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CHAPTER ONE

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study.
The Nigerian electorate in recent years has been intensely individualistic groups. Hence political
parties usually confront pro-found cultural differences given the cultural structure of the Nigerian
electorate.
Independent Television Benin is an electronic media with visual and audio sounds. It is an
effective spontaneous messages carrier of our time. On 27th of March 1997 when Independent
Television started transmission of programmers‟ on channel 22 with its slogan certainly the Best,
the station radically changed the horizon of broadcasting in it coverage area. Independent
television came with a new millennium. The zeal of the founding father Sir Chief (Dr) Gabriel
Osawaru Igbinedion the Esama of Benin kingdom, who after a careful study of the broadcast
media yearned for an enhancement of the choice available to viewers to a level comparable to
what is obtained in developed countries. Chief Igbinedion‟s dream culminated in the approval
and subsequent presentation of a license by the formal Head of state General Ibrahim Babagida
on 36th June 1993, at the Ladi Kwali hall of Sheraton Hotel and Tower Abuja. It goes down in
history that Independent Television was the first private owned broadcasting station in Nigeria to
receive a private license No.001 on that memorable day.
Having obtained the Franchise, Sir Chief (Dr).Gabriel Osawaru Igbinedion, the Esama of Benin
Kingdom went straight to work by rendering standard skeletal services under the umbrella of
Independent Television Network plans were known for the birth of fully fledged Independent
2

Television, which resulted in the sitting of the station at Igwsa because of the high attitude of the
location A 1000 feet mast was erected by ALLAN DICK, a reputable firm based in London. An
Italian company TECHNO SYSTEM, with its team of highly qualified Engineers delivered and
installed Independent television a pair of its best transmitters of Ten kilowatts capacity,
transmitting on channel 22UHF. Independent Television which commended fully transmission
on the 27th March, 1997 watts stronger with fans growing in leaps and bounds by the day.
On the first of September 1997, the management and staff paid courtesy visit to the Benin
monarch, HRF OMO N‟ Oba n‟ Edo UKU Apolokpolo Oba Erediawa. The royal father lauded
the station and enjoined members to keep the flag flying. Also the then Edo military
administrator Group Captain Baba Adamu Iyam played host to the management and staff of
Independent television.
Nigeria broadcasting code is the compass that directs the affairs of Independent Television and
Radio under the supervision of the National Broadcasting commission NBC. The commission
also approved channel 42UHF for Independent Television to transmit its program in the federal
capital territory. The license was presented to the investor, the Esama of Benin kingdom, on the
17th of December 1999. Independent Television Benin satisfies curiosity by allowing one to hear
for oneself and view for one‟s self and that it is not just an overstatement. Again its ability to
disseminate information in various dialects also serves as a tonic to language barrier.
Independent television Benin, as integral part of the fourth estate of the realm, is expected as
usual to play its traditional role on political trend inspires responsiveness to the medium and has
become a major feature of campaigns for public office seekers at national, state and local
government levels. Most rural dwellers are known to be financially poor because of their low
educational status and cannot afford a television set. This has also been a problem of efficient
3

and effective use of Television in achieving political mobilization in the rural areas. The term
Independent Television Benin political services rendered to the populace to bring about
information, education entertainment and influence in rural dwellers. Apart from those general
roles, it enhances and encourages through its various programs the acquisition and pursuit of
knowledge, thereby promoting national consciousness and acts as a powerful means of social
mobilization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The potency of mass media in political aspect cannot be over-emphasized. The role of television
in mobilizing the masses for electoral activities is very obvious in the sense that it uses audio
visual methods to transfer message to the electorate.
Due to the centralization of media organization in the urban areas in Nigeria, rural dwellers
are sometimes left in the hand of the opinion leaders who sometimes use propaganda techniques
to lure the rural dwellers into voting blindly. However, Independent Television Benin‟s signals
reaches the rural dwellers especially those in Uziare local government and some programs are
developed by the station to mobilize the rural dwellers on political activities especially during
elections, thus, the question this study seeks to unveil is how successful are the programs by
Independent Television Benin in mobilizing the people of Uziare and surrounding rural areas
during political activities
1.3 Research Objectives
This study has the following objectives:
4

