EXTENT OF UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING OF GOVERNMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AWKA EDUCATION ZONE

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  • Name: EXTENT OF UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING OF GOVERNMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AWKA EDUCATION ZONE
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ABSTRACT

The study sought to determine the extent of utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching of government in senior secondary schools in Awka education zone, Anambra State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. To carry out the study, six research questions and six null hypotheses were formulated. The instruments used in gathering data for this study are Checklist on Available ICT Facilities for Teaching Government (CAICTFTG) and a structured questionnaire entitled Extent of Teachers’ Utilization of Information Communication Technology Questionnaire (ETUICTQ). The instruments (CAICTFTG and ETUICTQ) were trial tested on 30 research subjects from schools other than the ones sampled for the study. The reliability of the instruments was determined using Cronbach Alpha statistics and overall reliability index of 0.81 was obtained which was high enough for the study. The population of the study comprised all the one thousand, seven hundred and ninety-nine (1,799) teachers in Awka Education Zone. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the sampling through the use of stratified, proportionate and simple random techniques. In order to collect data, the researcher with the help of two research assistants made personal visits to the sampled public secondary schools. This was to guarantee maximum return of the instrument for analysis. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the six research questions. On the other hand ttest was used to test the null hypotheses 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6; ANOVA was used to test null hypothesis 4 respectively at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the findings indicate among others that ICT facilities for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone are available to a low extent, although computers are available to a high extent; ICT facilities are utilized to a low extent in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone. There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers on the current ICT facilities available for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone. It was concluded among others that adequate provision of ICT facilities by the government and other stake holders in education could facilitate ICT utilization for effective teaching of Government as a subject in senior secondary schools.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i Dedication ii Certification iii Approval Page iv Acknowledgements v Table of Contents vi List of Tables viii Abstract ix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Background of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 13 Purpose of the Study 15 Significance of the Study 15 Scope of the Study 17 Research Questions 18 Hypotheses 18
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Conceptual Framework 20 Concept of Government 20 Concept of Information Communication Technology (ICT) 22 ICT Resources Available For Teaching and Learning Government 25 Utilization and Extent of Utilization of ICT 27 Theoretical framework 35 Constructivist Theory (Vygotsky, 1978) 35 Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) 36 Review of empirical studies 37 Studies on the Availability of ICT for Teaching 37 Studies on the Extent of Utilization of ICT for Teaching 41 Studies on Influence of Gender on ICT Utilization 44 Studies on Influence of School Location on ICT Utilization 47 Studies on Influence of Teacher’s Qualification on ICT Utilization 52 Studies on Challenges to ICT Utilization 53 Summary of Literature Review 58
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CHAPTER THREE: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Design of the Study 61 Area of the Study 61 Population of the Study 32 Sample and Sampling Technique 62 Instrument for Data Collection 63 Validation of Instrument 64 Method of Data Collection 65 Method of Data Analysis 65 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS Summary of Findings 75
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Discussion of Results 77 Conclusion 80 Educational Implications of Findings 81 Recommendations 82 Limitation of the study 83 Suggestion for Further Research 84 Summary of the Study 84
REFERENCES 88 APPENDICES Appendix A: Population figure of government teachers in senior secondary schools in Awka Education Zone 96 Appendix B: Sample Size 97 Appendix C: ICT Availability Cheklist 100 Appendix D: Extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government Questionnaire (EUICTTLGQ) 102 Appendix E: Request for Validation 104 Appendix F: Test of Reliability Scores and Application of Cronbach Alpha 110 Appendix G: List of schools in Awka Education Zone 112

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The emergence of information and communication technology (ICT) has
revolutionized the way we access, process, store, retrieve and disseminate information
within organizations or across the globe. Whether it is vocal, pictorial, textual, numeric
or macro- electric based, hence ICT is now a topical issue in Nigeria. It may not be
because it is relatively new in this part of the world, but because ICT encompass a
range of technologies application systems of microprocessors that have had profound
impact on the society and its way of life. Information and communication technology
(ICT) revolution is gradually affecting the nature of leaning and the production of
knowledge and transforming the world in unexpected way (Adewoyin, 2007). This has
facilitated the paradigm shift from the traditional instructional material or traditional
pedagogical methods to a more modern and innovative technological based teaching
learning methods. The traditional instructional method is the teacher centered approach
of instructional delivery while the modern and innovative technological based teaching
creates the opportunity for interactions between the teacher and the students.
