Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

ANYASORO, JOSEPH I.J.

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH WORKERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION COMPONENTS IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [568 KB]
  • Length: [168] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This study set out to investigate the perception of environmental health workers on the implementation of components of environmental sanitation in Anambra State. The investigation was carried out using questionnaire survey research design. In line with the objectives of the study, eight research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated based on the selected eight components of environmental sanitation. The target population consisted of one hundred and eighty two environmental health workers in the employment of Anambra State Government. The entire one hundred and eighty-two environmental health workers were used as the sample for the study. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Validity was ensured through critical examination by experts in Public Health. Reliability was established using test re-test method and correlation coefficient of 0.86 was attained. The means of the weighted scores of the questionnaire items of the selected eight components of environmental sanitation were used to answer the research questions. Decision rule was that any questionnaire item whose mean and grand mean respectively were below 2.50 indicated improper implementation, while any questionnaire item whose mean and grand mean were 2.50 and above indicated proper implementation. The t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The following were the major findings: Sanitary inspection of premises as well as solid waste management among others were not properly implemented as the mean of each item and grand mean of each of the components fell below 2.50. There was also no significant difference in the mean weighted scores of the male and female, urban and rural environmental health workers. The researcher inferred that the components have not been properly implemented in Anambra State. Necessary conclusions and recommendations were therefore made.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY PAGES
Title page i
Approval page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v-vi
Abstract vii
Table of contents viii-x
List of tables xi-xiv
List of appendices xii-xvii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1-5
Statement of the problem 5-6
Purpose of the study 6-7
Significance of the study 7-9
Scope of the study 9-10
Research questions 10-11
Hypotheses 11
x
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Meaning and concept of environmental sanitation 12-15
Components of environmental sanitation 15-27
Aims and objectives of components of environmental sanitation 27-32
Targets of the national policy on environmental sanitation 32-33
Activities that negate environmental sanitation 34-35
Hazards associated with poor environmental sanitation 35-42
Activities that promote environmental sanitation 42-43
Features depicting environmental sanitation consciousness 43
Environmental education and environmental sanitation 43-45
Theoretical framework on environmental sanitation 45-49
Empirical studies on environmental sanitation 49-52
Summary of reviewed literature 52-54

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
Research design 55
Area of the study 56-57
Population of the study 57
Sample and sampling technique 58
Instrument for data collection 58
xi
Validation of the instrument 58-59
Reliability of the instrument 59
Method of administration of the instrument and
Method of data collection 59
Method of data analysis 59-60

CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 61-86
Summary of major findings 87

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 88-97
Implications of the study 98-99
Limitations of the study 99-100
Suggestions for further research 100
References 101-106

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Anambra State as part of Nigeria adopted environmental
sanitation to promote human and environmental health (Federal
Ministry of Environment, 2005). However, the state of the
environment of Anambra State speaks poorly about the objectives
of environmental sanitation being achieved (Anyaeji, 2005).
Anyaeji (2005) observed that environmental sanitation in Anambra
State is generally poor. Kriesel (1990) observed that people are
producing health nuisances more than they are abating them. In
the words of Eke (1983) the environment of Anambra State
continues to degenerate, deteriorate and degrade.
Environmental sanitation, according to Ogbalu (1997), is a
process of taming the environment so that it no longer constitutes
a hazard to man. The components of environmental sanitation are
Solid waste management, Medical waste management, Food
sanitation, Sanitary inspection of premises, Market and abattoir
sanitation, Adequate potable water supply, School sanitation, Pest
and vector control, Management of urban drainage, Control of
reared and stray animals, Disposal of the dead, Weed and
vegetation control, Hygiene education and promotion (F.M.E.
2005). Jamison (1993) stated that the components of
environmental sanitation are part of wellness approach to life.
Sridhar (1999) asserted that the practice of environmental
sanitation had tremendously improved public health status of most
countries of the world.

2 Various opinions have been expressed on the need to
practice environmental sanitation to ensure a sustainable
environment (F.M.E.,2005) . This is because according to Davis
(1969) and Ogbalu (1997) whatever happens to the environment
affects those within it. F.M.E (2005) asserted that the alarming
rate at which heaps of solid wastes occupy most of Nigerian cities
constituted visual blight, odour nuisance and provided favourable
breeding grounds for vectors of many diseases. Obionu (1987)
noted that due to inadequate sanitary inspection of premises,
many health hazards are not detected and abated. The World
Health Organisation (WHO 1993) is also concerned about poor
sanitation in member countries. In a resolution by the regional
committee for Africa during the forty-third session, stated in its document AFR (RC43) RS of 7th September, 1993, that: It is
expedient to affirm that proper sanitation and sound waste
management are crucial in the promotion and protection of human
health and the environment, both of which are necessary for
sustainable development.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID,
1999) informed that deficiencies in pest and vector control, food
sanitation, school sanitation, market and abattoir sanitation,
adequate potable water supply and sewage management
contribute significantly to the continuing high rate of sanitation
related diseases. WHO (1997) noted that there is a relationship
between improper implementation of components of
environmental sanitation and sanitation related diseases. Udoh
(1981) in a study conducted in South West of Nigeria using
research survey method on the provision of healthful living

