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  • Name: FEATURES OF DISCOURSE IN THE INTERACTION AMONG MARKET WOMEN IN OBA MARKET,BENIN
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [776 KB]
  • Length: [88] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This research investigates the features of discourse in the interaction among market
women and their customers in Oba Market, Benin in Edo state. The study is
restricted to the. spoken language as used by market women. This was done through
the method of participant observation. The researcher was highly involved by tape
recording their voices during their business dealings. The raw data were collected in
pidgin English but rendered in correct English and analyzed using Sinclair and
Coulthard model of analysis developed in 1975. It was discovered that interactional
talk is the bedrock behind every successful business transaction .Sales are made
possible by these women through various techniques which they employed in form of
clues, prompts, bids which, according to Sinclair and Coulthard, are means through
which buyers are convinced to patronize their goods. Sales are eventually made
possible as the end product of business transaction

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ……………………………………………………… i Approval Page…………………………………………………..ii Dedication………………………………………………………iii Acknowledgements……………………………………………..iv Abstract………………………………………………………… ..v Table of Contents……………………………………………….vi- vii CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction………………………………………………… 1 1.1 Background to the Study…………………………………….1- 4 1.2 Language: Multiple Functions……………………………….4-6 1.3 The Purpose of The Study…………………………………….7 1.4 Statement of the Problem……………………………………..7-8 1.5 The Significance of the Study…………………………………8 1.6 Research Questions……………………………………………9 1.7 Basic Assumption………………………………………………9 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction……………………………………………………10 2.1 Discourse Structure …………………………………………..10-11 2.2 Language in Use………………………………………………12-14 2.2.1.How speech Acts Function………………………………….. 14-17. 2.3 Relationship between Discourse and Pragmatics…………….. 18-21
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2.3.1 Assigning Reference in Context……………………………. 21-26 2.4 Language Functions……………………………………………23-26 2.5 Market Transaction……………………………………………27-28 2.6 Summary of Literature Review… …………………………… 29 CHAPTER THREE
3.0 The System of Analysis………………………………………..31 3.1 Explanation of System of Analysis……………………………31-34 3.2 The Structure and Class of Moves……………………………. 34-37 3.3 The Structure of Transaction…………………………………… 38
CHAPTER FOUR: TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction……………………………………………………39-40 4.1 Text A………………………………………………………….41-43 4.2 Text B………………………………………………………….44-47 4.3 Text C………………………………………………………….48-50 4.4 Text D………………………………………………………. .. 50-53 4.5 Presentation of findings………………………………………54-62
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
5.0 Introduction……………………………………………………63 5.1 Discussion of the Findings………………………………………63-71 5.2 Recommendations………………………………………… …. 71-73 5.3 Suggestions for further Research…………………………. ….73 5.4 Summary of the Study…………………………………………74 WORKS CITED…………………………………………………….75-76
APPENDIX……… .……………………………………………. …77-81

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction This study investigates the features of Discourse in the interaction Among
Market Women in Oba market, Benin with their customers. Language is made up
essentially of written and spoken modes. There are formats and methods of
analysis attached to each of the modes.
The written language has a long history of analysis while the spoken form has
only recently gained attention in Linguistic analysis. Our interest in carrying out
this research is to further the development of the analysis of the spoken language.
In this introductory chapter, some key concepts, sub – themes and terminologies
used in the study will be presented.

1.1 Background to the Study
Many linguists describe language as the most important attribute of man.
Allenton (18) in his own view defines language as;

—–the fully developed natural human communication involved in transmitting ideas or information from person to person.

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He sees language as a tool for information transfer.
Thomas and Wareing (6-9) in their book Language, Society and Power, postulate
that one of the obvious ways of thinking about language is that;
It is a systematic way of combining smaller units into larger units for the purpose of communication, for instance, we combine the sound segments of our language (Phoneme) to form words(Lexical items) According to the rules of language we speak.

Language is essentially a rule-governed system of this kind, but there are other
ways of thinking about how language works. James Caper as cited in Obi- Okoye
(2) considered language as:

A system of communicating with one another using sounds, symbols and words in expressing meaning, ideas or thoughts.

Thus language can be used in many forms primarily through oral and written
communications. Equally body language could be used to communicate thoughts
and feelings.
In this work, we are interested in such questions as: What function does a given
utterance do? Is it a statement, question, command or response and how do the
participants know
Although, there were some linguists who saw language as a series of interrelated
levels mediating, and showing relationships between context and phonetic

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substance as seen by Halliday etal quoted in Sinclair and Coulthard’s work titled;
Towards an Analysis of Discourse page one. It attempts to show how a given
phonetic realization has a grammatical structure and meaning but there is a major
difference in the concept. Firth in Sinclair and Coulthard suggests
that;
The principal components of —- Meaning is phonetic function, which I call ‘minor’ function, the major functions-lexical, morphological, syntactical—And the function of a complete location in the context of situation, The province of semantic (1-2)

Firth had observed that in conversation, we shall find the key to a better
understanding of what language really is, and how it works.
Our interests were in the function of utterances and the structure of discourse.
Sinclair (2) suggested examining real examples with all their performance
features. He focused on questions and answers and suggested that only by
examining the context in which an utterance is produced, the presuppositions
behind the utterance, the intention of the speaker and respondent, and the
evidence available to a decoder, can one really understand the meaning of an
utterance.
This early work also stressed paragraphing in spoken discourse. Conversations
are everyday examples of the fact that several participants can jointly produce

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coherent texts; utterances and parts of utterances relate back and forwards, place
certain restriction on what can occur and affect how or succeeding items are
interpreted. Sinclair (3) went on to examine the relationship between the
grammatical structures of an utterance its function in discourse. Question, for
instance, can have a declarative, interrogative, imperative, or modeless structure.
There are often features in the situation such as relative status of participants,
which will determine which form is most appropriate form will be interpreted as
cheekiness, condescension, sarcasm and so on.

