MOSQUITO SURVEY THROUGH LARVAL SAMPLING AND OVITRAPPING IN PARTS OF ASABA, DELTA STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.

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  • Name: MOSQUITO SURVEY THROUGH LARVAL SAMPLING AND OVITRAPPING IN PARTS OF ASABA, DELTA STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.
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ABSTRACT

A survey of the mosquito fauna of Asaba, the Delta State capital of Southwestern
Nigeria was undertaken between January and March 2009. The mosquito breeding
sites, distribution, abundance and the influence of ecological factors on the
mosquito population were determined. Asaba metropolis was subdivided into five
zones based on population and human activities. Ovitraps were used to sample the
Aedes mosquito populations. Larvae were collected once weekly using ladles,
bowls, sieves and specimen bottles. Ecological sites studied were drains ground
pools, discard vehicle tyres, domestic containers, tree holes and leaf axils. A total
of 7,337 mosquitoes comprised of two mosquito genera (Aedes and culex) and
three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and culex
quinquetasciatus were collected, C. quinquefasciatus 6,431(87.7%) formed the
bulk of the collection of the 7,337 larvae, drains yielded 6,202 (84.53%) of the
collection. out of 960 ovitraps set, 291 (31.1%) were positive with aedes eggs that
yielded 1,553 larvae from which 780 (72.4%) emerged as adults. Two aedes
species A. aegypti 450 (57.7%) and A. albopictus 330 (42.3%) were collected from
the ovitraps. Both larvae and eggs collected increased or decreased with increase in
rainfall. The health implications of high breeding rates of mosquitoes in the drains
and domestic water containers were discussed and recommendation for mosquito
control, health education and maintenance of clean drains were made.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. II
CERTIFICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… IV
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………… VI
TABLE OF CONTENT ………………………………………………………………………………………… VIII
LISTS OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. XI
LIST OF APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………………………………… XII
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. XV

CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

CHAPTER TWO ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
2.1: BIOLOGY OF MOSQUITO ………………………………………………………………………………. 4
2.1.1:EGG……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3
2.1.2: LARVAE …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
2.1.3: PUPAE …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.1.4: ADULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
2.2: BREEDING HABITATS OF MOSQUITOES …………………………………………………………. 10
2.3: ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ……………………………………………………………………………….. 10
2.4: IMPORTANCE OF LARVAL SURVEY ……………………………………………………………….. 12
IX
2.5: EFFICACY OF OVITRAPS COLLECTION …………………………………………………………… 13
2.6: ROLE OF MOSQUITO AS DISEASE VECTORS ……………………………………………………. 15
2.7: MANAGEMENT OF MOSQUITOES ………………………………………………………………. 17

CHAPTER THREE ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
MATERIALS AND METHODS………. ………………………………………………………………21
3.1: STUDY AREA……………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
3.2: SELECTION OF SAMPLING SITES …………………………………………………………………… 22
3.3: CATEGORIZATION OF MOSQUITO BREEDING SITES: ………………………………………… 22
3.4: SAMPLING OF MOSQUITO LARVAE IN GROUND POOLS, DRAINS AND CONTAINERS23
3.5: SAMPLING OF MOSQUITO LARVAE IN TYRES, LEAF AXILS AND TREE HOLES ………… 24
3.6: MOSQUITO SAMPLING WITH OVITRAPS ……………………………………………………….. 24
3.7: PROCESSING OF EGGS AND LARVAL SAMPLES ……………………………………………….. 25
3.8: HATCHING OF THE EGGS …………………………………………………………………………….. 25
3.9: REARING OF THE LARVAE TO ADULTS …………………………………………………………… 25
3.10: IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOSQUITOES ……………………………………………………….. 26
3.11: FEATURES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MOSQUITOES ………………………………………… 26
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA ………………………………………………………………………… 32

