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The research investigated the influence of parenting style, locus of control and self-efficacy on
teenage pregnancy. One hundred and four pregnant teenagers participated in the study. The
adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 years to 18years, with mean age of 15 years. Three hypotheses
were tested in the study. Three instruments: Parenting Styles Inventory, Locus of Control Scale
and General Self-efficacy Scale were used to elicit responses from participants. The result shows
that parenting style significantly influences teenage pregnancy (β= .29, t =3.12, p < .05). The result
also shows that locus of control significantly influence teenage pregnancy (β= -.28, t = -2.88, P <
.05). The result equally indicated that self efficacy significantly influences teenage pregnancy (β=
30, t = 3.01, P <.05). The implications and limitations of the findings were highlighted and
suggestions made for further
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 8
Operational Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 11
Theoretical Review 11
Parenting Styles Theory 11
Locus of Control Theory 14
Social Learning Theory 15
Social cognitive theory 16
Attribution Theory 18
Empirical Review of Literature 19
Summary of Literature Review 25
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 30
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 32
Implications of the study 34
Limitation of the study 35
Suggestions for further studies 36
Summary and Conclusion 36
Teenage pregnancy is a major social problem associated with many negative outcomes for the
mother, child and society. Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy between the ages of 12 to 18
years. Teenage pregnancy is often associated with poverty, low self-esteem, low expectations,
low educational attainment and low educational aspirations. Unfortunate, involvement of
adolescents in pre-marital sex is on the increase in Nigeria. According to the National Center for
Health Statistics (NCHS), four (4) out of ten (10) girls get pregnant at least once before the age
of 18. There are about one million teen pregnancies each year, and about half as many birth
(NCHS, 2001). Thus, the increase in teenage pregnancy is alarming. Black adolescent aged 12 to
18 experience significant high rates of teen pregnancies. However, absence of records, would not
allow for figures of teen pregnancy in Nigeria.
Adolescence has been described as a phase of life beginning in biology and ending in
society (Peterson, 1988). It may be understood as the period within the life span when most of a
person’s biological, cognitive, psychological and social characteristics are changing from what is
typically considered child-like to what is considered adult-like (Learner & Spainer, 1980).
Indeed, adolescents experience many problems, including teen pregnancy, alcohol, drug abuse,
violence, school failure and eating disorders (Callalian & Stein, 2003). Specifically, teenage premarital
childbearing is associated with a number of negative consequences for both mother and
child such as lower earning and increased chances of poverty (Hofferth, 1987). It also leads to
substantial public cost for income support, health care, and social services (Burt & Livy, 1987).
Furthermore, being sexually active is the first step to potential pregnancy and parenthood.
A weak association has been found between sexual maturity and earlier dating and intercourse
(Cubis, Lewin & Raphael, 1985), which suggests the influence of biological factors. However,
the determinants of sexual behavior are complex in our biological, and psychological makeup.
That is why we cannot explain sexual behavior, based on biological or psychological term alone
as cultural and economics social situation exposes individuals into sexual behavior. Moore and
Rosenthal (1993) provided a comprehensive list of factors shaping young people’s sexual views
and practices. Some of the determinants of sexual behavior include family influences, peer
influence, youth culture and media, socio-economic factors, schools and educational/academic
performance. Parents who held strong traditional views about premarital sex and communicated
these to their daughters were the only group able to influence their children’s sexual behavior
(Moore & Rosenthal, 1993). Relationship within the family is also significant. It has been
suggested that there is a link between the young people’s satisfaction with their child-mother
relationship and the likelihood of them being sexually experienced (Jaccard, Dittus &
Studies shows that lack of attentive and nurturing parents was linked to early sexual
activity while a stable family environment was associated with later initiation of sexual
intercourse (White beck, Hoyt, Miller & Kao, 1992). Parents also may be important in
influencing young people’s use of contraception. Direct discussion about sexual behavior with
teenagers and their parents were found to be most effective in year 9 and 10 (Baker, 2007). In
later high school years and beyond, peer approval was more influential (Treboux & Bush-
Rossnagel, 1995). Peer association has been indicated as one of the strongest predictors of
adolescent sexual behavior (Diblasio & Benda, 1994). Youths that do not engage in sex tend to
have friends who abstain. Males, reported more pressure from peers to be sexually active while
females report more pressure from partners (Ponzett, 1997). Thus, the influence of peers appears
to differ between genders, for example the use of contraception by young women, but not men,
was found to be influenced by peer attitudes (Thompson & Spanier, 1978). Similarly, Udry
(1985) reported that the sexual activity of girls was influenced to a greater extent by their friends,
in contrast to boys whose sexual activity was more related to biological factors. Moore and
Roseental (1993) pointed out that in western societies the prolonged transition to adulthood has
given rise to a distinct youth culture. This culture has a considerable impact on teenagers’
opinions and behavior, with many young people conforming to particular leisure activities as
well as sexual attitudes and behavior. The major influences on this culture are mass-media.