I. To know the extent to which the independent Television Benin Programs have gone in
mobilizing voters in rural areas during elections.
ii. To find out the responses of the rural areas surrounding ITV and programs of Independent
Television Benin that promotes political mobilization.
iii. To examine the strategies employed by Independent Television Benin to achieve political
mobilization in Uziare and surrounding areas.
1.4 Research Questions
1. How can exposure to Independent Television Benin on Political programmes change
the minds of audience towards their choice of candidate?
2. Have Independent Television Benin, programmes been able to create any positive
impact on the political life of the people?
3. To what extent does exposure to Independent Television Benin programmes affect
people‟s voting pattern?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will help to create awareness on the need for proper use of Independent Television
Benin in political mobilization of people in Uziare local government area. It will also help to
create a more co-ordinate socio-political and socio-economic awareness on some burning issues
at the grassroots. It is also hoped that the research will help in promoting political participation
and natural consciousness. It will ensure continued education for the rural population.
1.6 Hypothesis
H1: Exposure of Independent Television political program do affect peoples‟ voting pattern.

5

1.7 Scope of Study
From the research topic, this study is limited to just Uziare local government area. Uziare local
government comprises of five villages namely Jattu, Afasho, Afowa, Iyamo, Ayogena. It
covers adult, youth, male and females inclusive who are involved in various businesses, there
are farmers and also student. This study also covers how Independent Television Benin helps
in political mobilization of Uziare local government area.

1.8 Operational Definitions
Mobilization: this means to work together in order to achieve a particular aim.
Political: act of governing for better and more rewarding life.
Rural Area: Any under developed area in this project
Uziare: local government area.
Independent Television: The medium for transmitting information values for the rural areas.

6

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction:
This chapter is a review of related studies to the topic “Independent Television Benin in Political
Mobilization of Rural Areas.” The chapter is organized under the following headings.
A. Review of concept.
B. Review of related studies.
C. Theoretical framework.
D. Summary.
2.2 Review of Concepts
The following concepts were reviewed
a. The development of Television.
b. The role of Television, political mobilization in rural Development in Nigeria.
c. The role of Television in politics in Nigeria.
d. Independent Television as an instrument of Political mobilization.
2.2.1 Development of Television in Nigeria
Television broadcasting in Nigeria started with the initiative of the first western region premier,
Chief Obafemi Awolowo who on October 31 1959 launched, Television broadcasting at Ibadan
the headquarters of the region.
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The western Regional government went into partnership with the overseas Re-diffusion limited.
The Nigerian Radio vision service limited was created with the responsibility of radio and
television station broadcasting under one management.
A small transmitter of 500 watts power was mounted on Mopa Hill in Ibadan and another at
Abafor near Ikorodu. The Television was therefore established to disseminate information and
entertain viewers. The radio and television stations in the western Region pioneered commercial
broadcasting in Nigeria to supplement government subvention.
In 1962, the western region government took full control of the WNBS/WNTV by buying
overall the shares held by the overseas Re-diffusion Ltd.
In the same year, the Nigeria Television service was born in Lagos with the Radio Corporation
of America (RCA) and the National Broadcasting Company International Limited managing the
station. But the management was eventually handed over to Reverend Victor Badejo, who was
then the acting Directing General of the NBC. The federal Military Government of Nigeria under
General Olusegun Obansajo (as he then was) took over the Television stations in Nigeria, in
1978 and changed its name to Nigeria Television authority (NTA). Today Nigeria has thirty-six
stats with each aspiring to set up her own Television station. The federal government is also
making efforts to establish a branch of NTA in each state. The television station started beaming
color programs thus, however, opened in the history of television broadcasting in Nigeria with
the federal government takeover of all television services in 1978 (supra). All Television stations
are made to beam network programs.
8

