The Project File Details
This study examines the influence of N.T.A Enugu in improving rural health care services in Ugwuaji community in carrying out this research both primary and secondary data were used and the researcher made use of sample size of 360 respondents across the local government area. Descriptive statistics were used and the findings showed that N.T.A play notable roles in improving rural health care services by informing the government on the poor state of health services on Ugwuaji community as noted by 27.8% of respondents sensitizing, the rural populace (Ugwuaji community to appreciate and participate on government health programmes as noted by 47.22% of respondents mobilizing the masses for positive actions towards health improvement e.g environmental sanitation nutrition e.t.c as noted by 100% of respondents. This research therefore builds its foundation on the affirmation of the diffusion of innovation theory which shows the ability of the media to sensitize the audience on the existence of some diseases and mobilizing them towards accepting some decisions or strategies that will help to improve the general health of the rural dwellers. This research thereby recommends that government should regularly sponsor health programmes in N.T.A. The government should provide infrastructural facilities such as good roads, electricity, and telecommunications and also government should improve literacy level of rural dwellers in order for them to participate on health programmes.
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents v
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Significance of the study 7
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the study 8
1.7 Operational Definition of terms 8
1.8 Assumptions of the study 9
CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 10 2.1 Sources of Literature 10 2.2 Review of Related Literature 14 2.2.1 Information Dissemination as a strategy for Improving Rural Health Care Sources 11 2.2.2 Television and Rural Improvement, An Overview 12 2.2.3 The Concept of Broadcasting 13 2.2.4 The Effect of Media on Rural Development 14 2.2.5 Media in Relation to Rural Development 24 2.2.6 The Media a Potential Tool for Encouraging Rural Development 15
2.3 Theoretical Framework: Diffusion of Innovation Theory 17 2.4 Summary of Literature Reviewed 23 CHAPTER THREE 3.1 Research Design 25 3.2 Population of study 25 3.3 Sample and sampling Technique 25 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 26 3.5 Validity of the Instrument 26 3.6 Method of Data Collection 27 3.7 Method of Data Analysis 37 CHAPTER FOUR Data Analysis and Result 4.1 Data Analysis 28 CHAPTER FIVE 5.1 Discussion of Findings 39 5.2 Conclusions 40 5.3 Recommendations 41 References Appendix
1.1 Background of the Study
Health is the most essential ingredient of life, deny man of that, he remains
impotent in life. People do not value their good state of health until they have
experienced one form of sickness or another.
However, as it is being said that health is wealth, issues of health has
overwhelmed our daily comments since revolution of science.
According to records, sickness of various kinds has endangered the life of
various citizens of Nigeria before, during and after the reign of colonial masters.
Even at present people of Nigeria among other developing countries sign our
detriment of sickness especially communication diseases like syphilis, AIDS etc.
On the other hand, communication system during the era was at its functional
stage. The people of the third world countries rely on local communication for their
exchange of ideas. The use of metal and wooden gong gun shots and smokes do not
impact much information to people and some knew they are selective in nature and
health messages are retarded.
Communication came and persisted in its function to enthrone philosophers
and scientists quest to standardize the health welfare of people, communication has
modernized people of the Third World and made their embrace changes in their health
environment. One would say that since the advent of modern communication system,
health issues have embraced a new and prosperous era in the society.
Communication functions to educate, inform and enculturete the people on the
novel Medicare. Since then, the policy of health has been a dynamic ongoing process,
less academia would ask mullion question on the immunization programmes since
sickness has been pervasive, government, non-governmental organization and
individual are to fight it to a stop through the media.
Just as communication is indispensable in any human activity, Nigerian
Television Authority as a broadcasting medium nearest to Ugwuoji community is
very vital to the sensitization of the rural areas or a large, heterogeneous people for
any activity that is of interest to them.
The importance of communication in our daily lives cannot be over
emphasized. Communication is central to human existence and all human activities
that it will be hard for any person, group, institution or any nation to neglect it in their
economic, political, health and social lives. It is the most essential factor for building
or developing an organized, united, healthy or progressive nation or society.