According to Mccabe (1995), the media’s message is that adolescents can be sexually
Schools have an important role in offering appropriate information to young people about
sex. However, young people do not rely on such information. They do not receive it as credible
(Moore & Rosenthal, 1993). They prefer to relay on parents or peers. Thus, lack of trust in
teacher’s knowledge was identified as a major reason for teenager’s doubt about this information
(Goldma, 1982). Mccabe (1990) suggested that social class had no impact on sexual activity.
However, there is evidence in Australian research of a correlation between employment status
and sexual experience (Cubis, Lewin & Raphael, 1989). From the surveyed group of sexually
experienced adolescents in the Newcastle area, 53% were unemployed, compared to 125 at
school, 17% at a tertiary institution and 28% who were working (Cubis, et al., 1985). Also,
Brewster (1994), found that teenager females living in a socio-economically disadvantage urban
environment were more likely to be sexually experienced.
A link has been established between sexual activity and lower academic performance.
Research by Ohannessian and Crocket (1993), suggest that academic achievement by girls
predicted postponed sexual activity. Thus, educational achievement and clear goals have been
identified as impacting on sexual activity with high achievers having lower rate of pre-marital
sex among both males and females (Moore Rosenthal, 1993). On the other hand, children’s
characteristics influence the parenting style they receive (Samson &Rothbert, 1995). These
characteristics include such variables as age (Fagot Kavanagh, 1993), gender (Kerig, Cowan &
Cowan, 1993) and temperament (for instance, aggressiveness, passivity, affection, moodiness,
and negativity) (Rothbart, 1995). Some children may be simply more difficult to rear than others
(Rubin, Stewart & Chen, 1995).
Parenting style is described as normal variations in parenting (Baumrind, 1991) which are
categorized under three major forms: the authoritarian, the authoritative or democratic, and the
permissive or laissez-faire or self indulgence or uninvolving (Baumrind, 1991). The authoritarian
parenting style constitutes of parents who are often strict and harsh (Groh, 2006). The
authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and evaluate a child’s behavior in accordance
with traditional and absolute values and standard of conduct. Obedience is stressed, verbal give
and take is discouraged, and punitive, forceful discipline is preferred. More commonly, parents
using this style of parenting were said to be operating from the rejecting-demanding dimension.
The offspring of such authoritarian parents tended to be discontented, withdrawn, and distrustful.
Authoritative parents according to Groh (2006) are flexible and responsive to the child’s need
but still enforce reasonable standards of conduct. The authoritative parents provide firm direction
for a child’s overall activities but give the child considerable freedom within reasonable limits.
The parent provides reasons for given policies and engages in verbal give-and take with the
child. Meanwhile they respond to the child’s wishes and needs. Parental control is not rigid,
punitive, intrusive, or unnecessarily restrictive. Authoritative parenting was often associated with
self-reliant, self-controlled, explorative, and contented children. In later researches, Baumrind
(1991, 1994 and 1996) found that an authoritative parenting style is especially helpful when
parenting adolescents. While permissive or laissez-faire parents are those who impose few
restrictions, rules or limits on their children, permissive parents seek to provide a non punitive,
accepting, and affirmative environment in which the children regulate their own behavior as
much as possible. The parents make few demands on the children for household responsibility or
orderly behavior. The least self- reliant, exploration, and self- controlled children were those
with permissive parents.
Reports had shown that authoritarian parenting styles has negative connotation in
literature because of the negative behavior outcomes of adolescents. Some researchers found
that authoritative parenting style has more positive effects on the adolescent behavior. For
example, Groh and Letti (2006) reported that permissive or laissez faire parenting occurs without
well defined or clear cut goals and such parents play a passive role in the rearing of children. Utti
(2006), in a research conducted on relationship between parenting styles and students academic
achievement found that laissez faire parenting had more negative effects on the students’
academic achievement. Several researchers had shown that adolescents from laissez-faire
parenting are more prone to delinquent behaviors and health problems than those from the other
forms of parenting homes. Clearly, disciplinary encounters between parents and their children
provide a crucial context in which children learn strategies for controlling themselves and for
controlling others. So parents who model competent strategies are more likely to have children
who also are socially competent (Kochanska, 1995). Researchers (Umukoro, 1997, 1977; Edah,
2006; Eke, 2004; Chen-Chi, 2005) found that adolescents who are exposed to higher level of
warmth, induction and monitoring parenting background would less likely be delinquents.
