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ABSTRACT

 

 

KMS are IT systems that manage the knowledge of organizations, these systems aid organizations generate new knowledge, record, utilize and allocate knowledge. This study examines the adoption of knowledge management systems at the American University of Nigeria. Centred on the UTAUT2 theory, this study puts forth a framework and then investigates its constructs to explain individual’s behavioural intentions to adopt knowledge management system. This work also examines the moderating effects of individualism/Collectivism at individual level on knowledge management system adoption. Data was gathered from staff and faculty of the American University of Nigeria using an online questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS to perform an exploratory factor analysis AMOS was then used to test the model fit and the proposed hypothesis by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis test. The findings of this study showed that performance expectancy, hedonic motivation are important factors that explained individual’s behavioural intention to adopt knowledge management system. The results from this study also showed the impact of habit and facilitating condition on use behaviour. The result also showed that the moderating effect of individualism/collectivism at individual level on knowledge management system adoption was significant. Implications and future research works are presented and explained.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

COVER PAGE…………………………………………………………………………………i
TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………………………..ii
DECLARATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii
CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………… v
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vi
Table of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xii
Chapter One …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.0 Background of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Problem Statement …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study …………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.3 Research Question(s) …………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.4 Scope of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.5 Thesis Structure ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.6 Chapter Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Chapter Two …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
2.1 Knowledge and Knowledge Management Concept ………………………………………………… 6
2.2 Knowledge Management Systems (KMS)…………………………………………………………….. 7
2.3 KMS Adoption in Organisations …………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.3.1 KMS Adoption in Higher Education Institutions …………………………………………….. 9
2.4 Related Works …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.4.1 Knowledge management system adoption: exploring the effects of empowering leadership, task-technology fit and compatibility …………………………………………………… 10
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2.4.2 Examining a model of knowledge management systems adoption and diffusion: A Partial Least Square approach ……………………………………………………………………………… 10
2.4.3 Adoption of Knowledge Management Systems: A Study on How Wiki Systems Should Be Adopted by Minimizing the Risk of Failure ………………………………………….. 11
2.4.4 Examining the adoption of KMS in organizations from an integrated perspective of technology, individual, and organization ………………………………………………………………. 11
2.4.5 Employee Acceptance of Knowledge Management Systems in Bangladesh: Integrating UTAUT and KMS diffusion model……………………………………………………… 11
2.4.6 Application of a Learning Management System for Knowledge Management: Adoption and Cross‐cultural Factors ……………………………………………………………………. 11
2.4.7 The Adoption of Knowledge Management Development System in Nigeria Higher Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
2.4.8 Student Acceptance of Knowledge Management Systems: Evidence from a Canadian Business School ………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.4.9 Instructors Adoption and Use of LMS ………………………………………………………….. 12
2.5 Chapter Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Chapter Three ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Research Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
3.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
3.1 Purpose of Research …………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
3.2 Research Approach ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
3.3 Theoretical Backgrounds ………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
3.3.1 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) …………………… 18
3.3.2 Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology UTAUT2 ……… 19
3.3.3 Individualism/Collectivism (IC) ………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.4 Research Hypothesis ………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
3.4.1 Performance Expectancy ……………………………………………………………………………. 22
3.4.2 Effort Expectancy ……………………………………………………………………………………… 23
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3.4.3 Facilitating Conditions ……………………………………………………………………………….. 23
3.4.4 Hedonic Motivation …………………………………………………………………………………… 24
3.4.5 Habit ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
3.4.6 Behavioural Intention…………………………………………………………………………………. 24
3.4.7 Individualism/Collectivism (IC)- The Moderating Variable. …………………………… 25
3.5 Study Population ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
3.5.1 Population and Sampling ……………………………………………………………………………. 27
3.6 Data Collection Method ……………………………………………………………………………………. 28
3.6.1 Questionnaire ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
3.7 Method of Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
3.7.1 Criticism of Method …………………………………………………………………………………… 29
3.8 Reliability and Validity of Research Instrument ………………………………………………. 29
3.9 Chapter Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
Chapter Four ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
Analysis of Data and Findings …………………………………………………………………………………. 31
4.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
4.1 Demographic Characteristics and Descriptive Statistics ……………………………………….. 31
4.2 Common Method Variance ……………………………………………………………………………….. 32
4.3 Measurement Validation …………………………………………………………………………………… 32
4.3.1 Pearson Correlation ……………………………………………………………………………………. 32
4.3.2 Exploratory Factor Analysis ……………………………………………………………………….. 33
4.3.3 Reliability …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
4.4 Model and Hypothesis Test ………………………………………………………………………………. 34
4.4.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) …………………………………………………………… 35
4.5 Chapter Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
Chapter Five …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
Discussion and Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