Many state governments have, however, established more television and radio stations since
then. Then of the state Television stations have been competing favorably with the federal
government station.
A new chapter was opened in the history of Nigeria broadcasting in 1992, the federal
government under general Ibrahim Babangida deregulated the broadcast industry by granting
license to private individuals and organizations to set up radio and Television broadcasting
stations. As at today, there are over thirty. There were 2 government controlled Television
broadcast stations in Nigeria in 1999 and 14 licenses to operate private Television. There are ii
short-wave stations in Nigeria. Throughout the country there are 23.5 million radio sets and 6.9
million Television sets.
In 1992 the National Broadcasting commission (NBC) was founded to monitor and regulate
broadcasting on a national basis. One goal of the organization is to open up the industry to the
market place. Both foreign and domestic participation is sought. A total of nine mandates are
itemized in the chapter of the NBC.
Additionally, the agency has the role of arbitrator between the industry and other areas of the
government. Education is also the component of the organization‟s work. It is charged with
ensuring the development of trained personnel through accredited curricular and programs that
offer courses in mass communication and broadcasting. And the final mandate is to guarantee the
liberty and protection of the broadcasting industry under the constitution.
Nigeria‟s president appoints the Board of commission for the based on the advice of the minister
of information. The Commission consists of a chairman, the Direct-General. Ten other members
9

are also on the broadcasting. And the final mandate is to guarantee the liberty and protection of
the broadcasting industry under the constitution.
Nigeria‟s president appoints the Broad of commission for the advice of the minister of
information. The commission consists of a chairman, the director-General. The other member are
also on the board representing law, business, culture, education social science, broadcasting,
public affairs, engineering and state security service. Members serve on the board on a part-time
basis. The Director-General, who occupies the role of chief executive, conducts day-to-day
oversight. That position is assist by the secretary to the commission and the board of
management which includes the Heads of Directorate and department.
Objectives of Television
To act as a catalyst for social change
To promote national integration
To stimulate greater agricultural and production by providing essential information and
knowledge
To promote and help preservation of environmental and ecological balance
To highlight the need for social welfare measures including welfare of women, children and the
privilege
To promote interest games and sports
10

To stimulate appreciation of our artistic and cultural heritage like many states in Nigeria,
television Broadcasting has come a long way. It has evolved from the home countries of the
colonial masters of the poor natives in Nigeria.
An Independent, the Africa leaders were to know the effect of broadcasting on the people and so
used it as government mega phone. It could help inform people for government attention and
because of the high illiteracy level, television broadcasting is preferred to other media of
communication because it has both audio and visual method of broadcasting Government
policies could be translated into local languages and broadcast to the people. Over the decades,
broadcasting in Africa has served as the channel for government propaganda.
However, in Nigeria, television has been seen as a way or communication channel in
which the government communicates to by the governed basically, libertarian or free press
theory prescribes that an individual should be free to publish what he or she likes and hold and
express opinions freely. Soon it was extended to include freedom of assembly with others. The
theory flourished most in the earlier half of the 19th century, during which reference to the press
as “the fourth Estate of the Realm” becomes common.
Libertarian medial is well known for their philosophy of nationalism and natural gift rights.
Capable of thinking for themselves, they exist to check on governments and that requires that
they will be free of government control. However, nobody has ever said that the freedom should
include freedom to defame, to indulge in unbridled obscenity, to violate individual privacy or to
commit sedition, no therefore it advocates that people should be left free and given access to
types of idea from which they should freely choose. So to be liberated from the government
control so that they can provide a free market place of idea for enlightenment of the people.
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Under this theory, the press is seen as a partner in the search for truth instead of a tool of
government. Freedom here refers to free expression and free dissemination of information of all
kinds of information and study mass- media (television) under this theory its tries to expose the
rural dwellers on political mobilization you give them detailed information freely nobody will
force you to do what to do like voting, all the rural-dwellers needs to do is just to think and know
the right decision to take because this particular theory is a free market place of idea, there is no
kind of bias from individual that will make you not to do what you exactly you what. Here the
television has free access to any kind of information and the people job is to look into the
information. They have the right to say no or yes to the information been disseminated without
bids of any kind.
Without an appropriate feed-back system, communication should be a four way process.
That the urban people could communicate to the rural people (urban-rural communication).
That communication can also emanate from the urban people (urban-urban communication).
That the rural people are also at liberty to communicate with the urban population (Rural
Urban communication)
That the rural people can also communicate amongst themselves (rural-rural
communication).
2:2.2 Role of Television in Political Mobilization of Rural Development in Nigeria
This Pre supposes the fact that any serious government must identify the various segments of the
society and be able to develop mobilization messages through the help of the leadership in these
12

