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ABSTRACT

We attempt the design and development of an educational game based on the Input-Process-Outcome model. This tool helps students and other professionals to learn and appreciate the decision-making processes carried out by geophysicists and petroleum engineers, concerned with the activity of well placement, to maximize production from oil fields. It also stimulates learning and application of technology to support decision making.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
TABLE OF CONTENT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
1.1 OBJECTIVES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2 MOTIVATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
1.3 EXPECTED RESULTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.4 DELIVERABLES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.5 APPROACH ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
1.6 THESIS ORGANIZATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
CHAPTER 2: COMPUTER GAMES, INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES ………………………………………………………………………. 11
2.1 DEFINITION: COMPUTER GAMES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
2.2 EARLY COMPUTER GAMES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.3 EDUCATIONAL/INSTRUCTIONAL COMPUTER GAMES ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
CHAPTER 3: OIL EXPLORATION, WELL PLACEMENT TECHNOLOGY AND ASSOCIATED COMPUTER GAMES ……….. 17
3.1 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
3.2 FIELD DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
3.3 WELL PLACEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
3.4 CALCULATION OF STOCK TANK OIL INITIALLY IN PLACE (STOIIP), GAS INITIALLY IN PLACE (GIIP), AND DARCY’S EQUATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
3.5 EXISTING OIL EXPLORATION/WELL PLACEMENT COMPUTER GAMES ……………………………………………….. 26
CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
4.1 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
4.2 GAME PLAY REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION ………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
4.3 DESIGN PATTERN EMPLOYED ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
4.4 TOOLS AND SOFTWARE PACKAGES EMPLOYED …………………………………………………………………………….. 46
CHAPTER 5: IMPLEMENTATION AND CODING ………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
CHAPTER 6: RESULTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION AND FURTHER WORK ……………………………………………………………………… 59
7.1 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
7.2 CURRENT POSITION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
7.3 STRENGHT AND LIMITATION OF WORK DONE ………………………………………………………………………………. 61
7.4 CHALLENGES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
7.5 PERSPECTIVE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
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TABLE OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: INPUT-PROCESS-OUTCOME GAME MODEL ……………………………………………………………………………… 14
FIGURE 2: WELL CORE IN RESERVOIR ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
FIGURE 3: USE CASE DIAGRAM …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
FIGURE 4: VIEW AND CONTROLLER CLASSES OF JAVAFX ………………………………………………………………………………… 36
FIGURE 5: VIEW CLASSES OF JAVAFX …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
FIGURE 6: CONTROLLER CLASSES OF JAVAFX ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
FIGURE 7: JAVAFX VIEW CLASSES AND THE STARTING CLASS OF THE SOFTWARE………………………………………………… 38
FIGURE 8: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CODED CLASSES AND SCENE BUILDER ……………………………………………………….. 39
FIGURE 9: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONTROLLERS AND MODEL ………………………………………………………………………. 39
FIGURE 10: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONTROLLERS AND SCENE BUILDER ……………………………………………………….. 40
FIGURE 11: MODEL-VIEW-CONTROLLER ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
FIGURE 12: ISWEPT CLASS DIAGRAM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
FIGURE 13: CODE SESSION OF ISWEPT CLASS …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
FIGURE 14: PRODUCTION CLASS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
FIGURE 15: CODE SESSION OF POPULATE GEOLOGY CLASS ……………………………………………………………………………… 50
FIGURE 16: SCENE THREE LAND CONTROLLER CLASS …………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
FIGURE 17: CODE SESSION FOR SCENE THREE LAND CONTROLLER ……………………………………………………………………. 51
FIGURE 18: SCENE ONE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
FIGURE 19: SCENE TWO ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
FIGURE 20: GENERATE GEOLOGY VIEW. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
FIGURE 21 : SELECT GEOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
FIGURE 22: SELECTED GEOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
FIGURE 23: DRILLING INFILL WELLS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
FIGURE 24: GAME PLAY RESULT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
FIGURE 25: AREAS COVERED ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
In this work we apply software engineering to simulate well placement in oil fields located in the Niger-Delta terrain of Nigeria, West Africa. Software engineering is concerned with developing and maintaining software systems that behave reliably and efficiently, are affordable to develop and maintain, and satisfy all the requirements that customers have defined for them (1). Well placement Technology is the combination of sub-surface reservoir development technology, formation evaluation and pressure analysis to ascertain a favorable position to drill oil wells in oil fields.
The process of well placement begins with exploration of the oil field. Seismic reflection analysis is carried out to determine the presence and location of trap and fluids in the reservoir. If results are favorable, wells are drilled in order to determine rock and fluid properties in the reservoir. If potentially economic accumulations of hydrocarbon are found, more wells are bored or more seismic is shot to carry out an appraisal of the field; this results in the delineation of the reservoir. More detailed data is collected from outcrop and reservoir’s stratigraphic studies. Well tests such as pressure and flow rates tests are carried out. With all these data, a model is built. The model is dynamically simulated to predict oil production. The simulation results inform the decision on location to place well in the oil field. (See Chapter Three).
1.1 Objectives
The objectives of this work are as follows:
 To build an instructional game that simulates the activities and processes carried out by geoscientists and petroleum engineers in different oil field terrains during well placement.
 To begin by simulating the operation of a dynamic model, designed to provide production forecasts to guide well placement in land terrain.
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1.2 Motivation
This thesis has been presented because Prof. David Ogbe, a visiting Professor from Petroleum Engineering Stream of the African University of Science and Technology has requested that software be developed to fulfill the following requirements:
 Game for trade show exhibition, open house, seminars for secondary schools.
 Fun-filled academic learning tool for students and other professionals to learn and appreciate the decision making processes carried out by petroleum engineers and geoscientists to maximize production (reserves) from oilfields
 Provide a playful environment to stimulate learning and application of technology to support decision making.
There is strong indication that this software will be embraced by secondary school students because when a survey posed the question, “Educational computer/video games should be embedded in all taught courses” to a hundred and forty one secondary school students from Edo, Rivers, and Anambra states, the results analysed using the Likert scale reveal that
 60.28 % responded Strongly agree
 27.65% responded Agree
 4.25% responded Don’t care
 2.13% responded Disagree and
 5.68% responded Strongly Agree
1.3 Expected Results
 The developed software can be best described as a prototype. It is a 2D game that forms the basis of future work which may use more powerful 3D graphics to realize a fanciful game interface.
 Users should be able to play the game and learn from it.
1.4 Deliverables
At the end of this work we expect to have the following three deliverables
 Documentation on well placement technology used in the oil industry.
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 A two-dimensional instructional game that simulates well placement in oil fields
 A meta-model of JavaFX platform.
1.5 Approach
We carried out an extensive literature review on computer games and well placement technology in order to have a good understanding of what features the software must have. On software development, we apply the spiral model of software engineering process to software building. We iteratively analyzed & specified, prototyped, designed and implemented, verified and validated the model to get the current level. We employed the Model View Controller (MVC) architectural pattern and leveraged on tools like Scene Builder and JavaFX Platform which tries to enforce this.
1.6 Thesis Organization
The remaining of this work is organized as follows: Chapter two discusses computer games and instructional games, their uses and benefits, early games etc. Chapter three is a literature review on well placement technology; it highlights the different scientists involved and their role in well placement. Algorithms used to compute reservoir performance over time is also provided. The chapter ends with examples of existing oil exploratory/well placement games. Chapter four presents the game; its functions and structures are depicted by the UML diagrams. It also describes the tools and technology used in realizing the software. Chapter Five is on implementation and Design while Chapter six presents documentation on how the game is played. Chapter seven is about future work and concluding remarks.

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