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This research work investigated “Employer employees perception on incentives and reward system in West African Examination Council, Ibadan”. The study examined the inducement of incentives in boosting the productivity of staff for the organization to become more important as well as identifying the nature, purpose, significance, justification and limitation of the study. The study revealed relevant textbooks and journals on the Employer Employees Perception on Incentives and Reward System to unfold gaps in literatures. Primary and Secondary data collection was the two methods used to generate necessary information for the establishment. The sample size considered for this study is 203 respondents out of which 186 respondents participated. Simple percentage analytical tools was adopted for analyzing the primary data, chi-square statistical tool was used for testing hypotheses of the study while the secondary means of data used were finished work of renowned authors, publications, textbooks and internet. The study reveals that the establishment provides adequate reward system for the staff. 85% of respondents opined that adequate incentive benefits were well disseminated. 90% of the respondents agreed that promotion as at when due increases workers performance. 60% of the respondents affirm that trainings and development will have positive influence on workers. These and many other factors as adopted by the establishment have been responsible for good performance recorded among staff. Conclusively, the study recommends that the establishment should put more efforts to sustain this satisfactory record of performance.
Title Page i
Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the study 3
1.4 Significance of the study 3
1.5 Scope of the study 4
1.6 Statement of hypotheses 4
1.7 Limitations of the study 5
1.8 Definitions of operational terms 5
1.9 Historical Background of the Organization 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Definition of Organization 8
2.1.1 Formal Organization 8
2.1.2 Informal Organization 10
2.2 Bureaucratic Organization 10
2.2.1 Criticisms of the Classical Bureaucratic Model 11
2.3 Levels of Organization 12
2.3.1 Logical Steps in Forming an Organization 13
2.3.2 Principles of Organization 15
2.4 Types of Organization Structure 15
2.4.1 Line Organization 16
2.4.2 Staff Organization 16
2.4.3 Functional Organization 17
2.4.4 Committee Organization 18
2.5 Types of Committee 18
2.6 Authority and Responsibility 19
2.6.1 Kinds of Authority 20
2.7 Delegation 21
2.7.1 Reasons for Delegation 22
2.8 Motivation 23
2.8.1 The Concept of Motivation and Job Satisfaction 25
2.9 Variable Pay: Incentives for Performance 26
2.9.1 Types of Variable Pay 27
2.9.2 Successes and Failure of Variable Pay Plans 28
2.9.3 Factors Affecting Successful Variable Pay Plans 28
2.10 Concept of Incentive 31
2.10.1 Organizational Incentives 32
2.11 Incentives and Types 33
2.12 Bonuses and Types 37
2.13 Gain Sharing 40
2.14 The Early Theories of Motivation and Job Satisfaction 41
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Research Design 45
3.3 Study Population 46
3.4 Sampling Techniques 46
3.5 Sample Size 46
3.6 Research Instrument 47
3.7 The Questionnaire 47
3.8 Validity and Reliability 48
3.9 Administration of Instrument/Collection of Data 48
3.10 Method of Data Analysis 49
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 50
4.2 Demographic Data 50
4.3 Figures and Illustrations on Respondents Responses on Variables 67
4.4 Test of Hypotheses 70
4.5 Discussion of the findings 74
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings 76
5.2 Conclusion 77
5.3 Recommendations 79
5.4 Proposal for further studies 80
1.1 Background of the Study
An Organization exists where two or more people agree to get together and co-ordinate their activities so as to achieve common goals. Organization theories developed from the early part of the 20th century and seek to understand, explain and attempt to predict human behavior in organizations.
The Organization structure is the basic framework within which the executive’s decision making behavior occurs. The quality and nature of the decisions made are influenced by the nature of the structure. Organization, as an element of management, is concerned with the grouping of activities in such a manner that enterprise objectives are attained, the assignment of these activities to appropriate departments and the provision for authority, delegation and co-ordination. In order to accomplish any goal, activities must be grouped logically and authority should be granted so that conflicts do not occur.
Motivation as relating to an organization meeting its mission/goal is very important to both the organization and to employees, from the employers’ point of view, it is anticipated that a good staff employee motivation scheme will induce the employees to work hard and improve their general attitude towards the organization. But for the employee, these benefits represent some additional right such as extra income, additional security, or more designed working conditions that should not require any additional effort.
Hence, employers of labour have seen motivation as the ability to invoke commitment and cooperation of the subordinates to contribute more to the achievement of the organizational goals
and aspiration. This discovery has led many employers of labor to the introduction of well packaged welfare services with the sincere belief that it enables a good staff to work hard and improve the general staff morale.
