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NDAHI, PAUL AJIYA

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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON EVALUATION OF THE ROLES OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN THE NORTH-WEST ZONE OF NIGERIA

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  • Name: EVALUATION OF THE ROLES OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN THE NORTH-WEST ZONE OF NIGERIA
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ABSTRACT

This study evaluated visual instructional materials roles in agricultural extension services in the North-West Zone of Nigeria, comprising seven states Kaduna, Kano Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara. The total number of respondents randomly selected was 56 agricultural extension agents and 14 respondent farmers through the use of both purposive and random sampling techniques in the study area. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings revealed that 70% respondents were male, 30% were female. In gender variation male users of visual instructional materials in agricultural extension services were dominant. The study also found that 62% of the users were between the ages 18-39 years, and those of ages 40-59 years constituted 34% while those within 60 years and above were 4%. The result showed 87% of the users were married with 12% being single, 1% where divorced. Youths were higher in number which may be attributed to high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. The evaluation found that the level of awareness of participants farmers and extension agents across the Zone and the overall roles impact in agricultural activities were significantly greater in technology adoption through the usage of visual instructional materials. The findings further showed the educational status of the users. The data shows that 12% had primary education, 24% secondary education, while majority had tertiary education of 64%. Language preferred by users was English which ranked 62.3%. Also, the data reveals that Hausa has 27.4% and Arabic (Ajami) 10.3%. The results also showed illustration and pictorial representation had 78.8% level of effectiveness in designing visual instructional materials for agricultural extension usage, and 86.5% accepted colour usage while 13.5% did care much about colours in visual materials. The findings further revealed usage of visual materials in agricultural extension activities very effective ranking 50%, and effective 38.5% while usage in a specially organized extension programmes level of effectiveness at 61.5% and farmers‟ adoption of new ideas was over 80% across the seven states. The evaluation further disclosed that the seven states in the Zone used visual instructional materials extensively where Kebbi state ranked 82%, Kaduna 78%, Katsina 69%, Jigawa 62%, Kano 60%, Zamfara 58% and Sokoto 42%, while each state visuals used indicated posters ranked 96%, sign posts 84%, banners 78%, illustrations 74%, flyers 65% Charts 62% and photographs 45%. The results of Chi-square ( calculated) tests procedures of research hypotheses on visual instructional usage and adoption were statistically significant at 5% level. This led to the rejection of the mull hypotheses and the affirmation that the roles of visual instructional materials usage in agricultural extension services had significant effects on the livelihood of rural farmers in adopting new ideas in agricultural practices thereby improving their quality of life. The test of visual usage overall was significant at 90% and overall adoption at 87.5%. However, the study also identified some constraints limiting the optimal usage of visual instructional materials ranging from:- (a) lack of adequate trained extension agents, (b) lack of adequate trained graphic artists, (c) ignorance of the participants involved, (d) organizational impediments, (e) lack of required instructional visuals, (f) lack of adequate capital, (g) differing perspectives, (h) language barriers and (i) illiteracy level. However, despite the numerous constraints the evaluation indicated significant levels of visual instructional materials usage and adoption among farmers and agricultural extension agents across the
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North-West zone of Nigeria. Finally, the following recommendation were made:- Based on the overall findings, it is therefore recommended that the usage of graphic visuals in agricultural extension activities should be encourage to use visual instructional materials for effective communication in all agricultural programmes. The youths should be encouraged to get involved in agricultural extension programmes to sustain the agricultural sectors and similar sectors to reduce the level of social and security problems associated to youth‟s unemployment in the country and the world at large.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page…………………………………………………………………………i Title Page………………………………………………………………………….i Declaration………………………………………………………………………..ii Certification……………………………………………………………………….iii Acknowledgement……… ……………………………………………………… iv Dedication…………………………………………………………………………vi Table of Content…………………………………………….……………………vii List of Tables…………………………………………………………………..…xi List of Figures…………..…………………………………….…………………..xii List of Plates……………………………………………..………………………xiii List of Appendices ……………………………………………………………… Operational Definition of Terms …………………………………………………
Abstract………………….……………………………………………………….xiv
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.01 Agricultural Extension Services …………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………. 4
1.2 Aim of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.3 The Objectives of this Study are to:- …………………………………………………….. 5
1.4 Research Questions ……………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.5 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………………. 6
1.6 The Present Situation and Focus of the Study. ………………………………………. 7
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study ……………………………………………………. 9
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CHAPTER II
2.0 Review of Related Literature …………………………………………………………….. 10
2.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
2.2 Agricultural Extension and Agricultural Development in Nigeria ………….. 11
2.3 Visual Instructional Materials in Agricultural Extension ………………………. 12
2.4 Role of Instructional materials in the learning process ………………………….. 13
2.5 Role of Instructional Materials in Agriculture Extension Services …………. 14
