmental control and stabilize the economy by eliminating free market
trade through inflationary measures like naira devaluation.
iii. To determine what causes inequality in the distribution of income between
the classes of individuals and why the poor are excluded from resources
control and decisions.
iv. To find out why there is lack of transparency and accountability in SAP
designs and implementations.
v. To evaluate on the inaccessible necessities of the rural migrants caused by
currency devaluation which decreases the naira value?
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This research attempts to find answers to some nudging questions about the
Structural Adjustment Programme on Accounting Principles. This is with
the view at highlighting some silent reasons responsible for the ineffective
and failing performance of SAP.
Some of the questions to which we seek answers without any form of
i. Has the Structural Adjustment Programme in commercial sectors
improved accounting performance?
ii. How does the Structural Adjustment Programme in accounting
department of your company affect the profitability of financial
iii. Is there any significant relationship between Structural Adjustment
Programme and Second tier Foreign Exchange Market?
iv. What are the peculiar problems faced by commercial sectors in
implementing the schemes derived from its structural adjustment?
v. Does the Structural Adjustment Programme reduce the hardship of the
vi. What are the causes of lack of transparency, accountability and public
participation in SAP designs and implementations?
1.5 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
Hypothesis is a proposition specifying some form of relationship between
variables, it is merely and evidence for supporting or rejecting one‟s
preconceived ideas or view. Hypothesis are of two types (H1) which is the
alternative hypothesis and it the proposition the researcher which to confirm
from the data. It is always expressed in positive term. The other type (Ho)
which is the null hypothesis and it is the logical converse of the alternate
hypothesis. It is the negation of the alternate hypothesis; the following
hypotheses are formulated as guided to this research studies. However, there are
three hypotheses in this research work.
HO: There is no significant effect of the Structural Adjustment Programme in
the commercial sector on accounting performance.
H1: There is a significant effect of the Structural Adjustment Programme in
the commercial sector on accounting performance.
(1) HO: There is no alignment between structurally Adjustment Programme
and Second tier Foreign Exchange Market.
H1: There is an alignment between structurally Adjustment Programme
and Second tier Foreign Exchange Market.
(2) HO: The Structural Adjustment Programme decrease the challenges and
calls for professionalism in management
H1: The Structural Adjustment Programme increases the challenges and calls
for professionalism in management.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Structural adjustment Programmes (SAPs) in this study are meant primarily for
accountants and the economic policies for developing countries that have
promoted by the World Bank and IMF since the early 1980s by the provision of
loans conditional on the adoption of such policies. The research study is also
significant to the government by removing “excess” government control and
promoting market competition as part of the neo-liberal agenda followed by the
Bank and, the Enhance Structural Adjustment facility which is an IMF
financing mechanism that aid the support of the macroeconomic policies and
SAPs in low-income countries through loans or low interest subsidies.
SAP policies reflect the neo-liberal ideology that drives globalisation.
The aim to achieve long term accelerated economic growth in poorer countries
by restructuring the economy and reducing government intervention. This is
done by privatising state owned industries, including health sector and opening
up their economies to foreign competition.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study revolves around the effect of Structural Adjustment Programme on
accounting principles, with the Central Bank of Nigeria Abuja, as the case
study. It focuses on the need of the economy to adopt these certain adjustment
programmes to restructure and make policies and schemes that will improve the
economy. The appraisal of the Structural Adjustment scheme is principally
hinged on the problems and challenges , facilities, legal framework, personnel,
the scheme compliance and corruption.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The limitation involved in the course of this research included hostility and non
co-operation on the part of some of the respondents. The level of ignorance on
economic reformation and illiteracy was very high. Some SAPs officials refused
answering the question they felt would indict them. Also the financial
implication was very high and imposed certain restrictions.
The constraint of time was also a limiting factor as all the areas of interest
were not covered as they would have been adequate.
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