CHAPTER FOUR ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
4.1: RESULT OF LARVAL COLLECTION ………………………………………………………………….. 33
X
4.2:EFFECT OF CLIMATIC DATA (RAINFALL, TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY) ON
LARVAL AND EGG COLLECTION FROM THE FIVE ZONES OF ASABA ………………………….. 37
4.3: RESULT OF OVITRAP COLLECTION ………………………………………………………………… 39
4.4: SOME IMPORTANT PICTURES OF THE STUDY SITES……………………………………………….46

CHAPTER FIVE…………………..……………………………………………………58
DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………….….58
5.1: MOSQUITO SPECIES……………………………………………………………………………………………….58
5.2: MOSQUITO BREEDING SITES (MBS)………………………………………………………..……………..58
5.3: EVALUATION OF OVITRAP PERFORMANCE(EOP)……………………………………………………60
5.4: HATCHABILITY OF MOSQUITO EGGS (HME)……………………………………………………….….60
5.5: OTHER FIELD OBSERVATION………………………………………………………………………………….61
5.6: IMPLICATION FOR DISEASE TRANSMISSION…………………………………………………………..62
5.7: CONCLUTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………62

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 46

APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Mosquitoes are widely distributed throughout the world and they utilize different
water bodies for their breeding (WHO, 1982). Many species breed in both natural
and articial containers, such as pools, gutters, coconut shells, tree holes, bamboo
stumps, leaf axils, septic tanks and other similar water bodies (Maana, 1989;
Aigbodion and Anyiwe, 2005). The distribution of mosquitoes is inuenced both
directly and indirectly by climatic and environmental factors (Maana et al., 1998).
Mosquitoes prefer an environment with certain resources such as food, shelter,
breeding sites, favourable temperature and suitable humidity, in sufficient amount
and at an appropriate time for development and survival (Romoser & Stoffolano,
1998). The recent increase in ecological and environmental modication due to
agricultural activities and urbanization, has been observed to contribute to the
breeding of various mosquito species in a rice and plaintation communities in
Ogun State (Amusan et al., 2005).
Mosquitoes are unquestionably the most medically important arthropod vectors of
disease. The maintenance and transmission of the pathogens that cause malaria,
lymphatic filariasis, and numerous viral infections are mainly dependent on the
availability of competent mosquito vectors (Monath 1985). Human malaria, caused
2
primarily by the protozoan species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium
vivax, causes high mortality and morbidity in human and animal population across
the world, leading to enormous economic loss (Soulsby 1982, Service 1980). The
nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are the principal etiologic
agents of lymphatic filariasis, causing morbidity in over 100 million individuals (
Bockarie et al 1998). Hundreds of thousands of humans also are infected with
mosquito-borne viruses, with yellow fever and dengue fever being two of the most
important mosquito-transmitted viral diseases. Although the medical community
has known for over a century the role mosquitoes play in the transmission of
malaria and lymphatic filariasis, these diseases continue to have a devastating
influence on the less privileged populations throughout the tropical and subtropical
regions of the world (Service 1980). The current problems in controlling malaria
are much more severe than those facing public health officials 30 years ago
(Krogstad, 1996).The problems include resistance of vectors to insecticides and the
Plasmodium parasites to drugs.
Studies to identify local mosquito species have been carried out in several parts of
Nigeria including Ibadan, Lagos, Zaria, Benin, Enugu and Awka (Okorie, 1973;
Maana, 1989; Anyanwu et al., 1999; Aigbodion & Odiachi, 2003; Onyido, et al
2002; Mbanugo, and Okpalononuju, 2003 (respectively). Constant studies on
biology and larval ecology of mosquitoes have been observed as important tools in
3
mosquito control (WHO 1975). Such studies will help to determine the existing
and disappearing mosquito species and their distribution (Maana et al., 1998;
Anyanwu et al., 1999). The present study was designed to investigate the ovi
position and larval habitats of existing mosquito fauna in Asaba, Delta state capital
of southwestern Nigeria and its possible public health implications. (on the
residents). Specifically, it will Sample the mosquitoes using ovitrap and larval
collection methods in part of Asaba metropolis in Delta State, so as to determine
the Mosquito species composition, as well as distribution and relative abundance. (
of various Mosquito species in the area.)

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