segments, In order to ensure the appropriateness and relevance of such messages to their
audience so that the mobilization effects would be accepted and adopted by these social sciences,
the idea of political bureau (1987-2002) human history to mobilize different human societies
e.g. rural areas so as to achieve some set goals.
This being the case, it is appropriate to ask the question: what is political mobilization? What it is
about? Why is it necessary in the rural area? Television is also useful in political mobilization as
it has been viewed within the academia in line with its almost infinite rate concerning human
efforts in mobilization themselves for the attainment of better Conditions of existence. It is on
this premise that the political bureau in its report (1987: 2002) implied definitions of (political
mobilization thus:
Simply stated, to mobilize people is to increase their level of awareness of certain set objectives
with a view of achieving those objectives.
Adeniyi and Ebigbola (Onajide Et al, 1990) vividly summed up the situation that rural area
development is conceived differently at different times and place. The television has helped. It is
one of the medium you can use for the rural area development in terms of political mobilization
in Nigeria. This notwithstanding, it is the conviction of the author that the concept of rural area
development can hardly be reasonably explicated without paying attention to the separation that
exists between the rural area and political mobilization. The rural area development means the
improvement of the social, political and economic conditions in rural places, creating better job
opportunities, increased awareness family incomes and providing. Television has helped us to
eradicate ignorance in the television areas since culture cannot.
13

Television help to remove the negative aspect of some of our culture and has helped the citizen
to absorb that which will improve their welfare, Awareness level and consciousness to what is
going on in the communities as a whole. Television has done much in political mobilization of
the people in the rural area. In political mobilization they get feel like choosing without bias of
any individual. In the rural area, development consists of deliberate efforts mobilized to eradicate
or reduce to the barest minimum society and economic ills that persist in diminishing the
qualities of life in the communities. This is according to Bamidele (In Onajide et al; 1990).
Along the line, Nwosu and chukwumezurike (1987) explained mobilization as a process that
involves bringing people together and moving them to action, and also making them submit
themselves strongly to the achievement of any social goal. From the foregoing we can take
political mobilization as a process of sensitizing the citizen (rural areas) increasing their
cognition, political consciousness as well as the latter‟s efficiency. In order words, political
mobilization could be taken to mean the determined process of emotionally bringing people
together and making them to internalize communality of societal values, attitudes and orientation
in achieving particularity specified objectives.
Put together, the relevance of television to political mobilization in rural areas as per those
definitions and other ones in identifiable from there now claimed four important goals of
1. Enhancement of effective and responsive service delivery.
2. Exercise of democratic self government.
3. Effective utilization of human resources.
4. Provision of two-way channels of communications between the rural, rulers and the
ruled.
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These goals show that the television institution is a mechanism for mobilization integrating
the grass rooters. The role and indispensability of the television institution in this respect are
particularly relevant inputs and commitment of the fertility of the later or same. In order
words, television exists to bring about democracy, serve as base for political participation
and education. It equally exists to provide services and serve as a vehicle for rural
development (Opla op.c.t: 10-14). Hence televisions are to political mobilization, rural area
development and political stability what basic tissues are to human body. And without them
they would have no vitality (Blair op c:t: 4) to the lives of the rural inhabitants.
2.2.3 Role of Television in Politics
Research into mass communication effects indicate that the television is more powerful at the
learning and information levels than at the persuasion level. In the area of politics, accumulated
research, evidence has continued to point in this direction where the mass media are available
and accessible, peoples knowledge of public affairs depends largely on what television tells
them. Because we can hear too little for ourselves studies of the impact of television at the
learning and information level, particularly in relations to politics, shows the power of television
in conferring status and legitimacy on people as well as the power of television in setting the
political agenda in the communities. Television has the power to determine the topics for
political debate and discussion in the rural areas. In this regard mass media expert tells us that
even when the media do not tell the electorate what and what to think about, that is, the issue
being the same issue and event which have featured in the mass media.

