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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

CHUKWUMA VALENTINE ONWUJIUBA

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: FABRICATION OF DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL USING NATURAL DYES FROM Lawsonia inermis (HENNA), Mangifera indica (MANGO), AND Terminalia catappa (TROPICAL ALMOND) LEAVES WITH POLYANILINE/GRAPHITE AS A COUNTER ELECTRODE
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1.91 MB]
  • Length: [53] Pages

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION STATEMENT………………………………………………….…….II
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………….……..III
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………IV
ACKNOWLEDMENT…………………………………………………………………….V
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………VI
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………..VIII
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………IX
1.0 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………..1
1.1: Historical Backgroung of Solar Cells and Their Working Mechanism……………..3 1.2: Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)…………………………………………………..4
1.3: How DSSCs Work………………………………………………………………….5
1.4: Counter Electrode: Polyaniline (PANI) Coupled with Graphite……………………7
1.5: Natural Dyes………………………………………………………………………..9
1.6: Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………9
1.7: Aims and Objectives……………………………………………………………….10
1.8: Motivation and Hypothesis………………………………………………………..10
1.9: Significance………………………………………………………………………..10
1.10: Scope of Project………………………………………………………………….11
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………13
2.1: Overview …………………………………………………………………………13
2.2: Components of a Dye Sensitized Solar cells………………………………………13
2.3: Photosensitizer…………………………………………………………………….13
2.4: Semiconductor Electrode (Photoanode)…………………………………………..14
2.5: Redox Electrolyte…………………………………………………………………15
2.6: Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO)……………………………………………16
2.7: Counter Electrode (CE)……………………………………………………………17
2.8: Natural Dyes and Extraction Methods……………………………………………18
2.9: TiO2 Paste Preparation…………………………………………………………….19
3.0 METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………..20
3.1: Overview………………………………………………………………………….20
3.2: Materials…………………………………………………………………………..20
VII
3.3: Chemicals…………………………………………………………………………20
3.4: Preparation of Natural Dye Sensitizers……………………………………………21
3.5: Alkaline Extraction of Henna Dye………………………………………………..21
3.6: Ethanolic Extraction of Mango and Tropical Almond Dyes……………………..22
3.7: Phytochemical Tests for the Leaf Extracts………………………………….……23
3.8: Preparation of the Photoelectrode………………………………………………..23
3.9: Synthesis of Polyaniline (PANI)………………………………………………….24
3.10: Preparation of Redox Electrolyte……………………………………………….24
3.11: Preparation of Counter Electrode……………………………………………….25
3.12: Assembling of DSSC……………………………………………………………25
3.13: Testing of DSSC………………………………………………………………..26
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………………………………………………27
4.1: Overview…………………………………………………………………………27
4.2: UV/Vis of the Extracted Dyes……………………………………………………27
4.3: IR Analysis of the Extracted Dyes……………………………………………….28
4.4: Phytochemical Tests of Leaf Extracts…………………………………………….30
4.5: GCMS Analysis of Lawsonia inermis…………………………………………….31
4.6: Conductivity of PANI……………………………………………………………32
4.7: Electricity under Projector Light…………………………………………………33
4.8: Electricity under Sunlight…………………………………………………………35
4.9: Study of Lawsonia inermis DSSC over Time…………………………………….38
5.0 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………40
5.1 Suggestion for Future Research……………………………………………………40
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………..42

 

