Original Author (Copyright Owner): Olabode Olaoluwa


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Issue of alcohol use among secondary school students is becoming a thing of concern to the world at large. The present study investigated the influence of gender and locality on alcohol abuse among secondary school students in Ekiti state.
The study adopted ex-post facto research design. A total of 200 undergraduates were accidentally sampled in the study. These participants were administered with severe alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ) together with demographic information. Three hypotheses were tested in the study using independent samples t-test and none was confirmed significant.
Gender has no significant influence on alcohol abuse. . (t=-1.683; df =248; p= >.05). Therefore, hypothesis one was rejected.
Locality has no significant influence on alcohol abuse. (t=-1.429; df =248; p= >.05). Therefore, hypothesis two is rejected
The result of the tested hypotheses showed that gender and locality has no significant influence on alcohol abuse. (f=-.799; df =1; p= >.05). We therefore reject hypothesis three.
Based on these findings, it is concluded that gender and locality does not have a significant influence on alcohol abuse among secondary school students in Ekiti state.
On the basis of this findings, the researcher recommended that young people be educated on the use of alcohol, the dangers of taking it too much, what it does to their body system and how it alter things in the brain.
Keywords: Gender, Locality, Alcohol abuse.
Word count: 226


Background of study
Early alcohol use has been shown to increase risk for chronic alcohol addiction and other alcohol problems in later life (Hingson, Heeren, and Winter, 2006; Masten et al., 2009). The American Psychiatric Association, in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM–IV), established two diagnoses of alcohol use disorders: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). To be diagnosed with alcohol abuse, at least one of four symptoms1 must be present within a 1-year period, and to be diagnosed with alcohol dependence, at least three of seven possible symp-toms2 must be present within a 1-year period. Some researchers and clinicians do not believe that this diagnostic system is adequate for youth. Adolescents tend to experience additional symptoms of problem alcohol use that are not included in these diagnostic criteria, such as blackouts, passing out, risky sexual behavior, craving, and a drop in school grades (Martin et al., 1995).
Due to civilization and urbanization, most societal norms and values are fading gradually. As at the pre-colonial era the only alcoholic drink in Nigeria were palm wine and ogogoro (local dry gin) which were only used by adults and can as well be used for ceremonies and as medicine. Today civilization and science have increased the number of alcoholic drink in the society for example, spirits, beer, wine etc. This makes alcohol to be always available when needed. Based on this fact, many people especially youth now indulge in alcoholic drinking. Thus, majority drinks it without control while others has made it part of their life. Others see it as an alternative to food. The trend is much among adolescents who use it for excitement, boosting of moral and so on. This ugly situation knows no boundary in relation to gender, culture, socio-economic status and even religion. The abuse of alcohol by adolescents and the problems associated with it have become a great concern to researchers. Studies have linked alcohol consumption by adolescents to a number of negative consequences, ring-up from vandalism to sexual assault.
Drug abuse among teens is the great problem that has speeded all over the world. In Jamaica, the use of drugs abuse by teenagers has more increased over the decades in studying the drug usage patterns of Jamaican teens discovered that while usage was not dependent on sex. In 1989, 78 percent of teens males and percent of teen female were using one of the four drugs (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and tobacco) between 1994 and 1995; it indicates that 60 percent of the teens have tried one or more drugs including marijuana while 1.3 percent has used cocaine. These alarming levels of reported drug abuse continued to grow as in 2006, one(1) in every three (3) students in secondary schools admitted to use the hashish while one (1) of the ten (10) students admitted to currently using drugs. (Gleaner , 2010),(Alexander.2001).
A 2015 study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) indicated that more than 58% of 12thgraders had consumed alcohol and nearly 24% had used illicit drugs in the past year.1Teenagers and young adults get involved with alcohol and drugs for many reasons, including
Curiosity: They want to know what it feels like to be drunk, intoxicated, or high.
Peer pressure: Their friends are doing it or pressuring them to do the same.
Acceptance: Their parents or role models are doing it and they want to feel accepted by those they look up to.