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Function of Independent Television Benin
The independent television Benin (I T B) was basically established to restore order out of chaos,
to restore the sense of national unity and propagate common cultural bonds through television
broadcasting. Other functions include the following
1. The provision of independent and impartial television services and to ensure that its
services reflect the unit of Nigeria as a federation and at the same time to give
adequate expression to the culture, characteristics and affairs of each state.
2. To plan and coordinate the activities of the entire television network.
3. To ensure the establishment and maintenance of standards and promote the efficient
operation of the entire system in accordance with national policy.
4. To establish such number of production centers as it may consider necessary from
time to time.
5. To collect in any part of the world both news and information from news agencies.
2.2.4 Independent Television as an Instrument of Political Mobilization
Communication, with its immense possibilities for influencing the minds and behaviors of
people, can be a powerful means of promoting democratization of society of widening public
participation in the decision making process. This depends on the structure and practices of the
media, there management and to what extent they facilitate broad access and open the
communication process to a free interchange of ideas, information and experience among the
people.

16

Macbride et al as quoted by Okunna (“54”)
Communication is a political instrument all over the world and the relationship between politics
and communication is an indissoluble one. In the advanced industrial, societies television is
actually and integrally parts of political life, serving people as their major or only link with the
government and providing the information which they require to make political judgment and on
which they base their political attitudes.
Television no doubt bridges the gap between the government and the people. Obviously, people
need not only news which encourages and reassures them in their desires and expectations or
confirm their sets ideas but also information which can validly lead them to alter, moderate or
balance their judgment and opinions.
The awaken molding critical awareness constitutes a crucial aspect of democratization in the
communication process.
Television contributes to the growth and development of National unity and participating
democracy. Political mobilization creates and promotes political awareness amongst the people
to achieve a democratic society. It awakes in the people, the spirit of tolerance of all shades of
opinions and social justice based on the responsibility and right of the individual in the societies.
On this note, Wale(1956) explained that television and news are undoubtedly the means by
which a part of the central government learn what is happening and what might happen in
another, on the of the people, the media inform them on current political issues.
17

Umuchukwu (2001) comment „‟they alert the citizenry of unhealthy political development. They
conscience them towards bracing up necessary action against political injustice done to them”,
the question now is, how has television programmed helped to mobilize the people.
Onobanjo(2007), cited in Duyile (2005) says, a programs is a broadcast material created to meet
certain specific need or attain some set objectives and transmitted to some pre-determined target
audience.
A television program refers to material or packages put together by an individual to be aired on a
television station. Such individual may be a presenter. Producer, director or talent the television
has certain operative systems which when followed accordingly would lead to a carefully and
well produced programmed.
The production of a television program is a complex process. On this note, Zetti (1976) “notes it
requires careful planning and much preparation by workers with artistic and technical skill. “
The art of programming itself refers to the strategic selection of program me material that is
appropriate of suitable to a particular segment of pre-defined target audience. It is also a
sequential activity that presumes the organization of materials is a coherent program service
suitable to the target audience.
Dunu (2002) Says:
As the bedrock and mainstay of broadcasting programming involves a long term calculated, planned policy expressed in predetermined executable action which is appropriately implemented and executed as individual program operations, wins maximum success for the station. Programming as a feature of broadcasting, has basic factors, which includes. Research planning of materials execution and evaluation
18

