WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Welcome to Projects Ng Support
if you need help simply reply to this message, we are online and ready to help.

Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner): Ye Jin Hong

3,000.00

Download the complete Philosophy project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled Framing Citizen Journalism in Mainstream News Coverage: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis (1999-2012)  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON Framing Citizen Journalism in Mainstream News Coverage: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis (1999-2012) 

The Project File Details

  • Name: Framing Citizen Journalism in Mainstream News Coverage: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis (1999-2012) 
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1372KB]
  • Length: [225] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

A changing media environment led by digital technology, participatory culture,  and economic crisis has made it possible for members of the public to take on the responsibility of representing common interests and actively participate in the creation and dissemination of information. However, due to the public’s participation in the
journalistic production process a variety of tensions likely exist between established journalism and citizen journalism. Like any occupation with professional objectives, professional journalists continually shield and protect their territory from potential competitors and legacy media try to fortify the privilege and special position of
professional journalism. The main purpose of this study is to investigate how mainstream journalism responds to the growth of citizen journalism phenomenon, its participants and the power of citizen journalists’ contribution on news content. Reviewing professionalism and framing theory as the theoretical foundations, this
dissertation specifically addressed the following objectives in the context of citizen journalism: (1) examine major news frames, narratives, argumentative tones; (2) explore representation of citizen news participants and citizen journalism with regard to role, norms, and values of professional journalism; (3) identify whether citizen journalism is
undermined and professional journalism is legitimized in media coverage. 308 news articles from eight major U.S. newspapers on citizen journalism phenomenon for past fourteen years were analyzed through a mixed-method approach combining quantitative and qualitative analysis. As a result of the content analysis, mainstream news articles have represented citizen journalism as a valuable phenomenon and a comparatively new phenomenon. The
data clearly unveiled that mainstream news coverage included discussions of citizen journalism from a variety of topical perspectives. However, citizen journalism has been mentioned in relation to the media industry, professional journalism, and journalism ethics more often than natural disasters and social events. Also, citizen news participants
were portrayed as journalists-related performers – either “journalists” or “collaborators” – in a half of news articles analyzed. Based on the quantitative analysis results alone, it appears that professional journalists approved of the positive value of citizen journalism in society and journalism field, and recognized the synergy between traditional journalists and citizen news participants. However, the qualitative textual analysis revealed that mainstream news
articles routinely placed citizen journalism and citizen journalists outside the boundaries of professional journalism. By portraying citizen participants as non-journalists, news professionals often articulated specific reasons why citizen participants were clearly working outside the boundaries of professional journalism. Even if citizen news
participants were portrayed as “journalists” in mainstream news articles, professional journalists were not supportive of these participants’ position as “professionals.”
Additionally, the term “collaborators” is a complicated title because collaborators are not professionals, but do cooperate with professional journalists either within the legacy media system or independently. Therefore, regardless of how citizen news participants were identified, professional journalists distinguished themselves from citizen journalists,effectively helping mainstream reporters to reinforce and legitimize their professional
status in society. More instances of journalists trying to legitimize their professional status were found. Since news articles with negative tonality largely considered citizen journalism as a dangerous or useless phenomenon, mainstream journalists explicitly legitimized their professional status in news coverage. By emphasizing harmful outcomes and dangerous side effects of citizen journalism, professional journalists found ways to justify why
citizen journalism remains inferior to professional journalism and why professional journalism is still significant in society. Even in news articles with positive tonality, journalists attempted to legitimate their status in other ways. Although mainstream journalists focused on positive aspects of citizen journalism in this group of news articles,
they continued efforts to legitimize their professional position while downplaying the status of citizen journalism. Specifically, mainstream journalists claimed that valuable citizen contributions were merely a result of access to technological innovations, favorable geographic proximity to events, and unconstrained time schedules; the values
of democracy and civic mindedness were not explicitly mentioned as motivations of citizen journalism. Professional journalists also implicitly limited the role of citizen journalism to “information delivery,” which, as in the above examples, served to successfully justify professional journalists’ status and authority.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.………………………………………………………………i
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………iii
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………………viii
LIST OF FIGURES……………………….……………………………………………….ix

