The Project File Details
- Name: IMPACT OF SALT FM RADIO ON POLITICAL MOBILIZATION OF THE PEOPLE OF EZZA NORTH L.G.A. OF EBONYI STATE
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This research work examined the impact of radio on political mobilization. Survey method was used for the study. Combinations of purposive and random sampling techniques were used to draw a sample of 100 respondents from five communities of Ezza North Local Government Area (Nkomoro, Inyere, Ogboji, Ekka and Amuda community). An 18-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed based on the 94 returned copies of the questionnaire. Findings revealed that radio mobilizational programmes have influenced the people‟s choice of political participation. Findings also indicated an average exposure rate of respondents to these programmes. Based on these findings, the study recommended that Government should increase allocation of funds to the and information communication ministries so as to enable radio stations carry out more effective programmes on political mobilization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page- – – – – – – – – – – -i
Declaration- – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Certification- – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Dedication- – – – – – – – – – – -iv
Acknowledgements- – – – – – – – – – -v
Table of contents- – – – – – – – – – -vi
List of tables- – – – – – – – – – – -ix
Abstract- – – – – – – – – – – -x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study- – – – – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of the Problem- – – – – – – – -3
1.3 Objectives of the Study- – – – – – – – – -4
1.4 Research Questions- – – – – – – – – -5
1.5 Scope of the Study- – – – – – – – – -5
1.6 Significance of the Study- – – – – – – – – -5
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms- – – – – – – – -6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Review of Concepts- – – – – – – – – -7
2.2 Review of Related Studies- – – – – – – – -12
2.3 Theoretical Frame Work- – – – – – – – – -19
2.4Summary- – – – – – – – – – – -20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – – -21
3.2 Research Design- – – – – – – – – – -21
3.3 Population of the Study- – – – – – – – – -21
3.4 Sampling Technique/Sample Size- – – – – – – -22
3.5 Description of Research Instrument- – – – – – – -23
3.6 Method of Data Collection- – – – – – – – -23
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument- – – – – – -23
3.8 Method of Data Analysis- – – – – – – – – -23
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis- – – – – – – – -24
4.3 Discussion of Findings- – – – – – – – – -34
CHPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of Findings- – – – – – – – – -37
5.3 Conclusion- – – – – – – – – – -37
5.4 Recommendations and Further Studies- – – – – – – -38
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies- – – – – – – – -38
References- – – – – – – – – – – -39
Appendix- – – – – – – – – – – -41
Background of the Study
The Mass Media made up of print and electronic play a huge role as veritable instruments
of communication in every society. Radio as a medium is a tool for journalistic education,
enlightenment, mobilization, culture propaganda and entertainment. Radio promotes
economic development, stimulates political participation and arouses national
consciousness and unity.
Radio was originally brought to Nigeria in 1932 by the British colonial government and
was known as Radio Diffusion Service (RDS). It allowed the public to listen to
programmes of British Broadcasting Corporation as foreign radio. In April 1952, RDS
became the Nigerian broadcasting Service and introduced radio stations in Lagos, Kaduna,
Enugu, Ibadan and Kano. This service was upgraded to the Nigerian Broadcasting
Corporation (NBC) in 1957 by an act of parliament. The NBC was designed to serve the
communication needs of the people in the regions. In the same vein, the Broadcasting
Organizations of Nigeria (BON) was founded in 1933 to aid successful interaction of the
broadcasting media in Nigeria. The organization is used as a rallying point for coverage of
major national and international events.
Radio has the ability to serve both illiterate and literate people unlike the print media.
Radio has played major roles in greasing the wheels of the country‟s political economy. It
makes unbeatable contributions to the enhancement of the country‟s growth as exemplified
in its massive political education, enlightenment, awareness, consciousness and provision
offorafor discussion, debates and presentations. These functions were manifested during
campaign towards the 2003 general elections. It therefore provided the electorate the
opportunity to set the manifestos and programmes of political parties with a view to
helping them make mature choices during the elections. The mass media are organized
means of communication designed to reach large numbers of people without the necessity
of personal contact. Radio is regarded as the guardian of the public that examines the
political policy and programmes, educates the masses, motivates and mobilizes them for
active participation in political programmes and activities. The mass media are
indispensable to the political system in a democratic society. They constitute the fourth
estate of the realm, independent, free and responsible to the Public. They create awareness
in order for the citizens to know the problems and issues confronting the state and their
possible solutions and consequences. They provide people with information they need and
can stimulate them by presenting the ideas of others. The mass media should play a crucial
role in nurturing and sustaining the success or failure of our practice of democratic
government. To a large extent, their success depends on how well the mass media carry
out their functions as the midwife of democracy.
