INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT ASSOCIATED WITH AMANSEA AND UGWUOBA ABBATOIR

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  • Name: INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT ASSOCIATED WITH AMANSEA AND UGWUOBA ABBATOIR
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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to examined the processes of abattoir operations in Amansea and Ugwuoba and to know their related health hazards to the public. The processes involved in abattoir in both Amansea and Ugwuoba were examined . A survey on the waste generated and methods of disposal in the two abattoirs were also looked at to know the effects these wastes may have on the environment, if not properly managed. Structured questionnaires were designed and used to interview the abattoir operators and managers. Primary data were obtained from the questionnaire and subjective responses of the population; the researcher observation and from processes in abattoir operations, type of wastes generated and their mode of disposal. Information about how the respondents’ perception of the abattoir condition and the methods of meat processing was acquired. Laboratory Analyses were carried out on the abattoir wastes. Sampling was done forth-nightly and sampled analyzed to determine the type and intensity of contamination. All the values obtained from different parameters were compared with the standards established by FEPA and WHO in Nigeria in order to obtain deviations and establish impact of abattoir wastes on human health and ecological system. The result obtained from the analysis show that the Amansea and Ugwuoba abattoirs were highly polluted resulting in the present meat contamination going on and endangering the health of the public and the ecosystem. The present government policy which led to this ugly situation and the recommended remedial policy measures were highlighted. Measures to eliminate or eradicate the hazards of waste generated in the abattoir at Amanseas and Ugwuoba during slaughtering operations were recommended.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study ……………………….…………………….1
1.2. The Study Problem ……………………….……………………………3
1.3. Aims and Objectives of the Study …………………………………..5
1.4. The Scope of the Study………………………………………………5
1.5. The Significance of the Study …………………………………………6
Chapter Two: Literature
2.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………7
2.2. Historical Review ……………………………………………………….7
2.3. Environmental Problems Associated with Abattoir Effluents
and Unsatisfactory Practices…………………………………………17
2.4. Theoretical Frame Work ……………………………………………..22
2.5. Gap in Literature Review …………………………………………….23
Chapter Three: Methodology
3.1 The Study Area………………………………………………………..24
3.2 Population and Sample Size…………………………………………28
3.3 Variables Studied ……………………………………………………..28
3.4 Characteristics of Solid Portion of Waste…………………………29
3.5 Parameters of Water Pollutions ……………………………………29
3.6 Sources of Data………………………………………………………..35
3.7 Method of Data Analysis …………………………………………….36
Chapter Four:
4.1 Data Analysis, Presentation and Findings …………………………39
4.2 Analysis of Abattoir Operations……………………………………..39
4.3 Questionnaire Analysis ………………………………………………55
4.4 Laboratory Analysis of Abattoir Wastes……………………………..66
4.5 Results and Discussion ………………………………………………87
Chapter Five : Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1 Summary of Findings …………………………………………………95
5.2 Solution to this Environmental Degradation………………………..97
5.3 Recommendations…………………………………………………….99
5.4 General Recommendations…………………………………………103
5.5 Environmental Policy for the Abattoir…………………………….105
5.6 Further Research ……………………………………………………107
5.7 Conclusion…………………………………………………………….108
Reference ……………………………………………………………………109
Questionnaire………………………………………………………………..113
Appendix I……………………………………………………………………113
Appendix II…………………………………………………………………..115
Appendix III………………………………………………………………….117
Appendix IV………………………………………………………………….119

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An abattoir is a facility, which has to do with the preparation and
handling of meat from slaughtering to delivery for consumption. It
requires handling in a most hygienic manner to avoid being exposed
to contamination. The environment where the abattoir is located
must be clean otherwise serious health hazards will occur to human
beings that eat the meat.
In an economic sense, an abattoir is a consumer oriented
venture. The processes in its operation in Nigeria have so many
environmental implications associated with it. These implications are
the facilities required for a better abattoir management. The location
of the abattoir is as important as the factory itself, since this
determines its survival and the marketing facilities.
Meat is important to human beings as it is major source of
protein for growth. It is therefore important that any abattoir operation
should be properly handled bearing in mind the sanitary implication
to humans.

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It is sad to note that most of these facilities in Nigeria are poorly
managed, located and designed. The study of the environmental
health hazards associated with Amansea and Ugwuoba abattoirs
stem from the following:
Amansea Abattoir came into existence in 1975. It was located
close to iyietu River. The river is famous for the fish it supplies to the
communities through which it flows. The river stretches over six
hundred kilometers from Obibia/Agu Awka/Amansea and emptied
itself into the Mamu River. It irrigates several tracts of agricultural
land along its long profil. The inhabitants depends on the agricultural
land and river of their existence .
Prior to the location of the abattoir in 1975 and in a few years
of its operation, the people started to notice gradual reduction in
fish production and agricultural output form the Iyietu Riverine
Areas. The river which used to be clean and colourless/changed
to brown-green colour. From Ugwuoba, where the researcher made
an investigation about the activities of abattoir , it was gathered
that it was established in 1978 along Iyiocha stream running from
Ogba valley down to Mamu River.
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The inhabitants along the river are affected by the river
colouration, reduction in fish production and agricultural output.

1.2. THE STUDY AREA
The condition of the abattoir environment in Amansea and
Ugwuoba show that:
1. Paunch manure accumulates and discharges into the stream
and land, thereby contaminating the stream with its offensive
and discomforting odour.
2. The uncontrolled cattle dungs in the lairages render it
stinking and filthy.
3. The waste materials from blood offal and fatty particles
discharged after slaughtering provide breeding grounds for
flies and other vectors thereby degrading the environment.
4. The smoke discharge into the clean air during roasting of the
slaughtered goats and cow is likely to be the cause of the
poor visibility now experienced in the area.
From observation and information, it has been a general consensus
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in these area that abattoir activities and their resultant waste have
adversely affected the water quality of the stream, and the surrounding
land environment and had affected the physical and chemical ecosystem.
The Ogba and Iyietu streams which used to serve the inhabitants as
sources of water for domestic uses and drinking , are no more safe for
these purposes.
The following research questions will be addressed.
a. What are the processes involved in abattoir operation?
b. What types of wastes are generated during the process?
c. How are these wastes disposed off?
d. What effects do these wastes have on the stream, vegetation,
air, land and the inhabitations of the area?
e. How do these problems of environmental degradation influence
the pattern of life of the people?
It is intended to identify and examine critically the impact of waste
generated in the abattoir during slaughtering, roasting, skinning,
evisceration and washing of meat.

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1.3. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effect of
Amansea and Ugwuoba abattoir on the immediate environment.
The objective therefore being
1. To find out the process involved in abattoir operations
2. To compare the operations in Amansea and Ugwuoba abattoir
3. To investigate and highlight the waste generated during the
processes.
4. To investigate the method of disposal of waste generated.
5. To examine the effects of wastes on human health, plants,
animals and the entire environment.
6. Suggest ways of improving the disposal of wastes.

1.4. THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work investigates the following environmental implication
of the abattoir in terms of the impact on:
i. The stream passing through the abattoir
ii. The land and its surroundings where the abattoir operations
are carried out.
iii. The lirage where animals meant for slaughter are kept
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iv. How wastes are generated and disposed of as well as possible
remedies of environmental polluttants.

1.5. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to highlight the problems
associated with meat processing and how they can affect human
and the ecosystem. The study will assist policy makers to seek better
methods of meat processing and management of wastes . By so doing
associated health and environmental pollution problems would be
controlled.

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