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………… 1
GOAL OF RESEARCH ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH …………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

CHAPTER 2. CITIZEN JOURNALISM ………………………………………………………………. 11
CITIZEN JOURNALISM …………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
RELEVANT MODELS OF JOURNALISM …………………………………………………………………. 16
RESPONSE OF ESTABLISHED JOURNALISM …………………………………………………………. 21

CHAPTER 3. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION ……………………………………………………. 27
PROFESSIONALISM ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
FRAMING THEORY …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
LITERATURE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

CHAPTER 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS …………………………………………………………….. 54

CHAPTER 5. METHODS …………………………………………………………………………………… 61
METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
Mixed-method approach …………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
Longitudinal analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
DATA COLLECTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
ANALYSIS PROCEDURE …………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

CHAPTER 6. FRAMING CITIZEN JOURNALISM ……………………………………………… 78
DATA OVERVIEW …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
Number of news articles ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
Newspaper brands ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
Geography of news articles ……………………………………………………………………………………… 81
Types of news articles ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
News sections ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
Platforms of citizen journalism ………………………………………………………………………………… 83
NEWS TOPICS, FRAMES, PORTRAYALS, TONES ……………………………………………………… 86
Topical Perspective ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
Value Frame – The Valuable, Dangerous, and Useless frame ……………………………………… 92
The New/ Common frame ………………………………………………………………………………………. 101
Portrayals of Citizen Participants ……………………………………………………………………………. 105
Argumentative Tones ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 110
Journalistic characteristics……………………………………………………………………………………… 111
DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112

CHAPTER 7. LEGITIMIZING PROFESSIONAL JOURNALISM ……………………….. 119
IDENTIFYING CITIZEN NEWS PARTICIPANTS …………………………………………………….. 121
Citizens as Non-journalists ……………………………………………………………………………………. 122
Citizens as Collaborators ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
Citizens as Journalists …………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
LEGITIMIZING PROFESSIONAL JOURNALISM ……………………………………………………. 132
Legitimacy themes in a negative tone ……………………………………………………………………… 133
Legitimacy themes in a positive tone ………………………………………………………………………. 147
DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157

CHAPTER 8. CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………. 162
FINDINGS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 165
DISCUSSION: REVISIT PROFESSIONALISM AND BOUNDARY WORK ……………….. 170
CONTRIBUTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175
LIMITATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
FUTURE RESEARCH ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 180
BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
APPENDIX A ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206

LIST OF TABLES
Table 5 – 1 Selection of eight newspapers …………………………………………………………….. 65
Table 5 – 2 Inter-coder reliability test of main frames ……………………………………………. 75
Table 6 – 1 Number of news articles by newspaper brands …………………………………….. 81
Table 6 – 2 Number of news articles by geography ……………………………………………….. 82
Table 6 – 3 Number of article type ………………………………………………………………………. 82
Table 6 – 4 Number of news section ……………………………………………………………………. 83
Table 6 – 5 Platforms of citizen journalism …………………………………………………………… 84
Table 6 – 6 Blogs, Social Networking sites, and Micro-blogging as platforms ………….. 84
Table 6 – 7 Topical perspectives of news coverage ……………………………………………….. 87
Table 6 – 8 Numbers of three frames by years ………………………………………………………. 92
Table 6 – 9 Argumentative tones of news articles ………………………………………………… 110
Table 6 – 10 What aspects of journalism have been identified when reporting citizen
journalism phenomenon? ……………………………………………………………………………. 111

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 6 – 1 Number of news articles by year (n=308) ………………………………………….. 80
Figure 6 – 2 Citizen journalism as the Valuable, Useless, Dangerous (%) ……………….. 93
Figure 6 – 3 Citizen journalism as the New or Common (%) ………………………………… 102
Figure 6 – 4 Portrayals of citizen participants …………………………………………………….. 106