ICT has simplified education through the application of electronics media,
internet among other ICT devices. ICT is an acronym which stands for information and
telecommunication technology. Ayodele in Oluwarobi (2012) defines ICT as
electronic-based technology that is generally used to retrieve, store, process, and
package information as well as provide access to knowledge. Information and
communication technology (ICT) according to Okoro (2008) is a means of accessing or
receiving, storing, transferring, processing and sending ideas, perception or information
through computers and other communication facilities. Egunjobi and Bode (2005)

1
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refers to ICT as a general expression, which covers computers, telecommunication and
electronics. Yoloye and Adekawonishe, (2005) define ICT as computer based tools
used by people to work on the information and communication processing needs of an
organization. As far back as 2002 Badru views ICT as the science and activity of
processing, storing and sending information by using computer. This implies that
information and communication technology is the use of hardware and software to
enhance communication. ICT refers to devices used in association with the computer
which is capable of receiving, storing, transferring, processing and sending ideas from
one source to another.
There are different ICT devices that can be used in teaching. Ugwu and
Oboegbulem (2011) state that ICTs in education encompasses a great range of rapidly
evolving technologies such as desktops, notebooks, digital camera, local area network
(LAN), the internet, the World Wide Web (WWW), CD Rom, DVDs, applications
spread sheets, tutorials, simulations, electronic mails, digital libraries, computer
mediated conferencing, video conferencing and virtual reality. It covers computer
hardware, software, the network and other digital devices like video, audio, camera and
so on which convert information (text, sound, motion etc) into digital form. ICT
devices for teaching and learning include Computer, Internet, Power Point, Television,
Overhead Projectors, Camera, Radio Cassette, Video Tape, Audio Cassette, Audio CD,
World Wide Web (WWW), Telephone, etc (Adeyemi & Olayele, 2010). The various
ICT facilities used in the teaching learning process in schools include; radio, television,
computers, overhead projectors, optical fibres, fax machines, CD-Rom, Internet,
electronic notice board, slides, digital multimedia, video/ VCD machine and so on
(Babajide & Bolaji, 2003; Bryers, 2004 ; Bandele, 2006 & Ofodu, 2007). Some of the
examples of ICT tools according to Akuegwu, Ntukidem, Ntukidem and Jaga (2011)
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include computer lap tops, video machines, multimedia projectors or power points,
digital cameras, internet facilities, computer net work, telephone (GSM and land
phones), e-library, television programmes, data base among others.
The relevance of ICT in teaching and learning process cannot be over
emphasized. According to Ajayi (2008) teaching and learning have gone beyond the
teacher standing in front of a group of pupils and disseminating information to them
without the students’ adequate participation. Ajayi reiterates that with the aid of ICT,
teachers can take students beyond traditional limits, ensure their adequate participation
in teaching and learning process and create vital environments to experiment and
explore. This new development is a strong indication that the era of teachers without
ICT skills are gone. Any classroom teacher with adequate and professional skills in ICT
utilization will definitely have his students perform better in classroom learning. ICT
provide a variety of tools to support and facilitate teacher’s professional competence. It
transforms teaching and helps teachers to be more efficient and effective, thereby
increasing their interest in teaching (Yusuf, 2005a). ICT can assist in the organization
and the structure of the course and course materials thereby promoting rethinking and
revision of curriculum and instructional strategies (Egomo, Enyi & Tah, 2012). The
authors reiterate that ICTs increase teachers’ emphasis on individualized instruction,
and as such enable them spend more time with individual students. This suggests that
use of ICT in teaching and learning process supports individualized instruction.
