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ORJI ONYINYECHI A.

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Download the complete Chemical Engineering project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES

The Project File Details

  • Name: EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS LEAVES
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1,016 KB]
  • Length: [69] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Perfume extraction refers to the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. The extracts are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Heat, chemical solvents, or exposure to oxygen in the extraction process denature the aromatic compounds, either changing their odour, character or rendering them odourless. In this work three methods, solvent extraction, hydro distillation and enfleurage methods were used to extract essential oil from lemongrass. Solvent extraction method yielded 2.08%, enfluerage method yielded 1.96% and hydro distillation methods yielded 0.95% essential oil respectively. From the analysis solvent extraction gave the highest yield because of the less exposure air and heat and this conform the literature value. The extracted essential oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and carrier solvent.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………..i
APPROVAL PAGE…………………………………………………………………………….ii
DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………………..iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………………iv
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………v
TABLE OF CONTENT……………………………………………………………………….vi
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………..x
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………………xi
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background…………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Lemongrass…………………………………………………………………………….3
1.3 Statement of problem………………………………………………………………5
1.4 Objective of project………………………………………………………………….6
1.5 Justification/significance of project………………………………………….6
1.6 Scope of work……………………………………………………………………….…6
1.7 Uses of perfume……………………………………………………………………….7

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical development of perfume………………….……………………..8
2.2 Perfume concentration……………………………………….…………………10
2.3 Perfume notes……………………………………………………….………………11
2.4 Sources of perfume………………………………………………………………..12
2.4.1 Aromatic source…………………………………………………………………….12
2.4.2 Synthetic source…………………………………………………………….………15
2.5 Essential oil……………………………………………………………………………16
2.6 Chemical constituents of essential oil……………………………………..20
2.6.1 Hydrocarbons………………………………………………………………………..21
2.6.2 Terpenes………………………………………………………………………….…….21
2.6.3 Alcohols……………………………………………………………………………..…..24
2.6.4 Aldehydes………………………………………………………………………………24
2.6.5 Acids………………………………………………………………………………………25
2.6.6 Esters……………………………………………………………………………………..25
2.6.7 Ketones…………………………………………………………………………………..25
2.6.8 Lactones…………………………………………………………………………………26
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2.7 Treatments and purification of essential oil………………………………27
2.8 Storage of essential oil……………………………………………………………..28
2.9 perfume extraction methods……………………………………………………28
2.9.1 Extraction………………………………………………………………………………..29
2.9.2 Distillation………………………………………………………………………………30
2.9.3 Expression………………………………………………………………………………34
2.9.4 Enfluerage………………………………………………………………………………35
2.10 Formulation of perfumes…………………………………………………………35
2.11 Lemongrass…………………………………………………………………..………..36
2.12 Lemongrass oil…………………………………………………………………..……39
2.12.1Origin of lemongrass oil…………………………………………….…….………39
2.12.2 Properties of lemongrass oil…………………………………………………..39
2.12.3 Chemical composition of lemongrass oil…………………………………39
2.12.4 Extraction………………………………………………………………………………40
2.14.5 Uses of lemongrass oil…………………………………………………………….40
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Sample source and preparation………………………………………..……….42
3.2 Apparatus and solvents.……………………………………………………………42
3.3 Solvent extraction method…………………………….……………………….….43
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3.4 Enfleurage Method …………………………………………………………………44
3.5 Hydrodistillation Method………………………………….……………………45
3.6 Formulation of perfumes ………………………………….……………………46
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Solvent extraction method…………………………………………………….47
4.2 Enfleurage extraction method……………………………………………….48
4.3 Hydrodistillation method……………………………………………………..49
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………….…….51
RECOMMENDATION……………………………………………………………………..52
REFERENCE……………………………………………………………………………….…53
APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………….……52

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Perfume is a fragrant liquid made from an extract that has been distilled in
alcohol and water.
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or
enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature’s pleasant
smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to
apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air.
Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no
perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people.
Perfume comes from the Latin “per” meaning “through” and “fume,” or “smoke.”
Many ancient perfumes were made by extracting natural oils from plants through
pressing and steaming. The oil was then burned to scent the air. Today, most
perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are even perfumed with
industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to appear “unscented.”
While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true
perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of oil
distilled in alcohol.
A perfume is composed of three notes. The base note is what a fragrance will
smell like after it has dried. The smell that develops after the perfume has mixed
with unique body chemistry is referred to as the middle note. And the top note is
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the first smell experienced in an aroma. Each perfumery has a preferred perfume
manufacturing process, but there are some basic steps. The notes unfold over time,
with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes,
and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created
carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume. The top note
consists of small light molecules that evaporate quickly. The middle note forms the
heart of main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial
impression of base notes.
Traditionally perfumes were made from plant and animal substances and
prepared in the form of waters, oils, unguents, powders, and incense. This last
method of fragrance gives us our word ‘perfume’ which means ‘to smoke through’.
Most modern perfumes are alcohol-based and contain synthetic scents. While the
term ‘perfume’ usually refers to fragrances in general, in the more technical
language of the perfumer, a perfume must contain over 15% of fragrance oils in
alcohol.
The preferred fragrances for perfumes are by no means universal, but differ
according to cultural dictates and fashions. In the sixteenth century, for example,
pungent animal scents such as musk and civet were very popular. In the nineteenth
century, by contrast, such animal scents were generally considered too crude, and
light floral fragrances were favored.