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
“Twenty years ago, on March 3, 1991, a media shock wave hit Los Angeles and the nation: the Rodney King video. As a bystander captured the incident with his home video camera, several LA police officers beat
King repeatedly while other officers stood by and watched” (Gillmor, 2011, n. p.). George Holliday’s Rodney King video represents a significant moment in the history of citizen journalism. Even though it was not the first occurrence of a citizen filming police activity, the event helped society recognize that anyone with video camera could be more than a witness to the events of our time. Indeed, as the video’s creator, Holliday himself became an essential component of how we remember the Rodney King beating. Although an ordinary citizen generated the King clip, traditional media systems still served as a powerful means for filtering, editing and disseminating news about the
event. The night following the beating, Holliday brought his 9-minute videotape to Los Angeles television station KTLA who edited and aired the piece locally then shared it with a national news station, carrying citizen-generated news content to the larger public. Almost 10 years later, citizen journalism experienced another milestone on its rise
to prominence as eyewitness accounts, survival stories, and photographs from the aftermath of 9/11 began appearing across the Internet on blogs and other websites. Citizen-generated news gained further attention when survivors and witnesses of the 2005 London Underground bombings and Hurricane Katrina shared and distributed their personal pictures, videos, and reactions to the tragedies online. Recent evolutions in social networks, video-sharing sites, and micro-blogs have provided increasingly accessible platforms for distributing citizen-generated news. Today’s mobile technology, including smartphones equipped with high quality cameras, allows nearly everyone to easily upload and share videos and photos on the web. Use of these platforms along with mobile technology helped citizen journalists play in an important role during the 2009 Iranian election protests, the so-called Arab Spring, and the Occupy Wall Street movement (Bulkley, 2012). While traditional notions of journalism are still intact, the field has greatly evolved since Holliday’s act of citizen journalism captured the Rodney King beating in
1991 (Myers, 2011). Today, everyone—not just professionally accredited journalists— has the tool to perform the practice of journalism (Flew, 2012). Many observers believe that cheap and convenient technologies such as smartphones have contributed to democratizing journalism practices and shaping participatory media culture. In
participatory media culture, “media producers and consumers are increasingly participants who interact with each other according to a new set of rules and consumers are increasingly powerful in relation to media corporations” (Jenkins, 2006, p.260). As Dan Gillmor (2007) noted said, “we used to say that journalists write the first draft of
history. Not so, not any longer. The people on the ground at these events write the first draft” (n.p.). Certainly, the emergence of citizen journalism has challenged the privilege and roles of mainstream counterpart. The category of “professional” journalist has been blurred, and “the ‘gatekeeper’ function” has become “more about professional self defense than about quality or standards, and ‘what was once a service has become a bottleneck’” (Shirky, 2008, p.69). Citizen participants “who may not adhere to professional standards and norms of reportage” have challenged “the profession’s self proclaimed mission to provide accurate and truthful information to the public in the service of democratic ends” (Chang et al., 2009, p.2). As citizen journalism is “the ultimate act of civic action in which ordinary people can participate in their own societies” (Rosenberry & St. John III, 2010, p.4), it is considered by some as a more capable model for news production than professional journalism.
Therefore, this study poses the following fundamental questions: How has mainstream journalism perceived the rise of citizen journalism? How has mainstream journalism considered the challenges citizen-generated news and citizen participants present to the roles, functions, and principles of professional journalism?
Professional authority, expertise, and the former audience To a large extent, the phenomenon of citizen journalism is another example of the larger phenomenon of the clash between “experts” and “non-experts” in the digital age.
Due to the crowd sourcing and democratizing effect of the Internet in medicine, sports, politics, education and so forth, public is able to gain knowledge that was in the past not accessible to people outside the expert’s community, which blurred the line between “expert” and “non-expert” (Weinberger, 2014). As a mixture of “professional” and
amateur”, a new term “proteur” was coined to describe a person who is on the borderline between professional and amateur; she may not be officially professional, but is as skilled as other professionals (Kemmer, 2008). For instance, “citizen scientist” is used to describe a non-professional volunteer who participates in scientific activities such as data
collection, analysis, and digital dissemination of a scientific project (Open Science, September 3, 2011). The “citizen scientist” is a clear representative of a public actor on the borderline between expert and non-expert.
Although many people welcome the increased opportunities for citizens to participate in knowledge generation and exchange, professionals have conflicting views between apprehension and support for greater and more visible audience or amateur engagement in their fields. Often, they are concerned that citizen participants pose a
challenge to the authority of their professions, and struggle to define exactly which tasks and information they should share with citizens. Therefore, this dissertation, based on studying the advent of citizen journalism from the view of professional journalists, contributes to understanding of the ongoing clash between experts and non-experts in the  digital age. Changing news room In recent years, mainstream journalism has been facing multiple changes both internally and externally (Downie & Schudson, 2009). According to The Changing Newsroom, a survey from Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism (2008), news outlets have reduced full-time newsroom staff over the past few years because of financial pressures. Similarly, many newsrooms (61%) have also reported a
decrease in their overall news holes, number of pages, and staff size, which in turn influences a range of topics in newspaper companies. News audiences have also been dissatisfied with traditional journalism because in their minds, it has become overly politicized and commercialized, often neglecting ordinary people’s concerns. This crisis
in trust between traditional journalism and the public suggests that traditional journalism and the news it produces have the potential to manipulate the truth and present a distorted view of public affairs issues (Downie & Schudson, 2009; Bowman & Willis, 2003). Additionally, the rise of citizen media, social media, and news aggressors give
audiences the option of blogs and citizen news sites, instead of traditional media
(Sambrook, 2008). The changes faced by traditional journalism outlined above challenge the uniqueness of journalism as a profession. The Internet and its surrounding digital technologies have “denied the professional journalist the coveted authority and legitimacy to set the pace, timing, and the context of news reporting” (Chang et al., 2009, p.7). The watchdog function of journalism and the traditional, normative principle of objectivity have been considered less important in this new journalism practice resulting in a redistribution of power within the field (Deuze, 2009). Some traditional news media have incorporated the work of citizen journalists into their existing news routines. On August of 2006, Cable News Network (CNN) launched I-Report, a user-generated citizen news site similar to YouTube (CNN.com, 2006). It now has more than 1.3 million contributors—up six-fold since its launch. IReporters contribute unedited and unfiltered user-generated text, image, and video content. Many compelling and vivid video clips captured by I-Reporters have been shared across the nation and the world. For instance, I-Reporter Jamal Albarghouti posted a video clip of the Virginia Tech shooting captured with his Nokia cell phone that was
disseminated to the public through CNN website and its television channel (Tompkins, 2007). CNN is not the only major news firm trying to adapt to the citizen journalism phenomenon. Other mainstream news media also launched citizen journalism and blog sites, which allow ordinary people to post and share citizen-generated news content (e.g.
MSNBC’s FirstPerson, New York Time’s The Local, ABC’s i-Caught, etc.). This change in mainstream media practices indicates that major news outlets have realized the growth of citizen journalism as a phenomenon and understand that they cannot dismiss the power of citizen journalists’ contributions to news content. By embracing citizen news in legacy media, mainstream journalism has on one hand considered citizen-generated news as legitimate information within the realm of professional journalism (Chang et al., 2009). On the other hand, however, corporate-sponsored citizen media may reproduce mainstream media’s hegemony and blur the distinction between citizen and mainstream journalism (Kperogi, 2011).