Individualized instruction is a process of teaching where the individual differences of
different learners are attended to in the teaching and learning process. ICT utilization
helps students to carry out more independent work and gives the teacher more time to
focus on teaching higher level concepts in the classroom (Yusuf, 2005a). Ololube in
Akuegwu, Ntukidem, Ntukjidem, and Jaga (2011) reported that ICT has the potential to
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accelerate, enrich and deepen teachers’ skills; motivate and engage students in learning;
helps to relate school experiences to work practices; contributes to radical changes in
schools and strengthens teaching. In the words of Ojajuni, Agbelusi and Aladesote
(2013) ICTs help to relate academics to the practices of today’s work. Studies have
revealed that, students who learn in a technology-rich environment experience positive
effects on their performance in all subject areas (Fagbamiye, in Eze and Aja, (2014). In
the same line of thought, Becta (2003) states that ICT provides fast and accurate
feedback to student and speed of computation and graphing, thus freeing student to
focus on strategies and interpretations. Information and communication technologies,
especially network technologies have been found to encourage active learning, support
innovative teaching, reduce the isolation of teachers, and encourage teachers and
students to become active researchers and learners.
The benefits of ICT can better be tapped in the pedagogy when the
technological device is utilized. Utilization refers to the process of using an object for a
purpose. According to Hornby (2001) utilization is the process of using something or
materials for practical purposes. It refers to the act of using objects, events or
substances in improving a situation or practice. Amalu (2015) defines utilization as the
process of using objects to improve educational practice. Utilization of ICT in teaching
then refers to the process of using ICT devices in improving the practice of teaching.
According to Lawrence and Veena (2013), ICT utilization include basic actions such
as: managing electronic files, using computerized databases and spreadsheets, sending
and receiving e-mail messages, and creating documents with graphics. Hence, ICT can
be utilized in teaching and learning by having the ability to accessing online resources,
creating desktop, publishing documents, developing multimedia presentations, selecting
and customizing instructional software to fit students’ needs, streamlining record
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keeping and other administrative procedures with electronic tools, and observing the
correct protocols in sharing intellectual property (Lawrence & Veena, 2013). It could
be seen as the process of using ICT facilities in improving teaching and learning.
According to Nworgu (2006), utilization of ICT facilities, involves various method
which include systematized feedback system, computer-based operation/network, video
conferencing and audio conferencing, internet/ worldwide websites and computer
assisted instruction. ICT utilization is the presentation and distribution of instructional
content through web environment (e-teaching) to support learning and communication
(Yusuf, 2005b).
Information and communication technology (ICT) can be utilized in teaching
Government. Government, like any other subject in Arts/Humanities or social sciences
suffers the problem of multiplicity of definitions. Some of these definitions are
restrictive in scope while others are more general. There are three major approaches to
the definition of government. The first approach defines government as an institution of
the state. According to Olisa, Okoli and Nwabufo, (1990) Government as an institution
of the State refers to a body of people and structures that makes, executes and
implements policies in a State. By this, government means a body of persons and
institutions that makes and enforces law in a given state. The word institution or agency
in the above definition refers to the organ of government, namely; legislature, executive
and judiciary. It is the legislature that makes law, the executive implements the law
while the judiciary interprets the law. It is the harmonious working of this organ and the
people that work in them that makes government an institution of the state. The second
approach defines government as a process or art of governing. By this, government
means the process of administering and implementing laid down rules and regulations
in a department, ministry or company. Government as a process is the actual state
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administration (Okeke, 2013). It is the business of administering the state for the
attainment of the societal goals (Okonkwo, 2014). On the other hand Government as a
subject refers to Government as a discipline. It could be seen as government as an
academic field of study. Government as an academic field of study is called political
science. Government as political science is the study of how to acquire, consolidate and
use state power to attain individual and societal goals by the wielder. Government as an
academic field of study has the following branches; public administration, international
relations, political philosophy or thought, local government and government as a
teaching subject. Generally, government as a subject refers to the study of how people
are organized and governed; the study of conflict resolution; the study of political
behavior of people within a body polity (Nwankwo, 1992). This is the thrust of this
study as well as the main idea being conveyed when Government is talked about in
academic field.
Government as a subject has certain objectives. The aims and/ or objectives of
government as a subject in the post-basic education level according to the Federal
Ministry of Education (2007) are to enable students;
i. understand the concept, principle, institutions and process of government.
ii. Recognize his role as an informed citizen and his contribution towards the
achievement of national development.
iii. Become active participants in the democratic process of the nation and their
local environments.
iv. Appreciate the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community.
v. appreciate the challenges and dynamics of past and present government in
Nigeria and the world.