2.6 Visual Instructional Materials Design and Layout………………………………… 15
2.6.1 Design Principles …………………………………………………………………………….. 15
2.6.2 Design Elements in Visual Instructional Materials ………………………………. 17
2.7 Production Principles of Agricultural Visual Instructional Materials ……… 18
2.7.1 Format Specifications of Visual Instructional Materials Production ………. 19
2.7.2 Illustrating Techniques and Instructional Materials ……………………………… 19
2.7.3 Graphics Quality and Instructional Materials …………………………………….. 21
2.7.3.1 Carbon Transfer Techniques …………………………………………………………… 21
2.7.3.2 Grid Drawing Transfer Techniques ………………………………………………… 22
2.7.4 Colouring Techniques ……………………………………………………………………. 23
2.7.4.1 Colour Pencils, Pens and Markers ………………………………………………….. 24
2.7.4.2 Manual Techniques (using assorted colours) …………………………………… 26
2.8 Computers Graphic Inputs ………………………………………………………………… 28
2.9 Theoretical Framework …………………………………………………………………….. 30
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2.10 Role Impact of Instructional Materials ……………………………………………….. 47
2.11 Role Theory of Visual Instructions Materials …………………………………….. 48
2.12 Model of Role Impact in Extension Services ……………………………………….. 49
2.13 Review of Variables in the Model………………………………………………………. 51
2.14 Hypotheses of the Model …………………………………………………………………… 61
2.15 Theoretical Framework …………………………………………………………………….. 65
2.15.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………. 65
2.15.1 Role Theory ………………………………………………………………………………… 65
2.15.2 Model for this study ……………………………………………………………………… 66
2.15.3 Independent Variables ………………………………………………………………….. 66
2.15.4 Dependent variables ……………………………………………………………………… 67
2.15.5 Identity of visual instructional materials …………………………………………. 67
2.15.6 Effects/Impact of visual instructional materials ……………………………….. 67
CHAPTER III
3.0 Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………… 69
3.1 The Study Area ………………………………………………………………………………… 69
3.2 The Climate and People ……………………………………………………………………. 70
3.3 Population of the study ……………………………………………………………………… 71
3.4 Sampling Technique and Sample Size ………………………………………………… 71
3.5 Method of data collection ………………………………………………………………….. 71
3.6 Analytical Technique ……………………………………………………………………….. 72
CHAPTER IV
4.0 Result and Discussion ………………………………………………………………………. 73
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Users of Visual Instructional
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Materials. ………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
4.2 Marital Status ………………………………………………………………………………….. 74
4.3 Educational Level …………………………………………………………………………….. 74
4.4 Effect of reading and understating visual instructional materials ……………. 75
4.5 Effects of Illustration, Pictures and Colours in Visual Materials ……………. 77
4.6 Visual Instructional Materials Usage and Effectiveness in Adoption of new Ideas ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….78
4.7 Usage of Visual Instructional Materials Usage and adoption across the North-Western States. ………………………………………………………………………. 80
4.8 Test of Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………………………. 83
4.9 Test of Variables ……………………………………………………………………………… 84
4.10 National Agricultural Production Trend………………………………………………. 84
4.11 Constraints of Visual Instructional Materials Usage in Agricultural Extension Activities ……………………………………………………… 86
CHAPTER V
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation ………………………………………. 89
5.1 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
5.2 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
5.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………. 91
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study ……………………………………………………………. 93
5.5 Contribution to Knowledge……………………………………………….93
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
Appendix I ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
Appendix II …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background to the Study Agriculture has been recognized as the most important sector of the economy of developing countries. Developments in this sector have therefore, frequently attracted attention of governments, scholars, and citizens of these countries as well as international organizations. This has been particularly true in Nigeria where declining productivity and rising population in the last two decades have led to a growing concern over the need and opportunity for agricultural development (Atala, 2006). However, not enough effort has been invested in research to design and implement effective extension programmes that are appropriate to the needs of the majority rural farmers, who are the producers of the bulk of the country‟s food and raw materials
Agricultural Extension is an informal educational process which aims to teach farmers how to improve their level of living by their own effort, through making wise use of natural resources at their disposal for better systems of farming and homemaking, for the benefit of the individual, the family, the community and the nation at large. (IAR Extension Roll-Up(2013), www.abu.edu/institute.iar,( 2014).
In the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru mandate covering the North-west states, the Agricultural extension services was established to develop and maintain strong research extension farmer linkages for the purpose of effective dissemination of research results to end-users to:
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a. Provide knowledge and skill training programmes for extension staff of State Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs), Agricultural agencies and selected farmers through regular Technology Review Meetings (TRMs) and specialized in-service courses, Workshops, Seminars etc.
b. Disseminate Agricultural research-based information to ADPs, Federal and State ministries, agro-industrialist and agricultural producers.
c. Perform community services including consultative diagnostic/advisory services.
d. Collaborate with National Agricultural Extension Research and Liaison Services (NAERLS) and other relevant Institutes and organizations on extensions activities.
There are some components/activities in agricultural extension services, they include:- Technologies Review Meeting (TRMs), Trainings, Cropping Scheme Meeting, Zonal Steering Committee Meeting, Zonal Technical Committee Meeting, Zonal REFILS Workshop, SIWES/ITF Coordination, Diagnostic/Consultative Services, Publications, Radio/T.V. Programmes, Field Days, Farm Walks, Exhibition/Fairs, Agric Shows, Adoption Villages/Demonstration Schools and Monitoring/ Evaluation.
[email protected]/institute.iar (2012) This study examines the role and the impact of visual instructional materials in Agricultural extension services in the North-west zone of Nigeria. The perception, design, usage, impact of visual instructional materials on agricultural development, and factors influencing them are the major issues of investigation in this study.
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1.1 Statement of the Problem
The agricultural extension systems in place today are operating simultaneously with other organs of agricultural farming systems without giving enough or attention consideration to information dissemination processes and the roles of agricultural visual instructional materials in agricultural practice. Perhaps the most important aspect of these systems is the fact that little or no empirical evaluation research has been carried out to determine the problems affecting their performances and to propose solutions to them. The agricultural extension systems are fast spreading all over the country even though the success of the previous effort has been inadequate and its replicability on a wider scale in the North-west zone is yet to be ascertained (IAR, Samaru, 2013 and [email protected] 2012) The study situation suggests that the role performance of extension agents is problematic and contributes to the general problems in Nigerian agriculture. One of the key issues in the ineffectiveness of Nigerian agricultural extension is impact in the farming systems of the North-West agro-ecology. The roles and impacts of extension materials‟ and agents‟ activities vary and are often ineffective (Atala, 2006). The problem becomes that of explaining the differential roles and impacts of agricultural extension system, and this provides the rational and quest for undertaking this study.
1.2 Aim of the Study
The aim of this study is to examine the role of Agricultural extension visual materials on Agricultural extension services offered in the North West Zone of Nigeria.
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1.3 Objectives of this Study:-
1. Examine the components on agricultural instructional materials such as posters, flyers and banners being delivered to farmers.
2. Evaluate the impact of agricultural extension visual instructional materials on the quality of rural agricultural practices and rural life.
3. Assess the role of training agricultural extension agents and farmers on the use of agricultural instructional materialism the North-west zone.
4. Evaluate the set variables posited or presumed as explaining differential impact/effect on information delivery through visual instructional material in agricultural extension.
5. Determine language preferred by users, that is English, Hausa, or Ajami (Arabic) across the Zone.
1.4 Research Questions
This study will attempt to answer the following research questions.
1. What would be the effect of visual instructional material messages on farmers, extension agents on agricultural extension services in the North-Western zone of Nigeria?
2. What are the specific role performance of the extension facilities that enhance the perceived impact of visual instructional materials on agricultural practice and the quality of rural life?
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3. To what extent have training and usage of instructional materials improved performances of the extension agents, graphic artists, resource persons and farmers in North-Western Nigeria?
4. To what extent do set variables posited or presumed as explaining differential instructional materials role on information delivery through visual instructional materials in agricultural extension?
5. Which is the Language preferred by users of visual instructional materials across the North- West zone?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will glean data and proffer analytical guidelines for improving the performance of agricultural extension system in the North-West zone of Nigeria. Specifically, there is a paucity of data on the role and performance and the impact of extension materials. There is therefore inadequate research information on these aspects that would help in understanding some of the problems and challenges faced in agricultural extension system. Such information is essential for a proper assessment of the needs and potentials of visual instructional material in extension system. It could also form the basis for improving the quality of extension services and agricultural communication and subsequently, farmer adoption of improved technologies and Agricultural Development strategies.
1.6 The Present Situation and Focus of the Study
Planned agricultural development involves three systems, namely; innovative, communicative, and practitioner systems, Conghenour (1968) is of the opinion that the
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innovative system is responsible for generating or adopting new technologies, while the communicative and instructional system disseminate the technologies to the farmer who utilizes the technologies to improve yields and quality of rural life. The present situation is characterized by poor evaluation of the role and impact of visual instructional materials use in disseminating agricultural innovative technologies in the North-west of Nigeria. Agricultural extension in developed countries is an important communication system and if exploited well, it has great and obvious potential contribution for agricultural and rural development in developing countries. However, Akinbode (2007) and Wang (2009) stated that the performances of agricultural extension systems in developing countries have fallen short of expectations. In Nigeria Agricultural extension seems to be relatively ineffective. In Kaduna State of for example, the few studies conducted by (Voh, 1979 and Atala, 1980) reveal a wide gap between awareness and adoption of improved agricultural technologies among farmers in the state.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study scope include extension agents and farmers that use visual instructional materials in agricultural extension services. This study is specifically concerned with identifying and evaluating the roles of design and impact of visual instructional materials in agricultural extension services in the North-West zone of Nigeria. This covers seven states namely, Kaduna, Kebbi, Kano, Katsina, Jigawa, Sokoto and Zamfara.

 

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