GOAL OF RESEARCH
This study focuses on the rise of the citizen journalism phenomenon from the perspective of traditional journalism. A changing media environment led by digital technology, participatory culture, and economic crisis has made it possible for members of the public “to take on the responsibility of representing common interests and actively
participate in the creation and dissemination of information” (Antony and Thomas, 2010, pp.1284-1285). However, due to the public’s participation in the journalistic production process a variety of tensions likely exist between established journalism and citizen journalism. While this new form of nonprofessional journalism has transformed the boundaries between news audience and news producer, some boundaries between professionals and amateurs still remain. Like any occupation with professional objectives, professional journalists continually shield and protect their territory from potential competitors and legacy media try to fortify the privilege and special position of
professional journalism (Waisbord, 2013). Therefore, it is possible that “journalism’s response to multiple forms of citizen journalism demonstrate the strength of professionalism as the demarcation and reinforcement of occupational boundaries” (Waisbord, 2013, p.15). The main purpose of this study is to explore how mainstream journalism responds  to this new phenomenon of citizen journalism, its participants and the impact of citizen journalism on news coverage produced by mainstream outlets. Accordingly, this dissertation will examine how mainstream news coverage represents the value, narrative, and position of this new breed of journalism and perceived new competitors. Furthermore, this study aims to investigate how established journalism identifies the role and legitimacy of professional journalism in dealing with the emergence of citizen journalism.
In doing so, this dissertation provides an examination of the nature of tensions between mainstream journalism and citizen journalism, leading to a better understanding of how established journalism has evolved in light of citizen journalism’s entrance to the journalistic field.
In order to study representations of citizen journalism from the perspective of mainstream newspapers, it is beneficial to consider professionalism and framing theory as the theoretical foundations of this dissertation. According to the sociology tradition, established journalism as professions include specialized knowledge, technical skills, practice experience, disinterested public service, professional codes of ethics, and exclusive work jurisdiction (Deuze, 2005). Journalists have power as part of information professions and hold an occupational status and privilege in society (Abbott, 1985; Chang et al., 2009). The practice of citizen journalism, which embraces various, plural voices and encourages ideal participation, has also challenged to established journalism as a new
agent of democracy (McQuail, 2001). By reviewing principles of professionalism, this study provides a sense of how normative values of established journalism have been constructed and challenged by journalism.
Professional values and legitimacy aside, the vital democratic function that established journalism has claimed as its special contribution—informing the citizenry— is also challenged by citizen journalism. Many observers charge that commercial pressures and intertwined interests between politicians and journalists have damaged
American journalism’s ability to be a real “watchdog” for the public (Nichols & McChesney, 2009; Viall, 2009). Along with ideas on the importance of journalism as a profession, framing theory is also considered a main theoretical framework in this study. News content is socially constructed and reflects dominant ideas and beliefs in a culture (Tuchman, 1978; Goffman, 1974). In particular, journalists in the process of news making always consider
embedded and taken-for-granted values, ideologies, and assumptions. Therefore, identifying news frames generated by mainstream journalists effectively illustrates how they portray the phenomenon of citizen journalism. Within these two main frameworks, this study will specifically address the following objectives in the context of citizen journalism: (1) examine major news frames, narratives, argumentative tones;