Perfumes were held in high esteem and widely employed in the ancient world. The
wealthy would perfume not only the body, but their furnishings and their favorite
horses and dogs. On ancient altars perfumes were offered to the gods, while in the
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kitchens of antiquity the same scents — Saffron, Cinnamon, Rose, Myrrh — might
be used to flavor food and wine.
Techniques involved in perfume extraction from plants include; solvent
extraction, distillation and effleurage method. These methods to a certain extent,
distort the odor of the aromatic compounds that are obtained from the raw
materials.
Important thing in relation to perfume making is that there are three key
ingredients you will need to produce perfume:
1. Essential Oils (these have been extracted from various plants (organic or
nonorganic) and when combined give the smell of the perfume you are trying to
produce.
2. Pure Grain Oil
3. Water

1.2 LEMONGRASS
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae), Cymbopogon species
The genus has about 55 species, most of which are native to South Asia, Southeast
Asia and Australia. Two major types have considerable relevance for commercial
use: East Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus ) is native to India, Sri Lanka,
Burma and Thailand, whereas West Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is
assumed to originate in Malaysia. The plants grow in dense clumps up to 2 meters
in diameter and have leaves up to 1 meter long. Further Cymbopogon martini
(Roxb.) J.F. Watson var. martini, which is native to India and cultivated in Java is
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worth mentioning as it also grows in Bhutan and is extracted for palmarosa oil.
Another species with commercial relevance is citronella grass (Cymbopogon
winterianus Jowitt) which also stems from India, but is today grown throughout the
tropics.
The reported life zone for lemongrass is 18 to 29 degrees centigrade with an annual
precipitation of 0.7 to 4.1 meters with a soil pH of 5.0 to 5.8 (East Indian) or 4.3 to
8.4 (West Indian). The plants need a warm, humid climate in full sun. They grow
well in sandy soils with adequate drainage. Since the plants rarely flower or set
seed, propagation is by root or plant division. The plants are harvested
mechanically or by hand about four times each year with the productive
populations lasting between four and eight years Extensive breeding programs
have developed many varieties of lemongrass.
The quality of lemongrass oil is generally determined by the content of citral, the
aldehyde responsible for the lemon odor. Some other constituents of the essential
oils are -terpineol, myrcene, citronellol, methyl heptenone, dipentene, geraniol,
limonene, nerol, and farnesol .West Indian oil differs from East Indian oil in that it is
less soluble in 70 percent alcohol and has a slightly lower citral content.
Lemongrass is used in herbal teas and other nonalcoholic beverages in baked
goods, and in confections. Oil from lemongrass is widely used as a fragrance in
perfumes and cosmetics, such as soaps and creams. Citral, extracted from the oil, is
used in flavoring soft drinks in scenting soaps and detergents, as a fragrance in
perfumes and cosmetics, and as a mask for disagreeable odors in several industrial
products. Citral is also used in the synthesis of ionones used in perfumes and
cosmetics.
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As a medicinal plant, lemongrass has been considered a carminative and insect
repellent. West Indian lemongrass is reported to have antimicrobial activity .Oil of
West Indian lemongrass acts as a central nervous system depressant .Oil of East
Indian lemongrass has antifungal activity .The volatile oils may also have some
pesticide and mutagenic activities .Cymbopogon nardus is a source of citronella oil.
Cymbopogon martinii is reportedly toxic to fungi.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The problem of perfume extraction process is the distortion of the odor of
the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. This is due to heat,
harsh solvents and also through the exposure to oxygen which will denature the
aromatic compounds. These will either change their odor, character or render them
odorless.
The problem of formulation of perfume involves knowing the proportion in which
essential oil, and other materials to be mixed to avoid skin irritation and increase
the intensity and longevity of the perfume.
Most imported perfumes are synthetic odorant which are not pure chemical
substance but are mixture of organic compounds that are harmful when applied.
There are limited perfume plants, from which perfume can be made; this can lead
to importation of perfume thereby causing the decline of foreign reserves and
unemployment.

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1.4 OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT
The main objective of this project is to extract and formulate perfume from
Lemon grass (CYMBOPOGON FLEXUOSUS).

1.5 JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This project focuses on the production of perfumes from natural/plant
sources as against synthetic chemicals thereby will reduce any side effect resulting
from synthetic chemicals.
The success of this work will stimulate the development of the perfume
industry locally because of available, cheap raw materials.
More jobs will be created by those that will be engaged in
planting/cultivating of the plant as well as establishing small scale extraction plants.
There will be reduction on the resources spent on importation of lemon grass
fragrance by end users.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE WORK
This project work is on how perfumes are extracted and formulated from
lemongrass. It further entails; o The synthetic and aromatic sources of perfumes. o The composition of perfumes and its concentration o The extraction methods and formulation process involved o The economic importance of lemongrass and the uses of lemongrass
oil in perfume production process.
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1.7 USES OF PERFUMES
1) The sense of smell is considered a right brain activity, which rules emotions,
memory and creativity. 2) Perfumes are used to mask body odor. 3) Used to make people feel good 4) To heal and cure physical and emotional problems 5) Perfumes are being revived to help balance hormonal and body energy. 6) It helps to bolster the immune system when inhaled or applied topically. 7) Smelling sweet smells also affects ones mood and can be used as a form of
psychotherapy. 8) Perfumes are being created to duplicate the effect of pheromones and
stimulate sexual arousal receptors in the brain.

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