Defiance: They want to rebel against rules placed on them.
Risk-taking behaviors: They want to send out a call for help.
Thrill-seeking activities: They want to experience something other than numbness.
Boredom: They feel there is nothing else to do, and trying drugs or alcohol gives them a feeling of excitement.
Independence: They want to make their own decisions and assert their own independence.
Pleasure: They want to feel good.
Teens are dealing with a heavy mix of emotions, and drugs can help numb any pain and make them feel better even when times are tough. Peer Pressure At any age, people wants to be liked and accepted by those around them. This is especially true for adolescents and teens that are going through a process of transformation from childhood into adulthood. They are still discovering who they are, and through the confusion that often causes, want all the more to be accepted by their peers. Imagine you find yourself with someone you trust and admire. You are handed a bong, a bottle, or some pills and offered a place in the crowd. Even the most upstanding student may be tempted to try just this once. Teens give into peer pressure for many reasons, including: Fear of rejection. Not wanting to be made fun of. Not wanting to lose a friend. Not wanting to hurt someone’s feelings.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In 2001, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 2002) reported that, of youth who drank four or more drinks on at least one occasion during the past 30 days, 44 percent carried a weapon and 22 percent carried a gun, as compared with 10 percent and 3 percent, respectively, of those who never drank. Frequent heavy drinkers became engaged in fights (both in general and at school) more frequently than nondrinkers (Hingson and Kenkel, 2004). In 2001, 696,000 college students were hit or assaulted by another college student who had been drinking (Hingson, Zha, & Weitzman, 2009). Dating violence also occurs much more frequently among underage drinkers than nondrinkers. Those who drank heavily and frequently were much more likely to have been hit or slapped by a boyfriend or girl-friend and to have been forced to have sex (Hingson and Kenkel, 2004). More than 70,000 students between ages 18 and 24 are victims of alcohol-related sexual assaults (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2007). Alcohol is often a factor for both assailants and victims in these assaults. As many sexual assaults
are never reported, the actual rates of alcohol-related attacks may be much higher (Bonnie and O’Connell, 2004).
Adamu (2009), described drug abuse as the use of chemical substance illicit which results in the Individual physical, mental and emotional or social impairment. Rimfat (2003) posits that some students take drugs with intention to belong to a peer group. This is because of fear of being isolated from the group. According to Ajila (1999) many students are found in the habit of indulging in Heroin, Cocaine, Marijuana. Tobacco, Alcohol Caffeine Mandrax, Chinese capsule, Valium, Proplus, Phospherine/Reactivan and Dextierine which were grouped into three categories namely, hallucinogen, depressant or sedative and stimulant.
Nigeria, research has revealed that a substance use prevalence rate of 71.7% (81.5%) of the adolescents substance users were males as against 18.4 females. Ebie & Obiora further noted an interesting wide spread of substance abuse among adolescents in many African countries. Makanjuola, revealed the pattern of substance abuse among medical students in Nigeria. They observe a high rate of milled stimulant (alcohol and sedative/tobacco) use among the medical students. Alcohol is a depressant, which means that it reduces the activities of the nervous system. It is regarded as a central nervous system depressant (DNSD). It is in the same family as valium. As a depressant, its initial effect is an apparent stimulation; it gives a feeling of well-being, reduces inhibition, and makes one to be more out-going. This is because the inhibitory centers in the brain are initially de-pressed or showed down with continued drinking, however, alcohol depresses more areas of the brain, which impedes the ability to function properly Motor co-ordination is impaired (staging, slurred speech), reaction showed, it causes confusion and reduction in judgment ability even vision and hearing can be negatively affected
1.3 Purpose of Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of gender and locality on alcohol abuse among secondary school student. Specific objective are as follows:
1. To examine gender difference on alcohol abuse among secondary school student
2. To examine influence of locality on alcohol abuse among secondary school student.
1.4 Significance of study
This study will educate teenagers the dangers and consequence of alcohol abuse, the harm it cause to their health and brain.
This study will add to existing body knowledge, it will enable us find out reason why teenagers engaging in alcohol abuse and how it can be tackled in the society.



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