LOCAL CONSTRUCTION OF BATTERY POWERED DUAL FACE RADIOGRAPHIC VIEWING BOX WITH ROTATABLE NECK AND ADJUSTABLE STAND

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  • Name: LOCAL CONSTRUCTION OF BATTERY POWERED DUAL FACE RADIOGRAPHIC VIEWING BOX WITH ROTATABLE NECK AND ADJUSTABLE STAND
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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  • Length: [84] Pages

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Dedication     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Acknowledgement –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Table of contents               –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

CHAPTER ONE

Background of study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

Introduction   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

Statement of problem        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        3

Purpose of study     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

Significance of study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

Scope of study-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5

Review of related literature         –        –        –        –        –        –        5

CHAPTER TWO

Theoretical background    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.1  Viewing conditions    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

Observer and visual acuity         –        –        –        –        –        –        11

Those relating to the illuminator –        –        –        –        –        –        14

2.2 Features of illuminator boxes         –        –        –        –        –        –        16

2.3 How to carry quality control test for illuminator –        –        –        17

Direct assessment of surface perspex screen of illuminator –        –        18

Assessment of the surface perspex screen of illuminator using black card. 19

2.4     Care of illuminators –        –        –        –        –        –        –        21

  • Materials use in construction of illuminator box –        –        21

Plastic  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        21

Metals        –        –        –        –        –        –                  –        –        22

2.6    Electrical components        –              –              –              –              –              –              –              23

A rechargeable battery    –           –           –           –           –           –           24

A switch      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        28

Electrical wire       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

A choke      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

Transformer          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        35

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and methods    –                  –        –        –        –        –        37

3.1      Preliminary steps –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

3.2     Choice of design  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

3.3     Fabrication of the illuminator housing         –        –        –        38

The head:    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        38

Components and systems required:    –        –        –        –        –        39

3.4 Machinery used in this contruction        –        –        –        –        39

3.5       Sources of materials     –        –        –        –        –        –        40

Other materials required and reasons  –        –        –        —       –        41

3.6   Fabrication procedure      –        –        –        –        –        –        42

Plate marking and cutting         –        –        –        –        –        –        42

Folding of plate   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        44

Welding      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        47

Drilling       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

Filling        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

Painting      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

Fabrication of the perspex screen.      –        –        –        –        –        51

Materials used in the production of the screen      –        –        –        51

Procedure    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        52

3.7   Voltage regulator circuit   –        –        –        –        –        –        52

Circuit operation   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        53

The stand and base        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

CHAPTER   FOUR

4.1   Research findings/ quality control tests –        –        –        –        55

4.1.1    Uniformity of the intensity of illuminator  –        –        –        55

Determination of the uniformity of the intensity of ilumination.         –        58

Procedures: –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        58

  • Measuring the temperature of the surface

over a period of time.     –              –              –              –              –              –                              59

Quality control test for maximum discharging time           –              –

Summary of results                     –     –        –        –        –        –        64

Recommendation from the study      –        –        –        –        –        64

Area of further studies –              –              –              –              –              –              –              65

Limitations of study       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        65

Conclusion  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        66

References   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        67

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

INTRODUCTION

Radiographic viewing box is an illuminator use in viewing radiographs. Proper viewing conditions are very important when interpreting a radiograph. The viewing condition can enhance or degrade the subtle detail of the radiograph14. Before beginning the evaluation of radiograph, the viewing equipment and area should be considered. The area should be clean and free of distracting materials, magnifying aids, and film makers should be close at hand. Its function being to improves subject contrast of a radiographic image by enhancing the visualization of radiographs without which a radiographic image even with a good objectives contrast may not be well interpreted due to difference in perception of radiographic contrast by different observers9. X-ray illuminators have found increasing use in recent years as a tool for diagnosing medical problem.

Since the discovery of  x-ray in 1895 by William roentgen in Germany, many x-ray equipment and accessories have evolved, all aiming at proper radiation protection and adequate diagnosis of illnesses. Among these inventions are the x-ray illuminators, which play an important role in film viewing, perception and interpretation of visible images.

Unfortunately, conventional x-ray illuminators lack recharge ability which is a factor that has been limiting its use in the event of power failure.

The aim of this project is to construct a battery powered dual face radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck and adjustable stand that alleviates the cumbersomeness of carrying a table to a long distance for viewing of radiographs.

This illuminator will improve grade performance and produce clear images for more simplified accurate diagnosis, although the x-ray viewing box is locally constructed but it will be international standard with many features like momentary start switch standard, internal ventilation with a fan high luster white color coat finish, quality steel material and will accommodate all kinds of x-rays without occupying too much space.

The average luminance is a better indicator of the viewing box luminance than the central luminance. This is confirmed by the greater standard deviation in the mean central luminance than the standard for the mean average luminance12. Screen-film technology still has widespread use in developing countries. As such it is imperative to have quality control measures on viewing boxes. Despite the widespread use of screen-film technology in developing countries, there is a gradual shift to digital X-ray systems, which could be the ultimate solution to non-optimal viewing box luminance having a detrimental effect on radiograph reporting. The use of digital systems paves the way for other viewing options like the use of video monitors, printing the image on paper and the use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), which have the advantage of eliminating the cost of film, chemicals and processor equipment. It should not escape one’s mind that digital imaging systems also have their relevant quality control requirements needed for optimal viewing of images.

For the development of world class Medical X-Ray Illuminators (View Box), we possess a robust infrastructure, which is spread over a vast area. It includes a design studio and a manufacturing unit that work together to ensure slimmest designs and high performance of our illuminators. All the components used in the fabrication process are sourced from quality conscious vendors. Our infrastructure also includes a quality testing facility, wherein the finished products are tested for their quality.

                               STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

  1. Higher cost of buying two separate viewing boxes.
  2. Lack of space in some x-ray department to accommodate two separate viewing boxes.
  3. Frequent power failure in some radiology department.
  4. Delay in some radiological department during viewing or reporting of radiographs.

 

PURPOSE OF STUDY

  1. To construct a dual face with battery powered radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck.
  2. To produce radiographic viewing box with alternative power supply.
  3. To provide an adjustable stand x-ray viewing box that can be adjusted to certain height.
  4. To provide a base with castor wheel for easy movement of the illuminator box from place to place.
  5. To make the viewing box rechargeable, eliminating problem of consistent power failure.
  6. To provide illumination that can be varied to small, medium and high range using rotating knob.
  7. To produce a radiographic viewing Box that has Durability with style.
  8. To produce illuminator with Latest technology.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

  1. Will reduce patient’s waiting time in radiological department.
  2. Possibility of sharing ideas between two radiographers using the equipment.
  3. Can be used in class rooms for study and demonstration.
  4. Can be used in locality where there is no power supply.
  5. Can be use any place due to its mobility.
  6. Viewing and reporting of radiographs with this equipment can be done any time irrespective of power failure, thus providing radiodiagnostic readily available.
  7. The equipment can be powered through electrical supply and simultaneously recharging the battery to desirable capacity providing steady function in case of power failure.

                                          SCOPE OF STUDY

This construction of battery powered dual face radiographic viewing box with rotatable neck and adjustable stand was carried out within Enugu metropolis.