If N.T.A. Enugu does not play any role on improving rural health care
services, there will be no effective solution to rural health problems especially on
preventing the most rampant sickness which is malaria in the rural area.
Based on the facts above, one can say that in any communication through
television should occupy a key position in the interest of this research. The
improvement of the rural health care services is one of the cardinal objectives of the
Nigerian government since the nation’s independence. In suggesting a plan or a
design for a health care system of the rural area in Nigeria, government planners are
ever conscious of a feeling that they are working in “in vacuo”. This is due to the lack
of extensive and detailed factual information as regards the state of the existing health
care services which also have relevance to the needs of the communities. They are
designed to serve, but should also be with the resources of the states of the nation
concerned. Hence it would be to assume the existence of adequate financial support,
manpower of various kinds and physical facilities, including equipment and suppliers.
In addition it would be illogical to ignore the existence of administrative and
operational structures, which will be to ensure adequate and timely logistic support.
It is almost impossible to design a system of health care service which is
applicable to every rural area in Nigeria in view of the different socio-economic
conditions. Each state or local government thus have to assess the available
alternatives, consider its own problems and then decide on priorities and organization.
This assessment may result in changing or modifying an existing system or even
involving new concepts. It is, however, important to state that Nigeria is developing
rapidly and modernizing at the same time, and it should be realized fully that health
care can help or hinder such process. Health care services in Nigeria are very
inadequate and disease is treat to the efficiency of the population. This threat is
nowhere more glaring than on rural areas, where very little has been done to ascertain
the rural needs of the people and to plan to meet them with available resources.
Expenditure on health in Nigeria has therefore, so far failed to cover the essential
actions necessary to provide for the basic health needs of the greater proportion of the
The objective of any system is usually to provide basic health care to the rural
areas of Nigeria where more than 70 percent of the people live, so that care is
available to all the people all the time and as near as possible to their homes. This is
done within the resources available to the state and local governments of Nigeria and
in their socio-economic context, with a view to promoting the principles on which the
World Health Organization (W.H.O) is founded. These principles, according to Nzewi
(2001) are as follows:
Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmities.
The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the
fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion,
political belief, economic or social condition. The health of all people is fundamental
to the attainment of peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest co-operation
of individuals and states. The achievement of any state on the promotion and
protection of health is of value to all unequal development in different countries in the
promotion of health and control of disease, especially communicable disease. The
absence of this is a common danger.
Health development of the child is of basic importance, the ability to live
harmoniously in a changing total environment is essential to such development. The
extension to all people of the benefits of medical psychological and related knowledge
to the fullest attainable standard of health informed opinion and active co-operation
on the part of the public are of utmost importance in the improvement of the health of
Governments have a responsibility of the health of their people which can be
fulfilled only by the provision of adequate health and social measures. The desire to
improve the health care services as well as to disseminate the information to the mass
as on the attitudes that guarantee health living in Nigeria had made the government to
recognize the importance of N.T.A. on the promotion of health care services.
In this regard, the media had been widely used in health campaigns across the
country. Some of the most popular of such campaigns were successfully carried out
through the media (N.T.A.). Some of the most popular campaign are Roll Back
malaria programme, immunization programme in addition, during these campaigns,
Nigerian Television Authority (N.T.A.) was used for highlighting major health hazard
and to suggest the strategies for ameliorating the health conditions of the rural
In other words, Nigerian Television Authority (N.T.A.) was used to present
the health problems of the rural people and possible solution is easily understood in
terms and forms. Besides, in the 1960’s and 1970’s Nigeria; the ignorance on health
issues were tortured by the epidemic of child diseases especially in early 70’s and late
Also epidemic sexual transmitted diseases like Gonorrhea peppered the
youths, married men and women. During this period, over 20,000 citizens especially
the children between the ages of one to ten years lost their lives. This is because
people in the rural areas dwell more on roots and herbs with little or no precautions.
These threatened the health of the nation and then pushed the country for campaign
relieved people from these predicaments.
Furthermore, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recent
recognized disease throughout the world. First it is caused by infection with the
human immune deficiency virus (HIV) which attack selected cells in the immune
system and produces defects in function.