3 environment in elementary schools found out that most schools
lacked basic sanitation facilities.
The historical perspective of efforts to improve
environmental sanitation in Nigeria was given by the Federal
Ministry of Environment in 2005. It stated that culturally, certain
norms guided the maintenance of adequate sanitation in the
communities. For instance, women and children, particularly the
girls sweep the homes/surroundings and empty refuse bins. There
are also cultural festivals that emphasize cleanliness in various
communities and many such festivals still persist today. During the
pre-independence era (1900-1960) adequate sanitation was
maintained by enforcement of Public Health Laws through routine
house to house inspection, while in the immediate post
independence era (1961-1980) legislation and authority on
environmental sanitation were derived from the Nigeria
Constitution as stated in the concurrent, executive and residual
lists. In the current dispensation (1981 to date), all tiers of
government have developed legislative/regulatory instrument to
further address the issue of sanitation. Also at various times, there
was creation of several state and Local Government Agencies
responsible for sanitation and lately, the creation of the Federal
Ministry of Environment in 1999.
Despite all these efforts Sridhar (1999) observed that
environmental sanitation in Nigeria is generally poor. According to
the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surrey (NDHS, 2003)
infant mortality and child mortality have remained high at one
hundred (100) and two hundred and one (201) per thousand
(1000) live births respectively mainly due to diseases such as

4 malaria, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections. In addition,
about 50% of Nigerians suffer at least one acute episode of
malaria every year with grave socio-economic implications in terms
of productivity and cost of medications.
The launching of the National Policy on Environmental
Sanitation was aimed at improving public health and welfare,
improve quality of life and to ensure a sustainable environment
(F.M.E. 2005). Anyaeji (2005) observed that these objectives are
not being achieved. The study of perception of environmental
health workers on the implementation of components of
environmental sanitation in Anambra State of Nigeria seeks to find
out the true situation of environmental sanitation in Anambra State
since the proper implementation of the components would be
justified by the state of the environment. The researcher believed
that the environmental health workers’ perception of the
implementation of components of environmental sanitation in
Anambra State would be reliable and the true nature of
environmental sanitation in Anambra State since as skilled
professionals they are well informed about the national policy on
environmental sanitation and the implementation of the policy in
Anambra State.
Advanced Learners Dictionary defined perception as the way
people notice things especially with the senses, the ability to
understand the true nature of something. Environmental health
workers in addition to their natural senses, are trained and
equipped with techniques of their job and are therefore better
subjects to respond on the implementation of the components of
environmental sanitation in Anambra State. These environmental

5 health workers are working in Anambra State Government. They
consist of both male and female, young and old officers with
relative experiences.

Statement of the problem
There is a National Policy on environmental sanitation
(F.M.E. 2005). We are aware that Anambra State Government
adopted and initiated programme on environmental sanitation
based on that policy. Even though there is improved awareness on
sanitation through public health education on the radio and print
media since the present administration, it seems the programme is
not working according to the policy. Solid waste management,
Sanitary inspection of premises, Sewage management, Market and
abattoir sanitation, Pest and vector control, School sanitation, Food
sanitation and Adequate potable water supply are still difficult and
problematic to come by. Sanitation, which prevents diseases, cuts
across every sphere of our daily activities and deserves proper
implementation. According to F.M.E (2005) the poor environmental
sanitation condition has contributed significantly to high
prevalence of communicable diseases in Nigeria. That human and
environmental health are dwindling despite our efforts to ensure a
sustainable environment and promote human and environmental
health seems not easily understood. Since environmental
sanitation possesses those components with objectives that would
promote public health and welfare, improve quality of life and
ensure a sustainable environment, the researcher believes that
environmental sanitation may not have been implemented as
stipulated in the national policy on environmental sanitation. That

6 the environment is unfriendly and one of man’s greatest enemy is
a source of worry to the researcher. These have agitated the mind
of the researcher to ask the following questions:
Are the components of environmental sanitation been properly
implemented in Anambra State? What is the perception of
environmental health workers on the implementation of the
components? Does the state of our environment suggest that the
components are properly implemented?
The study therefore sought to find out the true situation of
the components of environmental sanitation in Anambra State of
Nigeria.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the
implementation of components of environmental sanitation in
Anambra State. Specifically, the investigation sought to:
1. ascertain the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of solid waste management in
Anambra State,
2. determine the perception of environmental health workers
on the implementation of sanitary inspection of premises in
Anambra State,
3. find out the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of sewage management in Anambra
State,
4. ascertain the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of market and abattoir sanitation in
Anambra State,