Furthermore, the concept of locus of control and Bandura’s (1977) psychological
construct of self-efficacy, will also aid an understanding of teenage pregnancy. Rotter’s (1950)
locus of control is a concept describing whether people feels that control of his/her life rests in
his/her own hands (internal locus of control) or in the hands of others (external locus of
control). The underlying question regarding locus of control is whether one controls one’s life or
does something else (like a God) control it? This simple idea has profound significance as it
influences people’s belief, feeling, thinking, attitude and behavior. According to Rotter, the
likelihood that people will engage in a particular behavior is largely determined by their
perception of whether that action will have an effect. Therefore, one should not be surprised to
find that people who believe they can control most situations act differently from those who
belief they cannot do so. It is not surprising, either that psychologists working in education,
psychotherapy, industrial setting and other applied areas have found the locus of control concept
According to Bandura (1977), it has been found that a strong sense of personal self
efficacy is related to better health, higher achievement and more social integration. Self-efficacy
is a concept describing people’s beliefs about whether they can execute the behaviours necessary
to control important events in their life. Thus, behavioural change is determined by a personal
sense of performance control outcomes. If people believe that they can take action to solve a
problem instrumentally they become more inclined to do so and feel more committed to this
decision. Thus, a person who believes in being able to cause an event can conduct a more active
and self-determined life course. Thus, “can do” cognition mirrors a sense of control over one’s
environment. It reflects the belief of being able to master challenging demands by means of
adaptive action. It can also be regarded as an optimistic view of one’s capacity to deal with
stress. Self-efficacy makes a difference in how people feel, think and act. In terms of feeling, a
low sense of self-efficacy is associated with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. Such
individuals also have low self-esteem and harbor pessimistic thought about their accomplishment
and personal development. In terms of thinking, a strong sense of competence facilitates
cognitive processes and high academic performance. Self-efficacy levels can enhance or impede
the motivation to act. Hence, individuals with high self-efficacy choose to perform more
challenging tasks. They set themselves higher goals and stick to them (Latham, 1990).
Thus, actions are pre-shaped in thought and people anticipate either optimistic or
pessimistic scenarios in line with their level of self-efficacy. In essence, once an action has been
taken, high self-efficacious persons invest more effort and persist longer than those with low
self-efficacy. When setbacks occur, the former recover more quickly and maintain the
commitment to their goals. Self-efficacy also allows people to select challenging setting, explore
their environment, or create new situations. Finally, self-efficacy has been found to impact the
coping ability, and behaviors of individuals (Bandura, 1994).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite a decline in overall birth rate, there is evidence to suggest that since the mid
1980’s, rates of teenage pregnancy and parenthood have increased (NCHS,2001). These trends
have been the focus of recent public health concern, with discussions centering on the provision
of free access to contraceptives and improved sex education as a means of reducing rates of
teenage pregnancy. Indeed, there is good evidence to support these concerns from studies
showing that early motherhood significantly constrains a woman’s life opportunities and
adversely affects the development of her children. Specifically, it has been well documented that
an early transition to parenthood has far reaching physical, social and emotional consequences
for young women, including an increased risk of antenatal complications and mortality, failure to
complete schooling, socio-economic disadvantage, welfare dependence, and less competent
However, many teenage girls go several years without being pregnant. What are the
personal characteristics that make some young adolescents successful in avoiding getting
pregnant in spite of the storm and excitement of period of adolescence? According to Rotter
(1966), the likelihood that people will engage in a particular behavior is largely determined by
their perception of whether that action will have an effect. Therefore, it can be found that people
who believe they can control most situations act differently from those who believe they cannot
do so (locus of control). Also, the style of parenting in the family can stand as a determinant of
teenage pregnancy. Knowledge of the life processes that place teens at risk of an early pregnancy
and premature transition to parenthood is central to the development of more effective pregnancy
prevention programs. Therefore, this study attempted to answer the following questions:
– Will parenting style significantly predict teenage pregnancy?
– Will locus of control significantly predict teenage pregnancy?
– Will self-efficacy significantly predict teenage pregnancy?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate and establish whether parenting style, locus of control
and self-efficacy play a role in teenage pregnancy. Specifically, the study will examine whether:
1. Parenting style will significantly predict teenage pregnancy?
2. Locus of control will significantly predict teenage pregnancy?
3. Self-efficacy will significantly predict teenage pregnancy?
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Parenting style: This construct represents the standard strategies that parents use in their child
rearing as measured by Parenting Style Inventory II (Darling & Toyokawa, 1997). Parenting
styles occur in three dimensions: authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting styles.
Authoritarian parenting style: This is the parents who attempt to shape, control, and evaluate a
child’s behavior in accordance with traditional and absolute values and standard of conduct.
Obedience is stressed, verbal give and take is discouraged, and punitive, forceful discipline is
Authoritative parenting style: This is used to describe parents who are flexible and responsive
to the child’s need but still enforce reasonable standards of conduct. The authoritative parents
provide firm direction for a child’s overall activities but give the child considerable freedom
within reasonable limits.
Permissive parenting style: It refers to the parents who impose few restrictions, rules or limits
on their children and seek to provide a non punitive, accepting, and affirmative environment in
which the children regulate their own behavior as much as possible.
Locus of control: Locus of control is whether an individual’s outcome is dependent on his/her
action ability (internal control) or outside/beyond their control (external control) as measured by
Locus of Control Behaviour Scale (Craig, Franklin & Andrews, 1984).
Self-efficacy: This is a person’s beliefs about his or her ability to attain particular goals or
achieve personal outcomes as measured by the New General Self-efficacy Scale (Chen, Gully &
Teenage pregnancy: In this study, teenage pregnancy is determined using the age at which an
adolescent female became pregnant as indicated by the participant on the questionnaire.