Download the complete Industrial chemistry project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled EXTRACTION OF LIGNIN FROM COCOA POD HUSK THEOBROMA CACAO) here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.
The Project File Details
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) fruits are important commodity of economic value since the seeds or beans is used to produce high demand products such as cocoa powder, butter and chocolate. The processing of cocoa fruits generates a large amount of cocoa pod husk discard as wastes (Alemawor et al., 2009). Cocoa pod husk represents between 70 to 75% of the whole cocoa fruit weight where each ton of cocoa fruit will produce between 700 to 750 kg of cocoa pod husks (Cruz et al., 2012). In Malaysia, the plantation of cocoa is over 20,643 hectre (Malaysia Koko Board, 2011). Hence, it can be estimated at least 320,000 kg of cocoa pod husk is generated after processing. Conventionally, these organic wastes is shipped away for processing or disposed to landfill. These large quantities of cocoa pod husk could yield a large quantity of fibrous materials which might be suitable as alternative resources especially in pulp and paper making industries.
In order to maximize the utilization of organic wastes or non-wood fibres for pulp and paper production, a complete study of its chemical and morphological properties is required. In this context, the main objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compositions of cassava peels and cacao pod husks fibre used for pulp and papermaking industry. In addition, characterization of surface morphology in both non-wood fibres was also determined. The results obtained in this study could be utilised in assessing the agriculture wastes potential as raw materials for pulp and paper production industries.
Lignin found in cacao is high complex macromolecule linked together by different types of bonds, including alkyl-aryl, alkyl-alkyl and aryl-aryl ether bonds (Kumar et al., 2011). It obstructs enzymes from degradation associated with structural carbohydrates (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2010). Therefore, prior treatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks, to remove or denature lignin, is essential for achieving a high yield of fermentable sugars (Yang and Wyman, 2012; Carroll and Somerville, 2010). Plant by-products differ in monolignol constituents of lignin’s and lignin chemistry can vary depending on its origin. The characterization of lignin is critical to the optimization of pre-treatment parameters in the cellulosic ethanol production process. It on this background that this study examines the extraction and characterization of lignin using cocoa (Theobroma cacoa) pod husk.
The aim of the study is to extract lignin and to characterize the lignin extracted from the pod husk of cacao pod. Specific objectives are
The study is significant since it will quantify the amount of lignin present in cocoa pod and the proximate content of cocoa pod. The study will also highlight the characteristics of cocoa pod.
The scope of the study covers the extraction and characterization of cocoa pod husk and proximate analysis of cocoa pod.
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.