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- Name: impact_of_radio_nigeria_enugus_awareness_campaign_on_global_warming
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The aim of embarking on this study was to provide a well detailed account on the Impact of Radio Nigeria Enugu‟s awareness campaign on global warming using Emene community as the study area. The researcher used survey research design in the collection of data because it is easier to sought people‟s opinion using questionnaire. Stratified sampling method was used to get the sample size for this study which is 150. Data gathered from the study were analyzed, tested and interpreted using simple percentage, frequency tables and chi- square goodness of fit test which is used to test the hypothesis. The researcher was able to find out that majority of the respondents own radio set and listen to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report. It also influence them positively. The theory that led support to this work is the agenda setting theory. The researcher therefore recommends that programmes on global warming report should be aired with local languages so as to make the message more effective and understandable by people of such communities. This will go a long to enhancing the campaign on global warming. And also more airtime should be allocated to the broadcast or report on global warming by Radio Nigeria Enugu
1.1. Background of the Study
Global warming has become the most pertinent and most significant contemporary issue in
the entire globe. Today, the world is currently under the threat of global warming. Its
challenging nature can never be over emphasized neither can the world‟s vulnerability to
its effect be argued. Experts contend that the various manifestations of climate change
occur in many ways than one. These include average global temperatures, which have
increased by 0.8 centigrade since 1990; the last decade was the warmest year on record in
the southern hemisphere.
Effects of climate change are numerous including declining agricultural productivity,
insecure harvest, rising product prices, reduced productivity of farm labour, increasing
tendency of feeding on spoiled food items, increasing risk of dehydration, reducing milk
yield in dairy farms and these short comings have far- reaching negative effects on human
health and existence.
Global warming could be referred to an increase in the average temperature of the earth‟s
atmosphere especially a sustained increase sufficient to cause climate change. It can also
be caused by gaseous discharges from industries, indiscriminate and open burning of
waste, bush burning, burning of fossil fuels, use of defoliants, crude oil spillage, gas
flaring, indoor cooking, emissions from generators, mining activities, exploitation of
energy for domestic(use of charcoal, fuel, wood, pole). Major air pollutants include Cox,
Nox, particulates H2s, CFCs, Hcfcs, Dixons and furans. As a result of these emissions
from generators, mining activities, the ozone layer is gradually losing its potency and this
has led to an increase heat of radiations from the sun on the earth, which is called global
warming. Other results of these emissions apart from dangerous changes in weather
patterns including flooding, which has become unprecedented in history, persistent rise in
sea level, alarming rate of desertification, gully erosion, crop failure and a number of other
These are the modern day plagues threatening the very existence of humanity unless
Government and the people address them squarely urgently institute drastic and urgent
measures, except that all humans will eventually become vagabonds. In a keynote address
on the ministry of environment‟s 2nd summit on climate change.
Fashola states that:
“There will be threat to global food supply and even the legal order as we know it today about immigration control and border securities may give way to anxious, displaced and angry millions of refugees who will be in an uncontrollable race in search of safety and survival.”
Climate change model projection summarized I the latest intergovernmental panel of
climate change (IPCC) reports indicates that global surface temperature is likely to rise a
further 1.1 to 6.40 centigrade (2.0- 11.50f) during the 21st century. However, warming is
expected to continue beyond year 2100 even if emissions stop; because of the large heat
capacity of the ocean and long life time of carbon- dioxide (Co2) in the atmosphere.
Today, most National Governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto protocol aimed at
reducing greenhouse gases.
Radio help to enhance people‟s general knowledge by providing them with information
from all over the world. It is also the fastest means of passing information. Its portability
cannot be over emphasized. Radio serves as the best means of speedy spread of news about
important incidents or events taking place. What has happened in the remotest corner of
the world can reach within minutes. Hence, there is need for this research to find out the
impact of Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on the people of Emene Community.
The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century
when ice ages and other natural changes in pale climate were first suspected and the
natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that
human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate, but the calculations were
disputed. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from
volcanism to solar variation.
In the 1960‟s the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing,
although some scientists also pointed out that human activities, in the form of atmospheric
aerosols (example “pollution”), could have cooling effects as well. During the 1970‟s,
scientist opinion increasingly favored the warming viewpoint. By the 1990s, as a result of
improving fidelity of computer models and observational work confirming the
Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, a consensus position formed: greenhouse gases were
deeply involved in most climate change and human emissions were bringing serious global
Since 1990s, scientific research on climate change has included multiple disciplines and
has expanded, significantly increasing our understanding of casual relations, links with
historic data and ability to numerically model climate change. The most recent work has
been summarized in the assessment reports by the intergovernmental panel on the climate
Regional changes, antiquity through 19th century from ancient times, people suspected that
the climate of a region could change over the course of centuries. For example,
Theophrastus, a pupil of Aristotle, told how the draining of marshes had made a particular
locality more susceptible to freezing, and he speculated that land became warmer when the
clearing of forests exposed them to sunlight. Renaissance and later scholars saw that
deforestation, irrigation, and grazing had altered the lands around the Mediterranean since
ancient times; they thought it plausible that these human interventions had affected the
The most striking change came in the 18th and 19th centuries, obvious within a single
lifetime. The conversion of eastern North America from forest to crop lands. By the early
19th century many believed the transformation was altering the region‟s climate probably
for the better. When sodbusters took over the Great Plains they were told that “rain follows
the plough”. Not everyone agreed. Some experts reported that deforestation not only
caused rainwater to run off rapidly in useless floods, but reduced rainfall itself. European
professors, alert to any proof that their Nations were wiser than others, claimed that the
Orientals of the Ancient near east had heedlessly converted their once lush lands into
Meanwhile, national weather agencies had begun to compile masses of reliable
observations of temperature, rainfall and the like. When the figures were analyzed they
showed many rises and dips, but no steady long term change. By the end of the 19th
century, scientific opinion had turned decisively against any belief in a human influence on
climate. And whatever the regional effects, few imagined that humans could affect the
climate of the planet as a whole.
Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria
The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria was originally founded in 1933 by the British
colonial Government, named the diffusion service; it allowed the public to hear the British
Broadcasting Corporation‟s foreign radio service broadcasts in certain public locations
In April 1950, the RDS became the Nigerian Broadcasting service and introduced radio
stations in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan and Kano. This service was re-organized into the
Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) on April 1, 1957 by Act of Parliament. Its
mission was to provide, as a public service, independent and impartial broadcasting
By 1962 the NBC had expanded its broadcast stations into Sokoto, Maiduguri, Ilorin,
Zaria, Jos and Katsina in the North; Port Harcourt, Calabar and Onitsha in the East, and
Abeokuta, Warri, and Ijebu- Ode in the west. Each of these stations was considered a
subsidiary station of a regional station. The subsidiary stations broadcast local interest
programmes during part of the day, and then relayed programming from their regional
station during the rest of the broadcast day. National programs were broadcast from two
shortwave transmitters and one medium wave transmitter located in Sogunie, near Lagos.
In the late 1960, the federal parliament amended the NBC ordinance to allow the sale of
commercial advertisements. The first adverts ran on October 31, 1961 and were broadcast
from Lagos. By 1962 regional and provincial broadcasters began selling adverts to local
businesses. The goal of allowing radio advertisements was to help provide additional
funding to NBC stations beyond that received from the Government.
The federal parliament approved the creation of Voice of Nigeria (VON) external
shortwave service in 1961. Broadcasts began on January 1, 1961 from Lagos State. Its
initial operations were limited to two hours a day to West Africa, but by 1963 VON had
expanded both its coverage and transmission times with the addition of five additional
In April 1961, with financial assistance from the ford foundation and technical assistance
from the British Broadcasting Corporation, NBC began National school broadcasting
service in April 1961. The NBC schools unit broadcast lessons in various school subjects
for primary and secondary schools as well as special programs for teachers training
college. The schools unit was based in Ibadan. The NBC and the Broadcasting Corporation
of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) were merged in 1978 to become the Federal Radio
Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN).
Medium wave transmitters previously owned by the NBC were transferred to the
individual state Government where the transmitters were located. At the same time, the
State transferred short wave transmitters to the FRCN.
IN 1996, VON installed three high power transmitters at its Ikorodu transmitter site,
allowing worldwide transmissions for the first time.
FRCN medium wave service, Radio Nigeria, has 25 stations located throughout the
country and together with voice of Nigeria considers itself to have the largest Radio
network in Africa.
In 2007, FRCN began introducing FM transmitters in some locations and plan to begin
upgrading and modernizing its shortwave and medium wave transmitters in the coming
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
For many year now, series of human activities such as industrial and other economic
activities of man on the surface of the earth have been going on ignorantly without putting
into consideration the adverse or negative effect of all these activities on the planet in
particular and the environment in general.
Today, these human activities on earth or environment have degenerated to what is now
called global warming which has now posed a serious challenge to the survival of man in
the whole world.
The problems therefore are as follows;
To determine the extent Emene community has been exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu
To know the level of acceptance of these reports by Emene community.
To determine the level of application of the Radio Nigeria weather reports by Emene
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
1. To identify how Radio Nigeria Enugu has been able to influence people‟s attitude
towards information on weather change.
2. To identify whether Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has played any role in
changing the perception of the people of Emene community on information on Global
3. To understand the economic advantages of Radio Nigeria Enugu‟s awareness campaign
on global warming on the people of Emene community.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were used by the researcher as a guide.
1. To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report influence the attitude of the
people of Emene community towards environmental management?
2. To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report been able to change people‟s
perception on information on Global warming?
3. What is the level of awareness on global warming created by Radio Nigeria Enugu
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Hi: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has influence on the attitude of
Emene residence on their environmental management.
Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has no influence on the attitude of Emene
residence on their environmental management.
H2: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has been able to change people‟s perception
on information on global warming.
Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not been able to change people‟s
perception on information on global warming.
H3: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has created high level of awareness on global
Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not created high level of awareness on
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research is focused on the challenges and possibility of creating awareness of the
dangers which human activities pose on the environment using Radio Nigeria Enugu as a
study Area. The study is limited to Emene community in Enugu East Local Government
Area, Enugu State. That is those who are exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu news
programme from January to June 2014.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study is justified by the need to highlight the importance of Radio involvement in the
campaign on global warming. It would be a reference material to students and other
researchers who carryout studies in the same field.
The study will provide information on how to control global warming.
The result of the study will sensitize media managers on the importance of weather report.
The study will help to determine the rate at which the programme changes perception of
Emene community about global warming.
It highlights how Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on global warming
encourages a forestation among Emene community.
1. 8 Operational Definition of Terms
Impact: The feelings of the people of Emene community after been exposed to Radio
Nigeria Enugu weather report from January to June 2014.
Radio: Electromagnetic wave carrying information from Radio Nigeria Enugu to the
people of Emene community.
Awareness: The level of information about global warming by the people of Emene
Campaign: Series of Radio Nigeria Enugu weather reports exposed before Emene
Global warming: The rise in temperature of Emene Community from 37c to 39c from
January to June 2014.