Download the complete biochemistry project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled Evaluation Of The Level Of Vitamin C, Vitamin E And Malondialdehyde In Male Smokers And Non Smokers here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.
The Project File Details
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of gaseous phases and particles). A more broad definition may include taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars. The practice may have begun as early as 5000-3000 BC (Nagarajet al., 2014).Cigarette smoking is probably the most addictive and dependence producing form of object-specific, self-administered gratification known to man. According to present estimates, tobacco is responsible for causing more than 5 million deaths every year (World Health Organization, 2008).
The harmful effects of cigarette smoking onhuman health have been well documented.It has been known that cigarette smoke carriesaround 4000 chemicals including toxic metals,poisonous gases and free radicals (Schumacher et al., 2009). Amongst theseconstituents, free radicals are considered to be moredangerous as these owing to their unpaired electron
are highly reactive and can cause oxidative damageto biomolecules and biomembranes (Senet al., 2010).
Smoking plays an important role in disturbing the antioxidant balance. Normally blood contains a healthy complement of antioxidants that keep oxidative damage to a minimum. Tobacco smoke contains abundant reactive oxygen species and also activated neutrophils released due to smoking also add to the pool of reactive oxygen species which deplete these antioxidant mechanisms leading to tissue damage (Kumar et al., 2010).
Malondialdehyde is a organic compound with the formula CH2 (CHO). This reactive species occurs naturally and is a marker for oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species degrade polyunsaturated lipids present on cell membrane forming malondialdehyde. This aldehyde product is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism (Nagarajet al., 2014).
Antioxidants depletion or deficiency may contribute to oxidative stress. Antioxidants not only protect against the direct injurious effects of oxidants, but also alter the inflammatory events that play an important role in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress related diseases (MacNee, 2010). Vitamin C is a water soluble free radical scavenger, can directly scavenge O2 and OH- radicals and help to neutralize physiological oxidant burden created by both exogenous and endogenous sources (Rai and Phadke, 2006).
Vitamin E, a well-known chain-breakingantioxidant in cell membrane protects themembrane against lipid peroxidation either directlyby scavenging the free radicals or indirectly bycontrolling the reduced glutathione levels.Vitamin E itself is kept in reduced state by vitaminC, another antioxidant vitamin (Shah et al., 2015).
The act of smoking has been a contributing effect to so many physiologic disorder; with enormous releaseof free radicals and important biochemical intermediates, they have been implicated in a very large number of human diseases including ischaemic heart disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, cataract, respiratory diseases and ageing. Some studies have been done to compare the level of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant vitamin among smokers and non-smokers but there is scarcity of such study in Africa. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the levels of lipid peroxidation product, Malondialdehyde and antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) in smokers and non-smokers.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the level of vitamin C, Vitamin E and Malondialdehyde in male smokers and non smokers.
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.