Introduction
1.0 Background of the Study
“Knowledge is power” it is an indispensable asset to individuals and organisations. Proper management of knowledge by organisations and institutions has led to increased efficiency of business processes of such organisations (Alavi & Leidner, 2001; Becerra-Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2010). Knowledge management simply means performing necessary tasks to make the most of the available resources in an organisation (Anak, 2014), while Knowledge management systems (KMS) are the information technology that aid the management of these resources (Dehghani & Ramsin, 2015).
Knowledge management does not only imply the management of resources but the applying, capturing and sharing of these knowledge resources (S. Lee, Gon Kim, & Kim, 2012). With the help of KMS, the overall goal of organisations is to efficiently manage their knowledge resource in order for new knowledge to be created (Gulnaz & Tatiana, 2014). To do this, understanding the difference between data, information and Knowledge is crucial. Also, knowing the right knowledge or knowledge resources to manage is key (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). Generally, the knowledge found in organisations needs to be utilized in the processes and services of those organisations, because finding the right kind of knowledge, in the right form would facilitate creativity which leads to maintaining competitive advantage (Bhatt, 2007).
With the constant change in this technological age, one of the best ways for organizations to ensure that they stay above their competitors is to manage their knowledge assets (Basten, Bjoern, & Mahmut, 2015; Mulyono & Kristianto, 2013). Organizational knowledge is found in the individuals of the organization and most of this knowledge is tacit in nature and is not easily shared with other members of the organization (Anak, 2014). Furthermore, this knowledge could be lost easily when the members leave the organization or retire (Anak, 2014; Yang & Farn, 2009). Therefore, finding the most effective way to store and manage this knowledge is very key.
While the implementation and use of KMS by some of these organisations have helped to increase the efficiency and creativity of these organisations, the rate of adoption of these
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systems is still low (Wagner & Bolloju, 2005). This could be due to the fact that KMS is a long-term investment and results are not seen instantly but over the years. Research has also shown that low adoption rate of KMS could also be attributed to an unwillingness to share knowledge (Goh & Sandhu, 2013; Muhammad Jawad Iqbal, 2011). Other factors include cultural value and ease of use of the system (Hossain, Ouedraogo, & Rezania, 2013). In developing countries, the rate of KMS adoption is also low due to the aforementioned factors.
Institutions of higher education are considered as banks of knowledge (Sugiarti, 2014), there are close to no literature on KMS adoption in institutes of higher education, especially in developing countries. Most of the literature focus on the adoption and acceptance of KMS in organisations (Khanam & Mahfuz, 2017). Other literatures focus on the implementation and factors that affect the successful implementation of KMS (Panigrahi, Zainuddin, & Azizan, 2014; Tjong & Adi, 2016).
There is a need for adoption studies on KMS in the institution of higher education, adoption studies help these institutions determine the key issues influencing the usage of these systems. While these institutions use learning management systems (LMS) to manage their academic knowledge, KMS have an advantage over LMS as they allow access to prior data and information that is not recognized as knowledge by LMS (Tjong & Adi, 2016).
This study aims to investigate and explore the factors that affect the adoption of KMS in the American University of Nigeria since most literature in higher educational institutions focus on implementation. Also, institutes of higher education need to be mindful of the fact that other sections apart from the academic section are also banks of knowledge and require management of their knowledge assets. This thesis would look at the adoption of KMS in AUN at the individual level.
1.1 Problem Statement
These days many organizations have turned to KMS to help collect, distribute, use, accumulate and manage their knowledge resources (Mulyono & Kristianto, 2013). KMSs are rapidly being used in today’s technological age to help various organizations have the upper edge over their competitions (Basten et al., 2015). Higher educational institutions are well known to be stores of knowledge (Karna, Supriana, & Maulidevi, 2016). Therefore, in order for them to grow and gain a good advantage over other institutions, they would need to manage their knowledge resources efficiently.
The acceptance of KMS and other educational information systems in higher educational
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institutions has been a prominent research interest in recent days as many types of research try to investigate the factors that affect its acceptance by students and faculty (Cheung & Vogel, 2013; Hossain et al., 2013; Kaldi, Aghaie, & Khoshalhan, 2008; Lewis, Fretwell, Ryan, & Parham, 2013; Sds & Korea, 2013).