AIDS cases were first reported in 1981 in U.S.A. because it was common
among homosexual then it was originally termed “Gay related immune deficiency
virus (HIV). Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) which compares as channel of
mass communication has been empowered by recent technological innovations to
disseminate relevant information to the rural areas on the hazard of this endless
sickness, such sickness is like measles, tetanus and whopping cough have reduced its
victimization to the members of the society in the recent days.
Consequently the benefits of immunization programme cannot be over
emphasized. At present, children, youths and even adults of age are relieved from
contaminating diseases. The Nigerian Television Authority was chosen as a case
study in dedermining the role it plays as a broadcast medium in improving rural health
because it is the most effective and nearer to people of Ugwuaji community.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem to investigate the extent to which television stations have
influenced or have helped to improve rural health care services in Ugwuaji
community. Since it is necessary to accomplish the objectives of this study, therefore
it is imperative to make the information flow across the whole community. Hence the
problem on this research work are:
1. The primary problem of the study is to evaluate the role of Nigerian
Television Authority in terms of packaging rural health care programmes
that will enable them function more efficiently, accurately in improving
rural health care services
2. To find out the problem of religion and culture value of the community. If
it can make them not to accept rural health programmes based on
3. To find out the effort of television couverage in various health
programmes and to see if it can influence or improve rural health care
services and the initiatives of Ugwuaji people.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of this research are as follows:
1. To examine the role of the Nigerian Television Authority in the
improvement of rural health care services in Ugwuoji community.
2. To identify those factors that prevent Nigerian Television Authority from
fulfilling these roles
3. To suggest the strategies for enhancing the efforts of Nigerian Television
Authority on the crusade for the improving of rural health care services.
1.4 Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions
1. How does television information (NTA) help the people of Ugwuaji
community to develop interest in rural health care programme?
2. How does Ugwuaji community embrace N.T.A. health programmes on
prevention of common diseases?
3. To what extent does N.T.A. encourage health development on Ugwuaji
4. What are those factors that prevent Nigerian Television Authority from
fulfilling these roles?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings and recommendations to be made on this study if implemented
will improve the activities of the media in the area of improvement programmes of
rural health care services. This Nigerian Television Authority will do by attracting
health improvement programmes to the rural areas through the dissemination of vital
health information to both the government and the masses.
Nigerians in general will also benefit from this research. This is because the
improvement of the health care services at the rural areas will make positive impact in
their lives since more than 80 percent of them live in the rural areas. A healthy nation
is a wealthy nation, the implementation of the findings of this study will help to build
a strong verile and self-reliant nation that would be emulated by other nations.
Through this study, Ugwuaji community will learn some strategies on how to
prevent some rampant disease that are common in rural areas, for example malaria.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study borders on the media and its contributions to the improvement of
rural health care services. It equally extended the border line to include the
characteristics of the rural areas. The study is limited to the staff of the Nigerian
Television Authority (NTA) Enugu. The work is also expected to evaluate the health
coverage on Ugwuaji community by Nigerian Television Authority (NTA), but we
would not in all expectation claim hundred percent (100%) success, as a result of the
problems that may crop during the research.
However, the study as to a reasonable extent affected by unavailability of
human resources, incredible return of our shared questionnaire, which jeopardized our
explanation on some necessary aspects of the topic.
1.7 Definition of Terms: Operational Definition
This can be seen as the interior part of the country side that is not developed.
Rural is also a non-urbanized or village community which could be located in a city,
adjacent to the city or far away from the city.
Rural Health It is the study of health and health care delivery in rural environments. The health of the rural dwellers are critically examined and analyzed.
1.8 Assumption of the Study It is assumed that, majority of the rural dwellers though has been threatened by one sickness or another has not actually adhered to instructions and warning for health, victimization. The implication of health hazards to individual life and the society in general, considering the destructive tendencies it passes on our nearest future with its promise and aspiration, need a re-addressing to improve the living standard. Equally, we assume that the mass media is not versatile in health campaign unless it is a bad announcement, that mass messages on health do not create a powerful effect on the public.
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