In rural broadcasting Onosu and Umolu (2010) noted that programming performs the function of
integration, development agenda setting plus the primary function of informing, educating and
entertaining.
Thus, the function of programming is to provide for the rural dwellers a bridge between urbanity
or modernity and rural dweller and primitiveness.
Thus, every television program must contain well thought out parts or elements carefully
arranged and linked together to a unit, and since television deals with both sounds and picture, al
the component part must be properly fuse together to make a component whole.
The television produce depends on the human vocation, pictures, sounds/ music and sound
picture effects all blended with feature narrative to tell a cohesive story. Since the raw materials
for a community, television program are usually drawn from the community then a thorough
understanding of the community is paramount.
Each programme so produced should have the effect of education, information, entertaining and
awareness creation as it is main purpose and objectives.
Different programs such as news, documentary educational, how to do it, forums, sports and
features, should all reflex the specifics and features, should all reflect the specific need of the
audience.

19

Dunu in Okunna (2002); says,
Each program Content is evaluated based on the extent to which that content to which that content reflects current social trends meets the needs of the audience. Regulatory constraints come in form of laws and regulations. In Nigeria, for instance, the government through the NBC monitors the programs content should reflect the culture, and values of the people, and should also be used as a vehicle for furthering development…..
Thus, rural community producers should strive to dish out quality programs that will positively
mobilized the people especially in times of national emergences, like religious riots, war
economic disorder or to perform such civic responsibilities as voting during election.
In the economic sphere, the television producer should patronize the immediate environment.
This will help to stimulate economic and socio-political development of such community.
Since the program is for the rural dwellers, the materials should be sourced from among the
people, processed and given back to them. This will make them feel that they belong and are part
and parcel of the station.
2.3 Review of Related Studies
2.3.1 Akpan (1987) Media Information has tremendous energy for change
The aim of this study was to discover how Change which is refers to learning, manifests in the
needed part of the rural areas where a good number of the people are wallowing in ignorance.
They therefore need media information to participate fully in elements because through the
media, they will fully participate because they will learn their political rights and obligation.
They therefore need media information to improve in all aspect of life. For instance, in political
20

aspect, they need media information to participate fully in element because they will learn their
political right and obligations.
Akpan (1987) does a step, further by stating that “Television can be a very good medium for
mobilizing and educating the people. It can be used to transmit knowledge. It ability to talk more
and be heard makes television very unique.”
Akpan (1987) also sees television as a very powerful visual and audio aid in teaching or learning
process. According to him, with television the learner can hear and see demonstrations at close
quarters. For instance, the political aspirant‟s carryout their campaign in the television station.
The candidates are also heard on the television advertising them. With this, people can then
decide on whom to vote for. Television therefore has the capacity to pass knowledge thus, the
occurrence of learning.
In this case he is trying to tell us that television being visual and audio could be a good medium
for mobilizing and educating the rural dwellers on politics as it makes them to hear for
themselves rather than being total. In Nigeria, research evidence shows the use of radio as a
medium of mobilization is twiddle spread, even among rural populations.
The president‟s campaign must be television oriented, we must change the perception of literally
millions of voters and this can only be done through the mass-media with the principle emphasis
on television.
From the above, we can understand that the best medium through which we can campaign is the
television .it is a good medium for mobilizing political aspirants who wish to sell themselves as
to win people over, especially those in the rural areas.
21