7 5. determine the perception of environmental health workers
on the implementation of pest and vector control in
Anambra State,
6. find out the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of school sanitation in Anambra State,
7. ascertain the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of food sanitation in Anambra State,
8. determine the perception of environmental health workers
on the implementation of adequate potable water supply in
Anambra State,
9. ascertain the perception of male and female environmental
health workers on the implementation of the selected eight
components of environmental sanitation in Anambra State,
10. find out the perception of urban and rural environmental
health workers on the implementation of the selected eight
components of environmental sanitation in Anambra State.
Significance of the study
1. The findings on solid waste management would enable
government to know the problems facing its implementation
and therefore help environmental health workers and the
people to participate actively to keep our environment clean.
2. The findings on sanitary inspection of premises would
provide reasons why environmental health workers no longer
carry out sanitary inspection of premises to detect and abate
nuisances and the need for government to meet these
needs.
3. The findings on sewage management would create
awareness on the dangers of improper disposal of excreta

8 and sewage so that people would provide adequate number
and type of excreta and sewage facilities best suited to their
environment.
4. The findings on market and abattoir sanitation would show
the situation of sanitation in our markets and abattoirs and
the need for government to provide materials, equipment
and funds to up date these facilities.
5. The findings on pest and vector control would enable
government discover the significance of providing funds and
equipment in environmental health offices for the control of
pests and vectors of diseases in human environment.
6. The findings on school sanitation would help the government
discover the advantages inherent in enforcing the standards
required in schools on sanitation so as to ensure teaching
and learning.
7. The findings on food sanitation would inform the public on
the need to eat wholesome food, protect their food from
contamination and ensure proper selection of quality food
stuff.
8. The findings on adequate potable water supply would inform
the people of the importance of adequate potable water in
the maintenance of environmental sanitation and thereby
encourage every body to participate in its provision.
9. The result of the study would be useful to the government
and its agencies in discovering the importance of planning
adequately for environmental sanitation facilities equipment
personnel, reward and other materials that would encourage
the workers.

9 10. The findings of this study would give government in
Anambra State and Nigeria insight into why environmental
sanitation should be properly implemented.
Scope of the study
The study was in Anambra State and included only the environmental health departments in the twenty-one (21) local government areas and Ministry of Environment Awka. The male and female environmental health workers in all the offices of environmental health were chosen as respondents. That was because as professionals with adequate skill and knowledge they are better equipped to inform on the practices and education of the people on the policy. The study was delimited to the implementation of components of environmental sanitation because the steps outlined for the implementation of the components were carefully structured to achieve the desired objectives. They are namely: i. Solid waste management, ii. medical waste management, iii. excreta and sewage management, iv. food sanitation, v. sanitary inspection of premises, vi. market and abattoir sanitation, vii. adequate potable water supply, viii. school sanitation, ix. pest and vector control, x. management of urban drainage, xi. control of reared and stray animals, xii. weed and vegetation control and xiii. hygiene education and promotion. Out of the fourteen components of environmental sanitation, eight were used in this study because the National Policy on Environmental Sanitation 2005 (P25, 6.2) provided that the

10 implementation of the policy shall focus on the following key areas of environmental sanitation. They are: 1. Solid waste management, 2. sanitary inspection of premises, 3. sewage management, 4. market and abattoir sanitation, 5. pest and vector control, 6. school sanitation, 7. food sanitation and 8. adequate potable water supply. Other variables such as urban and rural local government areas formed significant area of the scope. Research questions
The study was on the implementation of components of
environmental sanitation in Anambra State. To achieve this, the
following research questions were asked:
1. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of solid waste management in Anambra
State?
2. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of sanitary inspection of premises in
Anambra State?
3. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of sewage management in Anambra
State?
4. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of market and abattoir sanitation in
Anambra State?

11 5. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of pest and vector control in Anambra
State?
6. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of school sanitation in Anambra State?
7. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation food sanitation in Anambra State?
8. What is the perception of environmental health workers on
the implementation of adequate potable water supply in
Anambra State?
9. What is the perception of male and female environmental
health workers on the implementation of components of
environmental sanitation in Anambra State?
10. What is the perception of urban and rural
environmental health workers on the implementation of
components of environmental sanitation in Anambra State?
Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated for the purpose of
this study and tested at 0.05 significant level:
1. There will no significant difference in the mean perception of
male and female environmental health workers on the
implementation of selected eight components of
environmental sanitation in Anambra State.
2. There will be no significant difference ion the mean
perception of environmental health workers on the
implementation of selected eight components of
environmental sanitation in Anambra State based on the
location of local government areas.

GET THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER:
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 - 48 hours to process your request.