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vi. Recognize the role of ICT in e-government and in fostering the process of
governments in the world.
From the objectives of Government as a subject it could be deduced that the
focus of government as a field of study is to help students understand the institutions of
the state (country) and the process of governance. This understanding encourages
individuals as citizens to actively participate in the process of national development.
The new government curriculum is aimed at making the field relevant and functional to
the new political currents of Nigeria and the world. Its goal is to equip individuals to
understand these currents and become active participants in the political processes of
their societies.
For full realization of the reasons for study of Government as a subject in senior
secondary schools, practical instructional media like ICT and its associated devices are
necessary. The Federal Government of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education
(FRN, 2004) is mindful of the importance of information and communication
technology in the world of today that is ICT driven hence its integration in the school
curriculum at all levels of education in the country. The document states that
government will provide the necessary ICT infrastructure and training needed in the
secondary schools. However, visits of the researcher to a number of secondary schools
in the area of study and indeed schools in other areas show that there is no significant
sign that this lofty government policy has been implemented in a state that prides
education as its’ biggest industry. The study therefore seeks to ascertain the extent of
utilization of Information and Communication Technology in teaching of Government
in senior secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State. According to
Adeyemi and Olayele (2010) it has however been observed that in many public
secondary schools in Nigeria ICT tools like computer, internets and other
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telecommunication technologies that can aid teaching and learning are hardly used or
not available.
It is in this guise that this study investigates the extent of utilization of ICT in
teaching Government as a subject. Observation has shown that there are no functional
internet facilities in most of the secondary schools (Ekundayo, 2009). This appears to
hinder the extent of teachers’ exposure to the use of ICT in teaching. Teachers’ inability
to apply ICT in teaching school subjects in our secondary schools is one of the
problems militating against effective implementation of secondary education
curriculum. Studies have shown that ICTs are not considered central to the teaching and
learning process especially in the developing countries as most of the tests and
examinations in schools follow traditional paper and pencil instead of the use of
improved technology on-line assessment, tele-conferencing etc (Eze & Aja, 2014). The
authors affirm that despite the benefits of ICT devices to teaching and learning, their
usage in secondary schools are still low as teachers and school management are yet to
embrace and utilize ICT in instructional exercise. Majority of secondary school
teachers do not use computers while teaching their lessons. A cursory look at the
secondary schools in Nigeria has shown that many teachers in the system still rely
much on the traditional “chalk and talk” method of teaching rather than embracing the
use of ICT (Ajayi & Ekundayo, 2009). Yusuf, Bashir and Dare (2013) state that most
teachers in secondary schools do not use ICT in teaching English language. According
to Okebukola (1997), computer is not part of classroom technology in over 90% of
public schools in Nigeria, thus the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate
classroom activities. In spite of the role ICT plays in the educational development and
by extension, the overall development of a country, there is still the problem of
utilization of ICT in teaching in the Nigerian educational system while most secondary
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schools in developed countries have digitalized classrooms such that teaching and
learning activities are carried out using ICT resources (Cooper, 2006). This is an
indication that the students are still lagging behind in the trend of changes in the world
as teachers find it difficult to use ICT in teaching which the current practice in teaching
learning process in most advanced countries of the world. Thus, there is the need to
replace the traditional pedagogical practices that still underpin the educational system
in the country, hence the need for the application of ICT in Nigerian Secondary
Schools.
Nonetheless, there are some factors that influence teachers’ utilization of ICT in
teaching in Nigeria. Factors such as teachers’ educational level, age, gender,
educational experience, school location and attitude towards technologies can influence
the utilization of ICT (Schiller, 2003). However, this study is interested in factors such
as the educational qualification of teachers, gender and school location and how they
influence utilization of ICT in teaching. The reason for choice of the three factors is
because they constitute the core teachers that influence teachers’ utilization of ICT in
teaching. Educational qualification could teachers’ utilization ICT in teaching.