CHAPTER ONE

Chapter 1: Introduction

Electricity is a form of energy that improves the quality of human life to a great extent. Its demand has increased exponentially over the years thereby causing a strain on its sources. Currently, the major source of electricity is burning of fossil fuels. The usage of fossil fuels as a source of electricity results in the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). These gases are very harmful to the environment as they contribute to global warming. Furthermore, during mining and exploration of fossil fuels, the environment in which they are mined usually gets polluted or degraded. Research shows that this may lead to acid rain, drastic climate change, pollution of aquatic life, spread of diseases that can kill both humans and animals, and other unfavorable and uncontrollable conditions that damage the ecosystems.1 There is also concern that fossil fuel reserves are quickly depleting and may not actually be limitless.
Another energy source that is being used to generate electricity is nuclear energy. Nuclear power is mostly used in developed countries. Nuclear energy is advantageous because it generates electricity through a self-sustained reaction; however, disposal of nuclear waste is a major challenge. Also, in the event of an accident at the power plant, radioactive components are released to the environment. Nuclear radiation is very hazardous to humans, plants, animals, and the environment at large. A good example is the Chernobyl accident of 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident left many dead, thousands ended up with thyroid cancer, and the environment was polluted.2 This knowledge has sparked research into other sources of energy that are both renewable and relatively harmless to the environment.
Renewable energy sources are those energy sources that are inexhaustible, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, biomass, tidal energy, hydropower and many more. A good
2
characteristic of most renewable energy sources that makes them very attractive is the fact they are ecofriendly.3 Although renewable energy is a good alternative to the use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy, its implementation is quite challenging. This owes to the fact that some renewable energy sources are intermittent, for example solar energy can only be harnessed in the day and its supply decreases with increasing latitude.
Additionally, some renewable energy sources are limited by geography, and so cannot be implemented in certain areas. For example hydroelectric energy is not feasible in regions with very dry climates. Another challenge with renewable energy is the heavy investment needed for development and installation of infrastructure. This is often coupled with a certain level of risk and uncertainty. This is especially a challenge for developing nations such as countries in Africa.4,5 Currently, on a global scale, 16% of primary energy sources are accounted for by renewable energy sources. With the increasing consumption of electricity, there is a heavy demand for more renewable energy sources to be developed.
Among all the current renewable energy sources, solar energy can be considered as one with many advantages. This is especially more advantageous for nations in Africa because they are located in tropical areas that receive massive solar radiation year in year out. Solar energy is a form of energy that is totally clean and free. It is estimated that the sun delivers 120,000TW of energy to the earth per hour and the earth currently needs 13TW of energy per year (0.01% of the energy the sun provides the earth per hour).1 This shows that the energy from the sun is more than adequate to meet the global energy needs if well harnessed.
Solar energy can be harnessed using two categories of technology known as concentrating solar power and solar photovoltaics (SPVs).1 Concentrating solar power uses mirrors to focus the sun’s thermal energy on a fluid that is capable of heat transfer. The fluid generates steam which is then used to drive a turbine that generates electricity. In contrast, in SPVs, donor
3
molecules undergo electronic excitation when exposed to photons. The excited electrons migrate to electrodes present in the system to generate electricity. SPVs are also known as Solar Cell. 1,6,7
1.1 Historical Background of Solar Cells and Their Working Mechanism

Solar cell or photovoltaics was first discovered in 1839 by French scientist Alexandre Edmond Becquerel. He made the discovery when he observed that on exposure to sunlight, metal electrodes coated with copper oxide or silver electrode produced a voltage.3 Much later in 1873, it was discovered by Hernan Vogel that some organic dyes when used in silver halide photographic films enhanced the response of some colors. Subsequent research helped explain that electron transfer from the chromophore of the organic dyes to the silver halide was responsible for this mechanism.8 This discovery would then go on to shape modern photography. In 1877, scientists Adams and Day were able to make the first solid-state Photovoltaic cell from selenium.9 Between 1930-1933, scientists such as B. Lange and L. O. Grondahl were able to develop oxide/copper cells that were used in photography and optical instruments as light meters.10
Photovoltaic (PV) effect was applied for the first time in 1954 at Bell Labs in the United States by D. Chapin and G. Pearson and also at RCA Laboratories by Paul Rappaport.8,11 In the papers they submitted in 1954, Rappaport explored the electron-voltaic effect in p-n junctions induced by beta bombardment, while Chapin and Pearson explored a new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power. The common ground between these papers was their description of how incident light can be converted to electricity by some semiconductor p-n junction devices. This marked the beginning of the modern PV age.

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