Most literature on KMS, especially in developing countries have mostly been on implementation, there are close to no literature on adoption of these systems. Research has shown that for any information technology or system implementation to be successful, the end users must plan to use that system (Kaldi et al., 2008). adoption studies help to predict the factors that affect the usage of these systems by the end users. KMS have been implemented in higher educational institutions to improve teachers’ competence, to help improve e-learning and to help lesson study activities (Karna et al., 2016; Mardhia, Langi, Sc, Ph, & Bandung, 2014; Sugiarti, 2014). The implementations of KMS in these institutions have focused solely on solving academic related issues or an upgrade of an already existent information technology such as a learning management system used for managing knowledge. While the implementation of KMS has helped to greatly advance the efficiency of these institutions, the acceptance of these systems has not been successful due to numerous factors (Hossain et al., 2013).
The use of KMS systems in developing countries to aid efficient learning and manage knowledge resources in higher education institution is still in its early stages. The American University of Nigeria is a development university in Nigeria, it uses a Learning Management System to support learning activities and a management system to support its business processes. However, the usage and acceptance of these systems in the university has also not been very effective. The American University of Nigeria also lacks a KMS that allows the integration of its knowledge resources through each of its units and departments. At AUN, different knowledge activities are executed between its various departments and schools and while some departments use some information system to manage knowledge activities that can be codified and written down, there is no such information technology/system implemented in the school to manage knowledge activities that are gained through experience and not easily documented. Managing knowledge that is gained through experience and isn’t easily codified is very key in every organisation today due to employee turnover rate. Based on literature and the usage and acceptance of the available Information Technology in this institution, this thesis would investigate the factors that have an effect on the adoption of KMS in the American University Nigeria.
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1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictors of KMS adoption by faculty and administrative staff of the American University of Nigeria. The specific objectives of this thesis include:
 To investigate the readiness of faculty and staff of AUN in adopting KMS.
 To investigate the predictive factors that have an effect on the adoption of KMS by faculty and staff of AUN.
 To investigate the behavioural intention and subsequent use behaviour of Faculty and staff of AUN to adopt KMS
1.3 Research Question(s)
 What factors affect the adoption of KMS at AUN by faculty and staff?
 What are the moderating effects of individualism-collectivism (at the individual level) on the adoption of KMS by faculty and staff at AUN?
1.4 Scope of the Study
The emphasis of this thesis is to identify the predictive factors that have an effect on individuals in higher educational institutions specifically the American University of Nigeria to adopt KMS. This thesis will focus on faculty and administrative staff of AUN and would help to explore and predict their adoption of a novel technology.
1.5 Thesis Structure
This thesis is arranged into five chapters:
Chapter two gives a detailed literature review on the adoption of KMS in organisations, and then more specifically in higher educational institutions. Factors that affect the adoption of KMS in these organisations are also discussed in this chapter. This chapter goes further to explain the theoretical framework of the research and the research hypothesis. Chapter three entails the process used in the research, it includes the sample population, the method of sampling, the tool used for the research and how the data was collected and analysed. Chapter four gives an extensive report of how the analysis of the collected data was done. The discussion, results, and summary of results collected from the analysed data are also discussed
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in this chapter. Chapter five concludes the study, the implication, limitations, and recommendation for future study are shown in this chapter.
1.6 Chapter Summary
This chapter gave an introduction to the thesis; it showed, in brief, the concept of knowledge, knowledge management and Knowledge Management Systems it also explained the reasons why organisations should adopt these systems. It gave details on why managing knowledge in organisations is very important. It also emphasizes on why knowledge management in higher education institution is necessary. This chapter also highlighted the aim of the study; the objectives, the problem the study intends to solve, the research questions it aims to answer, the scope of the research and the organisation structure of the research report.

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