In Nigeria, the mass media have become instruments of political transformation of the
masses. According to Akpan (1987, p.22), media information has a tremendous energy for
change. Change in this context refers to learning which manifests mostly where a good
number of people are wallowing in ignorance. The media are needed for information to
improve all aspects of life. In the political sphere, the electorate need media information to
participate fully in elections and learn their obligation. Furthermore, Eze (1988) while
presenting his article „‟Mass Media and Social Political Transformation‟‟, noted that the
politics of any nation depends heavily on the mass media as platforms of articulating and
marketing of ideas and issues on national problems to the people.
The study will therefore examine the contributions of Radio in mobilizing and galvanizing
the people towards putting in place a stable and acceptable democratic government in Ezza
North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
1.1.1 Brief History of the Salt FM Radio (EBBS)
Ebonyi Broadcasting Service (EBBS) transmits on 98.10MHZ frequency modulation (FM)
2×2 TX. The Radio Station was established on 3rd February, 1997 with an initial 200 feet
mast and later increased to 250 feet. The test transmission of the Radio station commenced
on March, 22, 1997. Earlier, the pioneer military administration of Ebonyi State, Navy
Captain Walter Feghabo, applied for both Radio and Television Licenses to the National
Broadcasting Commission (NBC) on March 3, 1997. On July 22, 1997 EBBS Radio
started airing commercial programmes. On August 5, 1997 the first news bulletin was
transmitted while the first global news came on air on April 1, 1998.
On 5th March, 1997 the management of EBBS forwarded the draft edict of the
organization to the Ministry of Justice,Ebonyi State, through the Ministry of Information
and State Orientation for vetting. Consequently, the Ministry of Justice on September 22,
1998 forwarded a copy of the Edict to the then Military Administrator, His Excellency,
Commissioner of Police, Simeon Oduoye for assent. Thereupon, the Military
Administrator assented to it and consequently, Ebonyi Broadcasting Service (EBBS)
Abakaliki received its legal instrument (backing by Edict No.10 (1999).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In democratic societies, the mass media are the watchdog of the people. They usually
mobilize and inform the people to create awareness on political culture and other
happenings in the society. It was however observed that the level of mobilization by the
media (radio) to be precise falls short of expectation. Some people even show apathy to
the electoral process preferring to remain mere spectators due to either lack of adequate
information about the political process or because the media have not been alive to their
responsibility of being objective in their reportage. By political culture we mean the
system of politics where the traditional orientation of the citizens of a nation towards
politics, affects their perceptions of political legitimacy. The incipient crises which have so
far beset the process of nation building and political development in Nigeria has been
noted by Ofoeze (1918) as being located in the crises of political participation.
Perhaps, it could be argued that the political crises that pervade our recent past is due to
the fact that most people are apathetic about electoral situation in the country. The
sectional interest shown by some politicians and their readiness to pursue their interest is
also a threat to the survival of democracy in the state and the country at large. Apart from
ethnic influence and bias among some media practitioners which negate professional
ethics and money influence to serve the interest of others, the profession has also become
an all comer‟s affair thereby threatening its credibility.
This study is set out to answer the question; what is the impact of the Salt FM Radio on the
Political Mobilization of the people of Ezza North Local Government of Ebonyi State?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this study is in line with the nations continuous and steady march towards
inculcating democratic culture in its citizens. In effect the objectives are:
1. To find out the reach of Salt FM in Ebonyi State.
2. To determine whether Ezza North L.G.A. indigenes have access to Salt FM Political
3. To determine the extent the Salt FM can mobilize the people of Ebonyi State
4. To determine whether the people of Ezza North have other sources of information in
their political mobilization quest.
1.4 Research Questions
To guide this study, the following research questions have been formulated.
1. To what extent does the salt FM cover Ebonyi State?
2. How far are the people of Ezza North likely to access political information from Salt
3. To what extent does Salt FM mobilize the people of Ebonyi State politically?
4. Are the people of Ezza North likely to get political mobilization information through
any other source apart from the State radio?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study has chosen „‟political mobilization‟‟ by Salt FM Radio Abakaliki and residents
of Ezza North L.G.A. as the scope of study. Also in focus are the issues of ethnic
domination, mutual suspicions, apathy in the electoral process by a section of the
population and illiteracy which provides a breeding ground for power seeking politicians.
The role of the media in eliminating mutual distrust, providing effective political
education, strength, unity and encouraging participation in the electoral process will also
be covered by this study.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense importance to the residents of Ezza North L.G.A. and
Ebonyi State at large because it will reveal the need for mass media (radio) precisely in
political mobilization in Ezza North Local Government Area.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Media: Device for moving messages across distance or time to accomplish mass
Politics: The pursuit and exercise of the political process necessary to make binding policy
decision for the community and to distribute patronage and government benefits.
Mobilization: To organize or prepare group of people for action or purpose.
Political mobilization: Organizing or preparing group of people to take part in political
activities, especially the electorate of their rights and the need for full participation in the
Electoral process: Participating in the laid down process or rules by the electorate,
culminating in successful elections.