Television can help because it requires an indoor newer unlike the radio. It is also used for
mobilization, political functions social functions, socialization etc. television is a medium that
can be used to tell the rural dweller what is going on in the local government. It helps to
mobilize the rural areas. To do what they are asked to do without complain.
A rural area is an area based to improve the life of people in that area. To achieve these some
factors must be squarely studied for more impact of mobilization, desire culture and educational
level etc.
Desire Interest: You must broadcast what is the desire of that local government. It must
high-light their interest, create inter active program. The person employed to work in that
station may not be from there.
Culture: It is the people way of life, so it is not attended then the Television is beaten around
the bush.
Educational Level: There may be secondary level, teacher‟s and some educated ones in that
area so when they are disseminating information they should do it in a way that everybody in
that rural area will participate in the programs.
2.4. Theoretical Framework.
This study is based on Social responsibility theory which is one of the four normative theories of
the press. This theory came as a result of Hutchins commission on freedom of the press that was
established in 1942 and it released a major report of its findings in 1947. This theory involves a
number of ways in which the state could attempt to play role in attempting to ensure that news
22

media fulfilled their social responsibility and obligations. At the same time tries t retain the
Independence of Journalism and freedom of speech.
Social responsibility theory allows free press without any censorship but at the same time the
content of the press should be discussed in public panel and media should accept any obligation
from public interference or professional self regulations or both. The theory lies between both
authoritarian theory and libertarian theory because it gives total media freedom in one hand but
the external controls in other hand. Here, the press ownership is private. The social
responsibility theory moves beyond the simple “Objective” reporting (facts reporting) to
“Interpretative” reporting (investigative reporting). The total news is complete facts and truthful
but the commission of the freedom press stated that “No longer giving facts truthfully rather than
give a necessary analyzed or interpretative report on facts with clear explanations”. The theory
helped in creating professionalism in media by setting up a high level of accuracy, truth, and
information.
It emphasizes the need for an Independent press that scrutinizes other social institutions and
provides objectives, accurate news reports. The most innovative feature of social responsibility
theory is its call for media to be responsible for fostering productive and creative “Great
Communities.” It said that media should do this by prioritizing cultural pluralism by becoming
the voice of all the people, not just elite groups that had dominated national, regional, or local
culture in the past. In some respects, Social responsibility theory is a radical statement. Instead of
demanding that media be free to print or transmit their owners want, social responsibility theory
imposes a burden on media practitioners.
23

This theory encourages the press to see themselves as front as front-line participants in the battle
to preserve democracy in the world drifting inexorably towards totalitarianism. The researcher
has decided to use this theory because of the following:
It allows everyone to say something or express their opinion about the media.
It allows Community opinion, Consumer action and professional ethics.
It allows serious invasion of recognized private rights and vital social interests.
Private ownership in media may give better public service unless government has to take over to
assure the public to provide better media service.
Media must take care of social responsibility and if they do not, government or other
organization will do.
2.5 Summary of Literature Review
This chapter reviewed the concepts of development of Television in Nigeria and also the role of
Television in rural Development in Nigeria. It also had a review of studies related to the study.
From the above, we can understand that the best medium through which we can campaign is the
television .it is a good medium for mobilizing political aspirants who wish to sell themselves as
to win people over, especially those in the rural areas.
Akpan (1987) also sees television as a very powerful visual and audio aid in teaching or learning
process. According to him, with television the learner can hear and see demonstrations at close
quarters. For instance, the political aspirant‟s carryout their campaign in the television station.
The candidates are also heard on the television advertising them. With this, people can then
24

decide on whom to vote for. Television therefore has the capacity to pass knowledge thus, the
occurrence of learning.
Television can help because it requires an indoor newer unlike the radio. It is also used for
mobilization, political functions social functions, socialization etc. television is a medium that
can be used to tell the rural dweller what is going on in the local government. It helps to
mobilize the rural areas. To do what they are asked to do without complain. In this study, the
statement of the problem in Uziare local government was stated, the objectives of the research
were looked into and some research questions were put forward to answer the problems in this
research. The theoretical framework used is the Social Responsibility theory which is
propounded by Hutchins Commission on Freedom of the press that was established in 1942.

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