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This study “innovation process and practices in construction industry in Anambra State of Nigeria” examined and assessed the level of innovation in the construction industry. An analysis of the relevant literatures was carried out. The analysis revealed that there are innovation drivers that facilitate or inhibit innovation in the construction industry. These include clients, manufacturers, professional bodies, academic institutions, government, consultants and contractors. The literature review shows that attention to these key influences would be a key component of effective innovation strategy. A field survey was carried out to actually ascertain how innovation has fared in the construction industry. Variables were drawn from the literature review and the data generated were analysed using simple percentages (&) and mean scores. The responses from the respondents revealed that the construction industry in Anambra State has really not effected acceptable level of innovative processes and practices. Patnering / collaboration is not practiced and encouraged. Also the unhealthy rivalry and disharmony that often exist among construction professionals, inhibits innovation practices. The building code which itself is an innovation lacks an appropriate legislation for its enforcement. The study recommends that professional bodies, the academia and indeed all stakeholders in the construction industry need to intensify effort towards innovative processes and practices. Government should in particular encourage indigenous construction firms through the award of contract that require high technical experience such as high rise building and bridge construction. Efforts should be made by the relevant government agencies or authorities to enforce the building code through appropriate legislation.


Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – ix
List of Figures – – – – – – – x

CHAPTER ONE – Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – – – 2
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – 3
1.4 Scope and Limitation of Study – – – – – 3
1.5 Significance of Study – – – – – – 4
1.6 Research Questions – – – – – – 4
1.7 The Study Area – – – – – – – 5

CHAPTER TWO – Literature Review
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 7
2.2 Concept of Innovation – – – – – – 8
2.3 Need for Innovation in the Construction Industry – – 10
2.4 The Nature of the Construction Industry
and its Effect on Innovation – – – – – 12
2.5 Forms of Innovation – – – – – – 16
2.5.1 Innovative Procurement Strategy – – – – 17
vii Innovative Delivery Methods – – – – – 19 Innovative Contractor Selection – – – – 21 Innovative Maintenance Contract – – – – – 23
2.5.2 Innovative Management Methods – – – – 25 Research and Development – – – – – 27 Environmental Issue/ Sustainability – – – – 28
2.5.3 Innovative Technologies In-Construction – – – 30
2.6 Support Providers and Barriers to Innovation – – – 32
2.6.1 Innovation Drivers – – – – – – 33
2.6.2 Innovation Brokers – – – – – – – 35
2.6.3 Barriers to Innovation – – – – – – 37
2.7 Innovation and the Nigerian Construction Industry – – 38

CHAPTER THREE – Research Methodology
3.1 Population of Study and Sample Size – – – – 44
3.2 Sampling Selection and Technique – – – – 44
3.3 Source of Data Collection – – – – – – 44
3.3.1 Primary Source – – – – – – – 45
3.3.2 Secondary Source – – – – – – – 45
3.4 Validity and Reliability of Instrument – – – 45
3.5 Administration of Questionnaire – – – – 46
3.6 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 46

CHAPTER FOUR – Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 48
4.2 Demography of Respondents – – – – – 48
4.3 Summary of Findings – – – – – – 71

CHAPTER FIVE – Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Recommendations – – – – – – – 73
5.2 Conclusion — – – – – – – – 73
5.3 Suggestion For Further Study – – – – – 75
References – – – – – – – – 76
Appendix I – – – – – – – – 79
Appendix II – – – – – – – – 80


In most developed and developing countries of the world the need for
innovation in the construction industry has long been stressed from within
and outside the industry.

Changes in global markets, increased customer expectations, need for
new technologies and processes, improving existing products and
services, and government pressure, have all led to innovation which is
becoming a key focus for the construction industry. The industry is fast
evolving as the world is evolving, changing and seeking more integration,
innovation and better services in all sectors of the economy. Most nations
are seeking how to improve their standards of living; others are seeking to
protect their environment. Most nations are seeking innovative means
towards every sector of the economy, thus providing public services and
products that are innovatively conceived.

The construction industry is almost seen as the backbone of every other
sector of any nations economy. That is why Seadan et al (2001), stated
that the industry accounts for about 15% of the national product of most
nations. This not withstanding, the industry is perceived as not being
innovative for various reasons such as the nature of construction industry,
its regulations and standards etc. Therefore attention ought to be given to
the industry in determining its level of innovation and innovation
practices, otherwise it will affect the activities of other sectors in any
economy. The reasons are that if new ideas in the industry are not
developed, how could better facilities of construction products be used in
other sectors of an economy.