(2) explore representation of citizen news participants and citizen journalism with regard to role, norms, and values of professional journalism;

(3) identify whether citizen journalism is undermined and professional journalism is legitimized in media coverage.

STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH
Chapter 1 briefly presents research background, goals of research, and theoretical frameworks. This chapter helps the researcher and readers position this dissertation in the field of mass communication and journalism.

Chapters 2 and 3 provide a review of relevant literature. Chapter 2 reviews a variety of definitions and features of citizen journalism and distinguishes relevant models of journalism from citizen journalism. In addition, Chapter 2 presents viewpoints from the world of established journalism on the rise of citizen journalism and discusses the relationships between mainstream and citizen journalism.

Chapter 3 outlines literature about journalism as a profession and how framing theory functions as the study’s main
theoretical foundation. The first section reviews ideas behind professional journalism, normative value and roles related to journalism, and boundary work in relation to the rise of citizen journalism. The second section of Chapter 3 explores framing theory – a main body of literature in media sociology. In particular, framing literature related to news frames will be considered for the purpose of this research. In addition, literature on dynamics in journalistic field and research on news coverage of citizen journalism is reviewed and presented in the last section.

Chapter 4 explains the link between research objectives and research questions. It also introduces the two main research questions and their sub questions.

Chapter 5
discusses research methods used in this study such as quantitative content analysis and qualitative textual analysis, and also outlines data collection procedures, data analysis procedures, databases used and coding schemes.
The next two chapters review the results of this research.

Chapter 6 presents the results of the quantitative content analysis including answers to of the first set of research
questions.

Chapter 7 interprets the qualitative textual analysis results and answers the second set of research questions. Lastly,

Chapter 8 summarizes findings and implications, presents study limitations, and considers contributions of this research to the field of journalism and mass communication. This final chapter also explores possible suggestions for future research.

GET THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER:
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 - 48 hours to process your request.