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In different parts of the world especially African and Asian continents, students
attend classes and taught in groups using the same method of teaching applied
to all students irrespective of whether or not they have the same method of
taking and assimilating information (learning style). This contributed negatively
towards the development of educations in some countries of those continents. To
tackle such problems, an intelligent and adaptive learning system should be the
focal point in order to ensure faster and better performances in the learning
process. One of its advantages is to help learners and teachers to discover
students’ learning preferences. Learning Style is the various ways or approaches
of learning. They involve educating method, particular to an individual that are
presumed to allow that individual to learn best. Learning preferences can then
help learners to find their most effective way to learn conveniently. It can also
help teachers to adopt/prepare suitable learning materials for efficient learning
process. This paper is concerned with the study, implementation, and application
of a web-based learning style index. In this paper we examine the learning style
of students in Asia and those in Africa, Nigeria and Japan as a case study.
However, this paper also compares the learning preferences of students in those
two above mentioned continents.
Based on the study, we also give some recommendation to enhance the learning
processes in those countries.


1.1 Introduction———————————————————————– 9
1.2 Aims and Objective————————————————————- 10
1.3 Scope and Limitation———————————————————- 10
1.4 Methodology——————————————————————– 10
2.1 SQL—————————————————————————— 11
2.2 Web Server——————————————————————– 12
2.3 Apache Web Server——————————————————— 12
2.4 Apache Tomcat————————————————————– 12
2.5 Learning Style—————————————————————- 13
2.5.1 Dimensions of Learning Style———————————— 13
2.6 Related Works on Learning Style—————————————- 15
2.7 Learning Style Index——————————————————– 18
3.1 Enhanced Learning style Index——————————————- 20
3.2 Implementation————————————————————- 22
3.3 Web Application———————————————————— 24
3.3.1 Students Modules————————————————— 25
3.3.2 Teachers Module————————————————— 26
3.3.3 Administrator Module——————————————– 28
3.4 Integration in to Intelligent and Adaptive e-learning System— 29
4.1 Learning Style of Japanese students———————————- 31
4.2 Learning Style of Nigerian Students———————————- 34
4.3 The Comparism———————————————————— 38
4.4 Global Result and Implications—————————————– 43
5.1 Summary——————————————————————– 45
5.2 Conclusion—————————————————————— 45
5.3 Suggestion and Recommendation———————————— 46
5.4 Challenges—————————————————————— 46
5.5 Future work—————————————————————- 47
References————————————————————————– 47



During the past decade, educational research has identified a number of factors that account
for some of the differences in how students learn. One of these factors, learning styles, is
broadly described as cognitive, effective and physiological traits that are relatively stable
indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to learning environment.
This research work uses an online learning style index (LSI) to determine the learning
preferences of students based on their responses to answering some questions with multiple
choice answers on a questionnaire to the best of their ability. The system will automatically
categorize the students as Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, Sequential/Global
or Social/Emotional learners. Learning style index can help learners to know their learning
preferences to enable them select/find out suitable learning materials in order to boost their
learning process. Moreover, teachers can take this advantage to measure their students’
learning preferences, which they can use to setup/adjust their teaching styles and to find out
the necessary materials or equipment to match their students’ learning capabilities. It is very
important to know the learning preferences of an individual or group of students so as to avoid
mismatch between leaner’s learning style and the available learning or teaching materials.
This system is an improvement of Felder-Silverman learning model, which was developed
mainly for engineering students. We found that the quiz system of Felder-Silverman learning
style model allows students to choose between two alternatives, just like true or false in logic,
but however, in life we can find so many things that may not necessarily be black or white.
Therefore, Felder-Silverman learning style index needs to be extended to give students an
opportunity to choose one out of five options.
The enhanced learning style index (ELSI) is implemented using java as an applet, and integrated
in to a web-based system which is connected to an SQL database using java database connector
(JDBC). It is essential to use database so that we can analyze the enhanced learning style index
for group of learners and help teachers to get general view of the learning preferences of their
To test this system, some data were collected from engineering students (male and female) in
various schools and universities in Nigeria to analyze their learning styles and make
comparative analysis between this result and that of the same type of students from Japan.
Learning styles index is aimed at knowing an individual or group of students’ learning
preferences, in order to develop their knowledge, skills and understanding, so that they can
perform with increasing competence and confidence in a range of educational activities.
Some of the key objectives of this research are as follows:
 To create awareness to both students and their teachers on students’ learning style
 To enable teachers to know the convenient way of inseminating new idea/knowledge to
their students.
 To improve learning processes in Africa.
 To show application of computer science in different fields of study.
The research work is concerned only about knowing the learning preferences of students using
an on-line, web based learning system. The system does not have any suggestion to the teacher
or students on the type of materials they may use in the teaching or learning processes. But the
system can interpret the learning style preferences of the user automatically after completing
all the necessary steps, as will be explained in the appendix.
The system has an online questionnaire that students are expected to login to the system
through an internet service for proper inspection of the questions and also provide an answer
to the 55 multiple choice questions based on their own learning capability. But unfortunately,
internet service and good computer skills is not so common in majority of our schools in Africa,
more especially in villages. Therefore, I tried to have printed copies of the questionnaire that
can be answered manually using an ink (pen) anywhere and at time independent of availability
of internet service as well as computer skills. The filled questionnaires were later entered in to
the system in an environment where internet service and computer skills are not considered as
a major challenge. Some of the schools visited in Nigeria are Bayero University Kano, African
University of Science and technology Abuja, Government Secondary School Kafin Hausa Jigawa
state, University of Nigeria Nsuka, etc. More so, In Japan Schools in Fukushima were visited by a
student of Professor Mohamed Hamada in University of Aizu, Japan.



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