In Nigeria, the construction industry has been characterized by poor
performance and productivity. Osofisan (2007), criticizes the Nigerian
construction industry for being one of the slowest to integrate
technological advancement. The Nigerian construction industry is
however, a large industry and does contribute largely to the economic
growth of the nation, but most elements especially of materials and
technology that make up the construction process are not proudly
Nigerian. If innovation and innovative practices are adopted in the
industry, costs could be saved, utilization of resources could be more
efficient, adjustment for the sustainability of the environment could be
improved etc., These and other construction demands could be met; either
by solving them with existing knowledge or by creating new solutions.

Lack of innovation or innovative ideas hinder the performance of the
construction industry and other sectors of the economy by inefficient
utilization of resources.

Costs, time and quality standards are most times not achieved due to lack
of creativity and innovation.

Lack of innovation and creativity in the construction industry could result
1. Lack of development of previously unseen technology and
2. Reduction of new inputs to existing technology and processes.
3. Inhibiting the penetration of existing market.

4. Inhibiting the improvement of existing strategies and
management techniques.

The construction experts, the government and indeed all stakeholders in
construction must evolve ways and means of introducing new ideas to
improve construction.

The aim of this study is to examine the exiting innovative construction
processes and practices, and assess the level of innovation in the
construction industry in Anambra State, with the following objectives:
1. To examine current innovative practices in the construction
2. To determine those factors that drive and inhibit innovation in
the industry.
3. To determine how innovation could be encouraged in the

Innovation in construction is a vast area of study cutting across,
technology, management, construction material manufacture, marketing
and channel strategies of construction companies.
The focus of this study is on the technology and construction
management aspect of innovation in the industry. The study investigated
the current innovative practices and their impact on the Nigerian
construction industry. The study covers three (3) major stakeholders i.e.
(clients, contractors and consultants) in the construction industry, which
will be limited to Anambra State of Nigeria.


The study was however limited by some difficulties which were
encountered in the course of administering questionnaire. These include:  Some questionnaires were returned uncompleted.  Some were not returned on time as promised which necessitated
frequent visits to respondents. This consumed a lot of time and
money.  Some respondents withheld some information required by the
researcher, as they were not ready to disclose some information
which they considered private.

This study will enable the Nigerian construction industry and other
construction industries world wide to be proactive to innovative ideas and
The study will also point out issues or factors which could inhibit the
progress of innovation in the industry. Government will be the ultimate
beneficiary of this study as it will enable her appreciate the relationship
between the construction industry and economic growth of the nation,
and thus take the issue of R & D and innovation more seriously.

The following research questions will form the basis of this research;
1. What forms of innovations exist in the construction industry in
Anambra State?
2. What are the levels of implementation of innovation strategies /
forms in the industry?
3. What factors drive innovation in the industry?
4. Are there any inhibiting factors towards innovation in the
5. How can innovation be encouraged in the industry?

1.7 THE STUDY AREA Anambra State is located in the south-eastern part of Nigeria. It is the most popular south-eastern states in Nigeria due to its location and positioning, as it connects all other south-eastern states. When approaching it from the south-west, it is connected with the most famous bridge in the country i.e. (the Niger bridge). Anambra State is also noted for its politically and commercial endowment, as she produced the first Nigerian democratically elected president, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, after its independence in 1960. She also has the largest market in west Africa i.e. (Onitsha Main Market).

Anambra lies within the tropical rainforest belt of Nigeria. Like some other states of Nigeria, Anambra climate is characterized by two distinct seasons, namely dry and rainy seasons. The dry season lasts from November to March while raining season lasts from May to October. The average annual rainfall ranges from 1500mm to 2200mm with July as the rainiest month. Its humidity is relatively high between 65.80 percent throughout the year and characterized by daily temperature of up to 250C – 270C (Ogunoh, 2005).

The North East Trade wind which blows across the Sahara Desert during the months of November to January causes the dust, dry and short cold seasons known as Harmattan. On the other hand, the shift of the position of the surface further North as a result of moving air masses from the Atlantic Ocean North-wards causes the rainy season. The sun’s movement from East to West shifts very slightly to the South and North. Thus, North and South facades receive little direct sun light while East and West are directly exposed to sunrays (Ogunoh, 2005).

Vegetation Characteristics The vegetation of Anambra State is semi-rainforest with tall trees and tick bushes. This is as a result of the combined effects of temperature, humidity and rainfall, but particularly the variations which occur in the rainfall (Ogunoh, 2005).


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