Teacher’s qualification on ICT skills is the mark of academic attainment. Teachers’
qualification on the other hand is the mark of academic attainment of a teacher on
pedagogical knowledge of contents, methods and materials that promote teaching and
learning towards a better academic outcome (Onyishi, 2015). Teacher qualification is
the professional, educational or vocational growth of a teacher acquired through
training in a formal educational institution which determines the skills, knowledge of
subject matter, competence and experiences, of the teacher in a particular field of
education. It is a programme of study successfully completed by a teacher which
exposes him/her to pedagogical knowledge of skills, subject matter, methods and
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materials as to be able to perform efficiently and effectively in the field of study he or
she specializes (Asiwe, 2012). The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2013) states
that the minimum qualification for teaching Government as a subject in Nigeria is the
Bachelor of Science in Political Science Education. This presupposes that a qualified
teacher of Government as a subject could through the training acquired in teacher
education utilize ICT in teaching learning process. However, it is not certain whether
teachers’ qualification influences the extent teachers utilize ICT in teaching.
Gender is another important factor that could influence teachers’ utilization of
ICT in teaching in secondary schools. Gender according to Eddy, Brownell and
Wenderoth (2014) is a socio-cultural construct, a category that sorts and organizes
social relationships between human male and female. Afonja (2002) defines gender as a
socially constructed concept based on the assumed position that a group of humans
should possess. Jadesola (2002) also opines that gender is socially constructed for the
purpose of allocating powers, duties, responsibilities, status and roles in any social
context. Graham (2001) refers to gender as a complex social construction upon
biological sex, but it is not the same as sex. He further argued that gender alone drives
us and sex is an incidental feature. If the proper terms for sex are male and female, the
corresponding terms for gender are masculine and feminine. Gender refers to role
assigned to male and female in the society which affects the way they behave towards
some events, objects or activities. That a woman does not climb palm tree in some
societies does not mean that they cannot climb it, that women do not act radically in
decision making before their male counterparts does not mean they cannot but the
society has it that a woman must be submissive to man. All these and many more could
influence women’s activities and could as well influence their disposition towards ICT
utilization in teaching Government in secondary schools. Gender differences and the
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use of ICT have been reported in several studies. However, studies concerning
teachers’ gender and ICT use have cited female teachers’ low levels of computer use
due to their limited technology access, skill, and interest (Volman & Van Eck, 2001).
Research studies revealed that male teachers used more ICT in their teaching and
learning processes than their female counterparts (Kay, 2006; Wozney, venkatesh &
Abrami, 2006). Conversely, Jamieson-Proctor, Burnett, Finger and Watson (2006)
conducted a study on teachers’ utilization of ICT in schools in Queensland State.
Results from 929 teachers indicated that female teachers were utilizing technology into
their teaching less than the male teachers. Similarly, Yukselturk and Bulut (2009) state
that gender gap has reduced over the past years. The authors reiterate that presently, a
greater number of females than males have used internet and web technologies.
However, some studies revealed that gender variable was not a predictor of ICT
utilization in teaching (Norris, Sullivan, Poirot & Soloway, 2003). These controversies
on the influences of gender on teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching makes this study
necessary. This is because, it is not certain whether the situation of being male or
female influence teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching Government.
Apart from teachers’ gender, school location could influence teachers’
utilization of ICT in teaching. It refers to the area a school is sited (Okonkwo, 2014).
According to Ezeudu (2003) school location is the rural and/ or urban setting of a
school. School location refers to the place a school is found or built. Urban setting is
characterized by heterogeneity of population and existence of abundant basic
infrastructure. Schools built in the town could be said to have urban location while
schools built in villages or remote areas where probably only the indigenes dwell is said
to have rural location. Rural setting is characterized by homogeneity of population and
existence of little or no infrastructural facilities. State funding for ICT devices tend to
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be more available in urban than rural areas. The more availability of ICT in urban area
than in the rural area could influence the extent teachers utilize ICT in teaching in the
urban and rural areas respectively. Buttressing the above view, Achuonye (2012) states
that more urban schools and teachers possess computers, though the ratio of pupils per
computer is generally high in both areas; that both teachers and pupils in both locations
experience low accessibility to computers, which are used mainly for office work rather
than instructional purposes or individual use; that more teachers in urban areas are
computer literate, a skill acquired through mostly self-effort though all acknowledged
the importance of computer literacy skills to teacher effectiveness; that Computer
Technology/Science is a subject in both rural and urban primary schools, mostly taught
by the class teachers with or without computer skills, and dominantly lecture-based ;
though class population was not too high, learning environment was found inadequate
due to limited computers, absence of computer labs, particularly, in rural schools, and
general poor electricity power supply. Nonetheless, currently, schools both in the urban
and rural areas are increasingly being equipped with ICT facilities for teaching,
learning and administrative purposes.
