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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

SHOM MLUMUN GRACE

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOREMEDATION POTENTIAL OF MICROORGANISMS IN SOIL FROM WASTE DUMPS IN YOLA-JIMETA NORTHEASTERN
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1.55 MB]
  • Length: [47] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Biodegradation has proved over time that it is the cheapest and safest method human can use to tackle waste and population. The study of biodegradation of polypropylene revels that Actinomycyte and three other unknown strains are capable of biodegrading polypropylene (making new functional group) within 3weeks. The new functional group seen after 3 weeks were ester, cyanide, and ketone. The microbial community at the Yola waste are a community of diverse organism. Each with its own unique morphology, and growth pattern. All organisms were gram positive. This means that they can adapt to high stress and a resist turgor pressure. Actinomycyte spp was able to biodegrade polypropylene by breaking the carbon to hydrogen, and breaking down carbon hydrogen bond to make carbon oxygen bonds.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………….ii
READERS’APPROVAL………………………………………………………………iii
DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………….iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………..v
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………vi
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………ix
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………x
CHAPTER 1………………………………………………………………………….1
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………..1
Waste……………………………………………………………………………………1
Composition……………………………………………………………………………….2
Waste management ………….…………………………………………………………4
Bioremediation…………………………………..……………………………………5
Degradation of waste materials by microorganisms………………………………….7
Keratin degradation…………………………………………………….……………7
Plastic degradation………………………………………………………………………………8
Anaerobic digester……………………………………………………………..……..9
Types of bioremediation…………………………………………….……………….11
Compositing …………………………………………………………………………11
Bioventing ……………………………………………………………………………………12
Case of Nigeria………………… …………………………………………………………….13
AIMS & OBJECTIVES…………..……………………………….………………..15
CHAPTER 2……………………………………………………………………….16
MATERIALS & METHODS………………………………………………16
viii
Study site………………………………………………………………………16
Sampling techniques……………………………………………………….17
CHAPTER 3………………………………………………………………………..20
RESULTS…………………………………………………………………..20
CHAPTER 4………………………………………………………………………….25
DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………….…25
CHAPTER 5…………………………………………………………………………33
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………………33.
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 34

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Every year, about 1.3 billion tons of waste is generated globally. By 2025, it is estimated that this will increase to 2.2 billion tons, with a large sum (2.13 kg/capita/day) from developing countries (Bhada-Tata, &Hoornweg, 2012). The term waste refers to items or products (organic and inorganic) that are considered useless or have lost their value (Bhada-Tata, & Hoornweg, 2012). It is a broad term items such as animal bones, plastic bags and bottles, and used clothes. Waste generation has been in existence, since the beginning of agricultural revolution, and it can be traced back to the first human civilization. As a result, waste is inevitable and cannot simply be avoided, due to urbanization (Muhammad, Huma, Munir, & Atiq, 2015). Information age, urbanization and industral age has led improve human lifestyle, in many cities, which is the major cause of increase in solid waste production (Renou, 2008).
With the emergence of the industrial age, and then the information age, urbanization could not stifled because of the human desire for securing a more comfortable life. This led to the production of waste products. Urbanization generally brings economic prosperity, and higher waste production. This is because people living in cities usually earn more income, and have several options from which they can choose from (Renou, Givaudan, Poulain, Dirassouyan, & Moulin , 2008).However, urban settlements are known to be densely populated, leading to greater amount of waste compared to non-urban areas(Renou, Givaudan, Poulain, Dirassouyan, & Moulin , 2008).

Composition of waste in urban areas
On average, urban waste dumps consist of millions of different waste materials (Bhada-Tata, &Hoornweg, 2012). The composition of a landfill or dumpsite gives an idea of the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of the waste. There are four factors that influence the composition of waste in a dumpsite: culture, seasons, laws guiding waste disposal, and demographics of people living in the area. For example, in developed countries and in urban areas people tend to consume more processed foods than unprocessed food. (Bhada-Tata, & Hoornweg, 2012).
Municipal wastes are garbage collected and transported to landfills from households and industries. Municipal waste in landfills serve as a home and substrate for microorganisms and provide a unique ecosystem for compositing and anaerobic digesters.

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