The Project File Details
- Name: IMPACT OF ENUGU STATE BROADCASTING SERVICE (E.S.B.S) RADIO ON VOTERS’ MOBILIZAITON DURING ELECTION IN 2011 A STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH MUNICIPALITY
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This research work examined the impact of radio on voters mobilization with Enugu North municipality as a case study. The survey method was used for the study, this method was done to enable the researcher discuss findings especially as there is a widespread variables. In this research, the random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 100 respondents from ten(10) wards in Enugu North municipality and 12 items questionnaire were used for data collection. Data was analyzed based on 100 returned copies of the questionnaire. Finding has revealed that radio has effectively mobilized voters based on the findings in table 7 reveal that at of 100 respondents 84 percentage of the sample population agreed that radio message gas great impact on them while 16 respondents disagreed that radio has no impact on them. Findings also shows in table 9 that 20 percent of the total sample population agreed that the radio has not been alive to the responsibility. In the conclusion from findings, radio is supposed to be a very effective tool for voters mobilization but until radio become alive to its social responsibility to the public by adopting better and effective strategies that will enhance effective mobilization of voters during election.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents viii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the study 3
1.4 Research questions 4
1.5 Significance of the study 4
1.6 Limitations of the study 4
1.7 Definition of terms 5
LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Review of concepts 7
2.2 Review of opinions 17
2.3 Theoretical framework 18
2.3.1 The media dependency theory 19
2.3.2 The social responsibility theory 20
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 22
3.1 Research design 22
3.2 Area of study 22
3.3 Sampling techniques 22
3.4 Population of the study 23
3.5 Sample size 24
3.6 Description of research instrument 24
3.7 Validity of instrument 24
3.8 Reliability of instruments 24
3.9 Method of data gathering 25
3.10 Method of data analysis 33
DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 27
4.1 Data presentation and analysis 27
4.2 Discussion of findings 33
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 36
5.1 Summary 36
5.2 Conclusion 37
5.3 Recommendations 37
5.4 Suggestion for further studies 38
1.1 Background of the Study
The electronic media began with radio transmission services.
According to Agba (2006), radio began between 1887 and 1888, a
German scientist Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) and a scientific
breakthrough to demonstrate the liberation of electric curren6t into
space in the form of waves like beams. He was laying the foundation for
the transmission of sound through radio waves.
Marconi successfully proved Hertz’s theory of electromagnetic
waves by making a compass needle turn at the same time a spark
jumped between two wires on the other side of the room, constructing a
more elaborate transmitter, Marconi sent signals across the hillside
outside the family home near Bologna (Bitnner 1989:93). So in 1906 it
was possible for the Canadian immigrant to USA, Reginald Hessenden to
broadcasr human voice and music over the air waves, which could pick
up by crystal set receiver, (Agba, 2006) thus the birth of radio station in
Radio as a means of mass communication has become one of the
most effective means of communication in the world since its discovery,
especially because of its reach as its transcends geographical linguistic
and traditional barriers Odo(2008). Radio is part of the mass media and
so outside its traditional role of educating, informing and entertaining
the public it has other salient responsibility to the society. One of which
is to mobilize the populace in the times of need. Today, Nigeria is among
the third world countries with practicing democracy.
Elections in the country have always been married with
irregularities which have gone a long way to vote for candidates of their
choice during elections as they believe that whether they vote or not, a
predetermined winner will still emerge and so this has given greater
responsibility to the mass media as an agent of social change to double
its efforts in mobilizing and sensitizing voters on the need to come out
massively to vote for candidates of their choice, which would help in
strengthening democracy and bring development to the society.
The social responsibility theory of the mass media as propounded
by Siebet, Peterson and Scram (1963) propose a functional model for the
analysis of the function of media in political evolution and maintenance
of a genuine democracy. They are as follows:
a) Enlightening the people on the need and importance of
b) Creating an enabling environment for the economy to grow
strong especially through advertising.
c) Adhering strictly to the code of ethics laid down by the press
council of Nigeria as this will motivate the journalist sufficiently
enough to withstand the pressures of government interest and
other special interest.
d) Entertaining the public with information and other well
This responsibility has placed on the shoulders of the media, an
enormous task in democratic regime as ours and efficient mobilization of
voters is part of that responsibility.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The electronic media as part of the mass media has a role to play
in any democratic process. Part of its function includes mobilizing
effectively the Nigeria populace to come out and vote massively for the
candidate of their choice who will be accountable to them. This role
makes the radio a key player in any democratic process and so it is
expected that it carries out this responsibility with all amount of
dedication so as to strengthen and entrench democracy in the country.
Especially the 2011 general elections in most polling units, only twenty
or thirty percent of the registered voters actually came out to vote.
This situation has forced many to ask if actually the media
especially the electronic media has actually performed its function of
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to:
i. Ascertain the impact of radio messages on voters especially for
the purpose of political mobilization.
ii. Examine the role of radio as a tool for social mobilization.
iii. Establish strategies that will effectively help in improving voter
mobilization during elections using radio.
iv. This work is set out to study this development.
This project therefore seeks to find out how effective has (E.S.B.S) radio
carried out this responsibility of mobilizing the electorates during
election especially in Enugu North municipality where it signals are
received by most of the residents.
1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of carrying out this research, the following
questions have been formulated to serve as guide to this study.
i) What impact does E.S.B.S radio message have on voters
especially for the purpose of political mobilization.
ii) How does radio serve as a tool for social mobilization.
iii) What strategies is ESBS radio using to mobilize voters?
1.5 Significance of the Study
In a country with a nascent democracy like Nigeria this study is
significant because it will reawaken the consciousness of media
practitioners to their responsibility to the public which will in turn help
to strengthen the democratic system in our country, Nigeria. This work
will also help in the formulation of policy recommendations that will help
the ESBS radio and other radio stations to have sustainable impact on
their listeners especially as it concerns mobilization during elections.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
This work will explore thoroughly the impact of the electronic
media on voters’ mobilization in Enugu North and the radio station
selected is ESBS radio Enugu, it was selected because of its proximity to
the researcher which helped to save cost and time. ESBS radio is a
government owned media which broadcasts twenty four hours everyday
and the 2011 and Enugu North municipal council was used as a case
study because of its population proximity to the station. The major
limitations in the course of carrying out this research were finance, time
and high demand of other academic work.
Also, the seeming difficulty of some respondents to give adequate
and relevant information to help in carrying the research was also a
major limitation to the study. Finally the difficulty that encountered in
getting relevant materials to elicit information was also a major
1.7 Definition of Terms
To aid proper understanding, the following definition of terms were
undertaken in the work.
Radio: Radio can be defined as the process of sending and receiving
message through the air using electromagnetic waves. It is also a cheap,
portable device that can be carried around.
Voters: Voter can also be defined as a person who votes or has the right
to vote especially in a political election. It is also a group of individuals
that elect their representative.
Mobilization: Simply means the process in which people work together
in order to achieve a particular aim.
Impact: According to chambers dictionary, impact means strong effect or
influence. It also means the striking of one body against another
ESBS: Enugu State Broadcasting Service “an electronic media that
transmits message through airwaves based in Enugu State, Nigeria.