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ZAHRADEEN IBRAHIM NYAKO

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The Project File Details

  • Name: IMPACT OF WORKFORCE DIVERSITY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN CALABAR, CROSS-RIVER STATE
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [894 KB]
  • Length: [50] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

It is generally perceived that there is diversity in the workforce of any endeavor, be it business, government, or common society. This study therefore tries to discover the impact of workforce diversity on organizational performance in cross river state in Nigeria for the study. We utilized the Blau’s1977 list of heterogeneity to gauge the diversity record. While resource development for the year 2008 and 2009, utilizing 2007 and 2008 as base year was utilized to gauge the development strategy. To decide group diversity and performance outcome directed by work group context, a progression of various leveled regression analysis were conducted. The study find significant relationship between a portion of the diversity factors and also individual diversity factors with the measures of organizational performance Likewise it uncovers that sexual orientation, gender and ethnicity are negatively identified with both employee efficiency and performance reward. What’s more the study finds that sexual orientation, age and tenure diversity are decidedly connected and are essentially related. It is recommended that organization executives utilize great systems to adequately manage workforce diversity and collective research effort should be done to find out the relevant factors that direct workforce diversity to create positive performance results.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
DECLARATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
CHAPTER ONE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.1 Background to the study ………………………………………………………………………………. 8
1.2 Statement of the problem…………………………………………………………………………………. 9
1.3 Research Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
1.4 Purpose of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1.6 Scope of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
1.7 Research Method to be used ………………………………………………………………………….. 11
1.8 Definition of Terms ………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
CHAPTER TWO ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
LITERATURE REVIEWED ………………………………………………………………………………. 15
2.1 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ………………………………………………………………….. 16
2.3 INTERNAL DIVERSITY DIMENSIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
2.4 EXTERNAL DIVERSITY DIMENSION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
2.5 ORGANIZATIONAL DIVERSITY DIMENSIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE …………………………………………………………… 22
2.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ………………………………………………………………… 22
CHAPTER THREE …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.1 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
3.2 RESTATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES ………………………….. 25
In respect to the research questions, the following hypotheses will be verified. .. 25
3.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY …………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.4 SAMPLING SIZE ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
3.5 RESEARCH DESIGN ……………………………………………………………………………………. 26
3.6 CHARACTERISTIC OF STUDY POPULATION ………………………………………. 26
3.6 SAMPLING DESIGN …………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ………………………………………………………….. 27
3.9 STUDY AREA ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background to the study
The increase in world globalization today brings about continuous interactive session between people and organizations from varied backgrounds. These days, for people or organizations to be a constant competitor in the international or global market, there has to be working experience and or business transactions outside their immediate environment. Business organizations now have to put more resources and concentration on the workforce diversity phenomenon for them to remain as an active and constant competitor. In recent years there have been an increase in the study of workforce diversification amongst scholars and students of management so as to know how far the issue of workforce diversity is been handled. The recognition of workforce diversity fosters creativity and in turn, creativity drives innovation, while innovation creates competitive advantage.
Business organizations these days and most importantly managers need to be awake to monitor so as to understand the ways their workplace is evolving through diversification because managing an organization that is actively engaging in workforce diversity is a huge organizational challenge so as not to be caught off guard. Although there is an increase in the study of workforce diversification globally, there is no much information on how this experience is affecting organizations in my area. Diversity according to Weller is defined as representing a multitude of individual differences and similarities that exist among people. He further explains that diversity encompasses many human characteristics inclusively, race, age, creed, nationality, religion, ethnicity and sexual orientations (Weller 2000). Gardenswartz and Rowe exemplified the definition of diversity in a more understandable way as being like an onion that possesses layers that
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when one layer is peeled; there are still numerous cores to be revealed (Gardenswartz and Rowe 1994).
Workforce, on the other hand, can be referred to as workers employed by an organization that is engaged in specific activities. It is basically the number of employees that an organization possesses (Merriam-Webster). Organizational performance can be determined by many different activities that an organization is partaking, which can be resulted into a successful performance. Performance can be defined as a measurement of change in the financial level of an organization, or the financial result of managerial decisions and execution of those decisions.
Unarguably, each of these activities carried out by an organization, and can be recognized as a success, is unique. Furthermore, every business organization has unique sets of situations, which makes their performances measurement situational (Cameron & Whetton, 1983). As a result, a unified standpoint, workforce diversity will be studied to determine its impact on organizational performance.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The improvement in the global market has paved way for a mass globalization, which at the same time has made bilateral trade easier. Evidently, globalization is also making the international market more diversified, which is really impacting positively on the performance of the organizations that are actively engaging in workforce diversification. Although most studies have focused on the workforce diversity and its impact on organizational performance in the first world countries there are some gaps that are yet to be filled, this now brings about my problem statement ” impact of workforce diversity on organizational performance in selected business organizations in cross river state”.
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1.3 Research Questions
These following research questions will be used to determine the impact of workforce diversity on organizational performance for this project.
 How active are businesses in cross river organizations involved in workforce diversification
 How efficient has workforce diversity been in the day to day running of organizations
 The impact workforce diversity is having on some organization
Statement of Hypothesis
The hypotheses of the proposed study will be tested in relation to the research questions
Businesses in cross-river are actively involved in workforce diversification
Workforce diversity has tremendously contributed positively to the day to day running of organizations
Workforce diversity is impacting positively on organizations
1.4 Purpose of the Study
To find out if organizations in cross river engage in workforce diversity
To find out if workforce diversification contributes positively to the day to day running of organizations
To find out if workforce diversity is impacting positively to organizations
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to make organizations and management students know the level at which organizations in Calabar, Cross River state practices workforce
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diversity, and also this study will serve as a body of general knowledge to everybody so as to encourage continuous research in this area.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research will cover various organizations that engage in workforce diversification starting ranging from privately owned organizations to federal government agencies in Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria.
1.7 Research Method to be used
 Relevant research design: Descriptive
 Sampling approach: Non Probability Sampling
 Data collection approach: Questionnaires
 Measurement scale: Nominal
 Primary date
1.8 Definition of Terms
Diversity: according to Diversity Faculty Case Studies of Queens borough Community College, the concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual. Simply put, diversity can be defined as recognizing and accepting individual differences of either age, gender, culture or even work experience.
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Age Diversity: Duncan, (2003) has argued that the business case for age diversity may also be used to stake a claim against recruiting older workers, on an account of higher employment cost. Scholars of diversity talk more on age-diverse and how it displays a host of different knowledge, values and preferences. Medical, psychological and economic research has also shown that employees of different age groups differ in skills, attitudes and abilities and that these differing characteristics have different effects on productivity, Gelner & Veen (2013). Companies are advised to adjust to the aging population in different ways. Gender Diversity: this day, gender diversity in the workplace has attracted more attention because of the issue of feminism moving around the globe. The question that comes to mind is if gender composition in an organizational workforce will affect organizational performance. Some findings are against this question will some other findings go for it. Men and women differences may provide insights to different needs of male and female customers. Researchers have further argued that men and women may also have different cognitive abilities. A combination of different rational abilities in a gender diverse team may enhance overall team consistency, ingenuity and innovation leading to improved organizational performance. Work Experience Diversity: Avolto, Waldman and McDaniel (1990) noted that work experience was a better predictor of performance than age. Work experience can also have a positive effect on one’s value system, problem-solving capabilities, emotional intelligence, leading to improved individual productivity and overall organizational performance. Cultural Diversity: Zgourrides and Watson (2002) were of the opinion that differences in cultural characteristics can predict team scores which can further be interpreted as an advantage of having ethnically different views for a team, resulting

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