The situation remains relatively the same in both private and public enterprises in Nigeria but there are difference in methods of payment and apparent change in emphasis. However, the productivity of public servants in Nigeria, little or nothing is known about the extent to which non-financial motivation could also be utilized in achieving the same purpose with their counter part in the private settings. Because staff/workers are directly influenced by nature, quality and quantity of welfare services offered because they compare themselves with their counterparts in other organizations.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Often workers or employees are attracted to certain organization not only because of the pay packets that are stated in advert, but also because of the benefits attached to them. This dissatisfaction expressed by staff/worker either on the provision or administration to workers motivation programme becomes some serious problem which demands proper investigation and examination.
Moreover, inadequate provision of staff/employee motivation scheme that will have induced the employee to productivity has been the bane of poor performance in most public organization.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study objectives tend to;
i) Discuss the concept of administration, human capital, employee motivation and productivity.
ii) Determine the criteria used in the choice of motivation that will enhance high performance.
iii) Examine the relationship between employees’ motivation, development and staff performance.
iv) Investigate the organizational effectiveness and productivity in the West African Examination Council, Ibadan and to;
Recommend further or appropriate use of employers’ motivation scheme for high productivity in the establishment.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The administration of organizational incentives and reward system has far reaching effects on organizational behavior and performance.
For instance, both financial and non-financial incentives have significant influence on organizational productivity which includes reduction in labour turnover and retention, employee’s job commitment, job satisfaction, compliance, harmonious labour management relations.
Most scholars among which are lei et al 1999, lepak and snell, 1999, Garvin 1993, yahya and Goh 2002, Akintayo 2010. These scholars submitted that organizational incentives and reward system has much impact on staff productivity.
1.5 Scope of the Study
Management is viewed as a system and therefore management understanding of organizational behavior is vital to productivity. This study therefore is to draw the attention of management to the fact that human resources are as important as any other resources and therefore be accorded equal attention, particularly needed for staff motivation for productivity.
The study focused on administration of organizational incentives and reward system in WAEC, Ibadan, Oyo State. The study dwells extensively on staff motivation and its impact on productivity. Efforts will be made on this study to investigate both financial and non-financial reward system in the establishment and its impact on staff performance
1.6 Statement of Hypotheses
Ho: workers performance is not directly influenced by any external motives and motivational tools.
H1: workers performance is influenced by external motives and motivational tools.
Ho: incentives and reward system provided by the management is inadequate and has positive influence on staff performance.
H1: incentives and reward system provided by the management is adequate and has positive influence on staff performance.
Ho: administration of organizational incentives and reward system is hindered by inadequate fund.
H1: administration of organizational incentives and reward system is not hindered by inadequate fund.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
A study of this nature cannot be complete without encountering some constraints or limitation, and this limitations range from time, finance and unavailable data.
The researcher is faced with the limited time given, and financial constraint.
Meanwhile, the management of the organizations under study initially refused to release some vital data that are necessary for this study; however, in view of all these limitations, the study was accomplished.
1.8 Definition of Operational Terms
For the purpose of this research work the following key words are defined as follows:
Staff: This can be described as workers employed in an organization considered as a group.
Worker: Employed and paid to do physical work or rather organizing things or managing people.
Employer: A body or company that pays people to work for them.
Organization: connotes social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals.
Management: is principally the scientific way of planning, controlling, coordinating and directing the organization human and material resources with the aim of achieving organizational goals and objectives.
Impact: is powerful effect of something.
Resources: a stock or supply of money, materials, staff and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively.
Influence: the capacity to have an effect on the character, development and behavior of someone or something.
Benefits: extra advantage gotten for performance.
Productivity: The rate at which a worker produces and the amount produced compared with how much time, work, and money is needed to produce them.
Performance: is the outcome of an action concerning a given task.
Motivation: It concerns the factors that cause channel and sustain an individual’s behavior. Essentially, motivation has its roots in motives within a person which induce him to behave in a particular manner.
Administration: Basically, administration involves principles and practice of governance, is essential concerns compliance with the organizational rules, regulations and policies generally in order to ensure the achievement of the corporate objectives or aims.
However, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (7th Edition) defines administration as the activities that are done in order to plan, organize and run a business, schools or other institutions.
1.9 Historical Background of the Organization
The West African Examination Council (WAEC) is a not-for-profit examination board formed out of the concern for education in Africa. Established in 1952, the council has contributed to education in some countries of West Africa (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and the Gambia) The WAEC zonal office here in Ibadan started its operation in Molete as an outlet, before it was moved to Adamasingba in the late 70’s where Oyo State gives them their present site which is located at 1/3 Akintoye Adesina way, Ijokodo, Ibadan, Oyo State. And was established in the year 1982.
The legislative assemblies of Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone and the Gambia passed an ordinate (West African Examination Council Ordinance No. 40) approving the West African Examination Council in December 1951. The ordinance agreed to the coordination of Examinations and issuing of certificate to students in individual countries by the West African Examination Council. Liberia later issued their ordinance in 1974, at the annual meeting held in Lagos, Nigeria.
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