1.2 Language: multiple functions
Another important dimension of language is the very different purposes we use
language for all the time. In the course of a day, one uses language referentially,
effectively, aesthetically, and phatically. However, the transmission of
information is certainly not the only reason why we use language, and there are
many Linguistic choices we make every day which are not a consequence of

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information transmission at all for example, you could make use of the utterances
(a) to (e) below and convey the same factorial information. By selecting one as
appropriate and not another, you will be exploiting the effective aspect of
language and showing yourself to be sensitive to the power or social relationship
between you and the person you are addressing.
Arrange the books in the shelf.
 Please arrange the books in the shelf  I wonder if you’d mind arranging the books in the shelf.  If you wouldn’t mind artfully, do you think you might arrange the books in the
shelf?
 For goodness: sake just arrange the …ing the books in the shelf on the other
hand, as you arrange the books, you might say utterance (f]or[g)
 Books in bundle like mountain layers—-  Red rolls, pattern pattern. In this case you wouldn’t be trying to give any one
information either. You would be exploiting the ability of language to give us
pleasure by its sounds and rhythms and by playing with meaning: Its aesthetic
properties.
If later in the day someone comes around and says ‘thanks’ both of you would
have been exploiting the phatic properties of language. This is the everyday usage
of language as social lubrication, no important information is being exchanged,
but you are both indicating that you are willing to talk to one another, are pleased
to see one another. The referential function is the use of language to

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indicate name objects and ideas are called and how events are described (i.e. how
we represent the world around us and the affects of those representation on the
way we think).the effective function of language is concerned with who is
allowed to say what to whom, which is deeply tied up with power and social
status, for example, saying, “I think it’s time you swept the kitchen and washed
your hair’ would be accepted comment from a parent to a young child, but not
usually be accepted from an employee to their boss. Nigeria being made up of
multi-ethnic groups use the English language in almost all spheres of life, in
communication, education, government, law court, polities, and media. In fact,
English serves as a second language in Nigeria. As GreenBaum(1) observes,
English is used in many official contexts in Nigeria in commerce and industry,
administration and international communication so the status of English in
Nigeria demands its adoption for various uses to achieve different purposes
through the use of the language. This forms this basis of this research work which
primarily is discourse which means language in use. Life is a constant flow of
discourse – of language functioning in one of the many contexts that together
make up a culture. In fact it is difficult to conceive of effective functioning in any
human society without interactional talk. It is this kind of talk that is often
referred as discourse. Discourse analysis means placing language in the situation
it should be in order to get the message or meaning.

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1.3 Purpose of the study.
Based on Sinclair and Coulthard’s method of analysis, this work is intended to
investigate the features of discourse in the interaction among market woman.
First by seeking to find out the following:
1. The effective use of language in business transaction.
2. The functional use of language both verbal and non-verbal language to achieve
transactional goals.
3. Various methods and techniques employed by market women to ensure sales.
4. Common features of language used in business transaction most peculiar to
market woman.
5. Lastly, the researcher looks into market exchanges, social relationships that
take place during the business transactions and sales are made possible through
these exchanges.

1.4 Statement of the problem. 1. The approach proposed by Sinclair and Coulthard suggested examining real
examples with all their performance features. He focused on questions and
answers and suggested that only by examining the context in which an
utterance is produced, the presupposition of the speaker and respondent and

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the evidence available to a decoder, can one really understand the meaning of an
utterance.
2. Interactional talk has its primary functions-the lubrication of the social
wheels, establishing roles and relationships with another person prior to
transactional talk, confirming and consolidating relationships, expressing
solidarity, and so on (McCarthy 136).in the market situation for instance,
sellers and buyers establish social relationship before normal business
transaction. Transactional talk is for getting business done in the world i.e. in
order to produce some change in the situation that pertains.

1.5 Significance of the study.
Discourse analysts describe and analyze how language is structured in different
contexts of use. This work enables language practitioners to precisely delineate in
syllabuses and materials the different genres of language which learners will need
to engage in, and select and use in other facets of English language.
Educationists, lecturers of English as a second language and readers that might
come across this research report would use to demonstrate how meaning is
decoded from discourse, as well as how specific and over all function of language
is performed by different utterances in discourse. The study will also demonstrate
how the specific functions of discourse are realized in a particular socio-cultural
context.

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1.6 Research Questions.
The following research questions will guide the study.
1. How is meaning decoded from discourse?
2. What specific and overall functions do different utterances in the discourse
perform?
3. What function does discourse perform in a particular social cultural
context?
4. Is there really any language behaviour peculiar to market women in
carrying out their business transaction?
5. What are really those discourse features adopted by Sinclair and Coulthard
in the analysis of a natural language?

1.7 Basic Assumptions
1. Language is the bedrock behind every successful business transaction.
2. To achieve transactional goals there must be market interactions which
facilitate sales.

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