Utilization of ICT for teaching in Nigeria faces a lot of challenges. These
problems that affect utilization of ICT in teaching according to Kabiru and Sakiyo
(2013) include lack of qualified teachers with requisite skills, lack of electricity and
computer hardware and software; lack of awareness on the utilization of the ICT and
apathy of teachers to new innovation. Teachers’ incompetence is always a barrier to the
utilization of ICT in developing countries (Pelgrum, 2001). Khan, Hassan and Clement
(2012) also observed that Lack of knowledge and skill by ICT teachers is the main
hindrances to utilization of ICT in teaching. The authors further maintained that lack of
teachers’ time to learn new skills, old ICT equipment, large classes, number of
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computers available for pupils’ use, lack of technical and pedagogical support and lack
of collaboration among teachers were constraints to teachers’ confidence and
competence in the use of ICT. Literature tends to highlight amongst others, the
following as being the common obstacles to successful ICT integration: lack of teacher
confidence, lack of teacher competence, lack of effective training, resistance to change
and negative attitudes, lack of technical support and lack of infrastructure (Korte &
Hüsing, 2007). Ayodeji (2004) states that most of our secondary schools today do not
have software for the computer to function. It appears some of the facilities are not
sufficiently provided for teaching-learning process in the secondary schools. This might
account for why teachers are not making use of them in their teaching (Ekundayo,
2009)
However, available literature on ICT have indicated that when appropriately
used, ICT constitute potent tools for enriching traditional means of teaching and
learning Government as a subject. More so, Government teachers in senior secondary
schools in Awka zone of Anambra State still have problems utilizing ICT in teaching
Government subject. Major among these problems is the incessant power failure
followed by excess workload which does not give them enough time to prepare their
lessons and teach them using ICT. A more serious problem is lack of access to ICT
facilities to enhance their performance. This study therefore, is designed to determine
the extent of utilization of information and communication technology in teaching
Government in senior secondary schools in Awka zone of Anambra State.
Statement of the Problem
Information and telecommunication technology (ICT) has revolutionized
teaching and learning in advanced countries of the world. In order to key into the
current trend in teaching and learning, the Governments of Nigeria have made several
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efforts towards utilization of ICT in teaching. The essence of these efforts at utilizing
ICT in teaching is to enable Nigerian school system produce world class graduates at
all levels of the education system who could compete favourably with graduates of
other countries of the world in the labour market and other spheres of life.
Regrettably, studies have shown that ICTs are not considered central to the
teaching and learning process especially in the developing countries Nigeria inclusive
as most of the tests and examinations in schools follow traditional paper and pencil
instead of the use of improved technology, on-line assessment, teleconferencing among
other ICT uses for instruction. In spite of the role ICT plays in the educational
development and by extension, the overall development of a country, there is still the
problem of utilization of ICT in teaching in the Nigerian educational system. Despite
the fact that ICT constitute a potent tool for enriching traditional means of teaching,
teachers still experience numerous problems in their attempt to use ICT in teaching.
Some sources indicate that teachers fear utilizing ICT in teaching because of lack of
ICT skills, reluctance to change, ICT facilities are very costly to acquire and maintain,
unavailability of ICT facilities, erratic power supply, gender reasons and school
location barriers among other factors.
The researcher wonders whether this is the situation in Awka Education Zone of
Anambra State where attempts have been made by the government to procure ICT
facilities for use in teaching. Thus, the problem of this study put in question form is
‘what is the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary
schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State’. It also examined the available ICT
resources in secondary schools in Awka education zone Anambra State with a view of
finding out the level of availability, utilization and factors affecting utilization of these
ICT resources in teaching and learning in secondary schools in the education zone.
