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- Name: EVALUATION OF THE DOMESTIC SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL METHOD AND MANAGEMENT [CASE STUDY OF REAL ESTATE AND UDOKA HOUSING ESTATE AWKA ANAMBRA, STATE]
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Domestic solid waste is any unwanted or discarded solid material from residential activities that cause environmental, social and health problems. The world Health Organization (WHO) refer to waste as something which the owner do not want at a given time and space which has no current or perceived market value. In the world of Ikhuoria (2002), waste is refuse, garbage, ashes and rubbish that derived from place of human and animal habitation h further grouped solid waste elements into two namely: Decomposable refuse and non- decomposable refuse. Nwobu (2002) in his study of solid waste disposal and management in Awka, Anambra State, defined solid waste as anything discard or unwanted whose physical state is solid or semi-solid.
Kimberly (2000) carried out a study on composition of solid waste in florida state, United state of America, in his study, he made a classification of waste base of the material composition, these include garbage, or food waste, paper, glass, Cars and other house hold wastes. According to Aina (1994), of all the envious and most embarrassing and the one which has been consistently been employed as blackmail to us as environmentalists is the municipal solid waste disposal problems. Home, towns and cities have their most devastating impact not though what they consume but what they waste.
Ajadike (2001), opined that urban waste crisis arise in Nigeria because of three fundamental factors namely: rapid increase in urban population, heavy consumption patterns of urban dwellers and the inefficiency of the authorities whose statutory responsibilities include, efficient waste disposal in cities. Ekugo (2001) states that in most urban area of the developing counties of which Nigeria is one of such, Waste indiscriminately dumped along the streets into gutters, in open space or open dumps or major roads and high usages. Many urban countries in Nigeria are suffering from menace of improper waste disposal which has resulted into health problems, high level of pollution, traffic problem and poor esthetics and flooding in urban centres like Awka, residents are known to dump their waste in the street during rains Okoye, (2004). Adesoji (2004) took a study of solid waste disposal in Ibadan, in his works, He discovered that many land fill sites open dump site in the town are mismanaged and these site harbor diseases carrying pathogens such as rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, house flies etc these organism find their way into various houses and transmit diseases such as Malaria, fever, yellow fever, Cholera, dysentery etcetera.
According to Okoye, (2004), residents in Awka throw waste inside flood water during rain. These are of course carried to our surface water bodies. Okoye, (2007) revealed that resident in the public housing estate in Awka complained of air pollution problem especially in the evenings arising from smokes due to burning of waste dump. Residents dump their waste on lands that near the aesthetic quality of the estates expanse of lands that could have been used for other purposes like building of schools, pipe borne waters, and health centre’s etcetera (Okoye, 2008).
Kelvin (1995) stated that the issue surrounding these health risks, and environmental damages only surfaced in the last decades. From previous researches carried out indeed it is evident in human and environment, economic can be attributed to the incidence of solid wastes. This work goes further to ascertain the situation in some of the selected housing estates in study areas.
Amongst the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State include: Iyiangu Housing estate, Real housing estate Udoka housing estate, Ngozika housing estate, Oganiru housing estate, Ahokol (inner city Layout) housing estate, Ahokol (think Home) housing estate phase 1 or Ahokol phace 2 etcetera.
However, for the purpose of this research, two public housing estates were selected simply because of their peculiar challenges in domestic waste management and disposal system. These two housing estates include: Real housing estate and Udoka Housing estate. .
1.11 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Domestic solid waste disposal is one of the major environmental problems faced by study area. The quantity of waste disposal in some selected housing estate in Awka urban have increased tremendously over the years because of some factors like population increase and the inability of conventional waste management authorities to properly clear these solid waste from the environment.
The indiscriminate handling of domestic waste has led to the littering of different kinds of solid waste materials in the study area, thereby making it to look untidy and loose its aesthetic value. Most of these waste materials are disposed in drainage channels therefore causing the blockage of these channels and subsequent flooding in the area during raining season and consequent road infrastructure deterioration. A good example is the indiscriminate waste dump in Real Estate and in Udoka Housing Estates Awka.
Organic domestic solid waste in a particular pose serious health risk, since they ferment creating conditions favorable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. They are hazardous, if they become intermixed with human excreta due to poor sanitation if waste is disposed improperly, for example, ground water used for drinking purposes can become chemically or microbiologically polluted. Direct Dumping of untreated waste in river, Lakes, or seas can be also result in the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain due to their uptake by plants and animals. Thus, work becomes necessary in the study area as a living environment.
1.12AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK
The aim of this research is to Evaluate the Domestic Solid
Waste Disposal in the study area with a view to recommend to the Government the most effective method of solid waste disposal and management in the selected Estates.
1.13 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
- To determine the composition of solid waste at the identified dump sites in the study area.
- To evaluate the performance of Anambra State Waste Management Authority (ASWAMA) in evacuation of wastes.
- To examine the problems associated with improper disposal of domestic waste.
- To proffer solutions to the problems of solid waste disposal in the study area.
1.14 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to the domestic solid waste disposal method and management in the two selected estates in Awka, Anambra State Capital with specific emphasize on real estate and Udoka housing estate.
The reason for the selecting these two housing estates depend largely on the peculiars challenges noticed on their method and management of domestic solid waste in relation to the increasing population sizes in these two estates.
1.15 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
This study was limited by certain factors during the process of research. Some of the respondents complained of an inadequate time to attend to the questionnaires and some of them just packed in new and therefore could not sufficiently have adequate knowledge about the, estates selected. In addition some residents claimed that they were not carried along during planning process.
1.16 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Evaluation of domestic solid wastes disposal and management techniques is an important aspect of urban planning and management. It is an evidence base of good air quality that increases the living standard of the dwellers. It enhances the productivity of all and sundry. It is also a determinant factor that changes the level of interaction and integration of economic values of the people. It is worthy of note that, any settlement: rural, Urban, Semi- Urban should take issues of waste management as one of the topmost prioritres during planning. Proper waste management and disposal method a particular area may attract both public- private partnerships to invest in such a place. Note planning is for aesthetic and functional environment.