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Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study was to determine the extent of utilization of
information and communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of
Government in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State. Specifically, the study sought
to:
1) Determine the current ICT facilities available for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone. 2) Ascertain the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone. 3) Ascertain the influence of gender in the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone. 4) Ascertain the influence of school location on utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in secondary schools in Awka Education zone. 5) Ascertain the influence of teacher’s qualification on utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone. 6) Ascertain the challenges against the utilization of ICT for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone. Significance of the Study
This study on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in
senior secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State has both
theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical significance of this study is
hinged on the Constructivists’ theory of Vygotsky (1978) and social learning theory by Bandura (1977). The social learning theory by Bandura states that learning takes place
through imitation, identification, modeling and social interaction. This theory relates to
the present study because teachers can use ICT in teaching by imitating other teachers
who use it or by identifying with advanced countries of the world. ICT could be utilized
in teaching by imitation of people that use it in teaching and the benefits therefrom.
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On the other hand, Vygotsky’s constructivist theory believes that learning takes place
by personal construction of the learner through active involvement in the pedagogy.
Utilization of ICT in teaching by the Government as a subject teacher could bring about
direct involvement of both the teachers and students in the teaching and learning
process.
The practical significance of this study is that its findings would be beneficial to
teachers, teacher training institutions, secondary school management board and
students. The findings of this study when published would help the Government as a
subject teacher to strive to utilize ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary
schools in this 21st century when the world is going technological and word class job
skills like ICT compliance is needed. This would enable them to match pace with their
counterparts abroad in curriculum interpretation for the production of world educational
outcomes in the area of Government as a subject in secondary education.
The findings of this study when published would help teacher training
institutions to incorporate ICT utilization-based courses that would prepare teachers
towards utilization of ICT in teaching in secondary schools. This when done, would
enhance ICT utilization capacities of teachers at secondary school level of education in
Nigeria.
Secondary school management board would benefit from the findings of this
study because it would enable them to see the challenges facing ICT utilization in
teaching as to find the way forward. The management board of secondary schools
would be able to inform the governments to procure ICT facilities and the components
for effective utilization of ICT in teaching in secondary schools for production of
functional graduates.
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Finally, students would benefit from the findings of this study when published
because if teachers effectively utilize ICT in teaching Government as a subject, the
classroom would be lively and boredom free as most concepts in Government as a
subject are abstract. This could also enhance students’ achievement and interest in the
subject.
Scope of the Study
This study was carried out in Awka education zone of Anambra State. The
study will be based on determining the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching
Government in senior secondary schools in Awka education zone of Anambra State.
The content scope of the study was delimitated to determining the current ICT
facilities available for teaching Government in senior secondary schools; Ascertaining
the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools;
Ascertaining the influence of gender in the utilization of ICT in teaching Government
in senior secondary schools; Ascertaining the influence of school location on utilization
of ICT in teaching Government in secondary schools; Ascertaining the influence of
teacher’s qualifications on utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior
secondary schools and ascertaining the challenges against the utilization of ICT for
teaching Government in senior secondary schools.
Only the Government teachers in Awka education zone were used for the study.
Government teachers were used because they can provide information on the extent of
utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools being the people
that engage in the actual utilization of any instructional media in the pedagogy. The
Government teachers were able to provide information on availability of the ICT
facilities for teaching Government in secondary schools.

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Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study;
1) What are the mean ratings of teachers on the current ICT facilities available for
teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone?
2) What are the mean ratings of teachers on the extent of utilization of ICT in
teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone?
3) What are the mean ratings of teachers on the influence of gender on the
utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in
Awka Education zone?
4) What are the mean ratings of teachers on influence of school location on
utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in
Awka Education zone?
5) What are the mean ratings of teachers on the influence of teacher’s qualification
on utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in
Awka Education zone?
6) What are the mean ratings of teachers on the challenges against the utilization of
ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education
zone
Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses guided the study and were tested at 0.05 level of
significance.
H01: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers
on the current ICT facilities available for teaching of Government in senior
secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
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Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers
on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior
secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
H03: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural teachers
on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior
secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
H04: There is no significance difference in the mean ratings of teachers on the
influence of teacher’s qualifications on the extent of utilization of ICT in
teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
H05: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers
on the challenges against the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in
senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
H06: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural teachers
on the challenges against the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in
senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone