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EZENIBE OBIAGELI JOSEPHINE

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Download the complete education foundation project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND VOCATIONAL PREFERENCES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ONITSHA EDUCATIONAL ZONE OF ANAMBRA STATEhere on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND VOCATIONAL PREFERENCES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ONITSHA EDUCATIONAL ZONE OF ANAMBRA STATE

The Project File Details

  • Name: MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND VOCATIONAL PREFERENCES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ONITSHA EDUCATIONAL ZONE OF ANAMBRA STATE
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [293 KB]
  • Length: [108] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This study sought to examine the motivational factors and vocational
preference of secondary school adolescents. Four research questions and two
null hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The design of the study
was a descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 349 Senior
Secondary School (SSS) III students in the secondary school in Onitsha
Education Zone of Anambra State. The instrument used for the study was
vocational interest and motivational factor questionnaire (VIMFQ). Means,
standard deviation, chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Major
findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between
male and female students who showed preferences to various vocational
areas; there was a significant difference between urban and rural students
who showed preferences to various vocational areas; the male and female
students are motivated by external influences to a low extent,
rewards/benefits, self expression values and people oriented motivated them
in their choice of a vocation to a great extent, the urban students are
motivated by external influence to a low extent while rural students are
influenced to a great extent; rewards/benefits, self-expression values and
people oriented values motivated both urban and rural students to a great
extent. Based on these findings, conclusions were drawn and the educational
implications were extensively discussed. Among the recommendations
made were that more professional guidance counsellors should be posted to
schools to perform functions like providing students with vocational
information, helping students to identify their interest, capabilities and
abilities in relation to their vocational choices. counsellors should guide the
students in selection of school subjects which are related to their area of
aspiration than allowing non-professionals to remain in that Post. Teachers
should emphasis during their lesson, the career implications of subjects so
that students will see how individual subjects relate to existing careers thus
increasing their knowledge of occupations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………. I
Approval Page……………………………………………………..ii
Certification Page………………………………………………….iii
Dedication………………………………………………………….iv
Acknowledgement………………………………………………….v
Table of Contents………………………………………………….vi
List of Tables………………………………………………………ix
Abstract……………………………………………………………..x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………1
Background of the Study………………………………………………………..1
Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………….7
Purpose of the Study ……………………………………………………………..8
Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………….8
Scope of the Study ………………………………………………………………..11
Research Questions ……………………………………………………………….11
Hypotheses ………………………………………………………………………….12
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE…………………..13
Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………….14
Concept of Adolescence…………………………………………………………14
Concept of Vocation ……………………………………………………………..17
viii
Vocational Preferences ………………………………………………………….18
Concept of Motivation …………………………………………………………..19
Motivational Factors that Influence Vocational Preference of Secondary
School Adolescent ………………………………………………………………..20
Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………………….36
Development Theory …………………………………………………………….37
Personality Type Theory ………………………………………………………..40
Need Theory ………………………………………………………………………..43
Theory of Motivation …………………………………………………………….44
Review of Empirical Studies…………………………………………………45
Studies Related to Vocational Preferences ………………………………..46
Studies Related to Motivational Factors in the Choice of a
Vocation ……………………………………………………………………………..48
Summary of Literature Review …………………………………………….52
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD ………………………55
Research Design …………………………………………………………………..55
Area of the Study ………………………………………………………………….55
Population of the Study ………………………………………………………….56
Sample and Sampling Technique …………………………………………….56
Instrument for Data Collection ………………………………………………..57
ix
Validation of the Instrument …………………………………………………..58
Reliability of the Instrument …………………………………………………..59
Method of Data Collection ……………………………………………………..59
Method of Data Analysis ……………………………………………………….60
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS……………………………………………..61
Summary of Major Findings …………………………………………………..70
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION,
RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY ………………………….72
Discussion of Result ……………………………………………………………..79
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………..77
Educational Implication …………………………………………………………78
Recommendations …………………………………………………………………79
Limitation of the Study ………………………………………………………….81
Suggestion of Further Research ………………………………………………81
Summary of the Study …………………………………………………………..82
References ………………………………………………………………………….85
Appendices …………………………………………………………………………90
x
LIST OF TABLES
TABLES TITLE Page
1. The proportion of the male and female students who showed
preference to various vocational areas. ………………………….. 61
2. Chi-square analysis of male and female students vocational
preferences. ………………………………………………………………. 63
3. The proportion of the urban and rural students who showed
preference to various vocational areas. ………………………….. 65
4. Chi-square analysis of urban and rural students vocational
preferences ……………………………………………………………….. 67
5. Means and standard deviations of the motivational factors of male and
female students. ………………………………………………………… 68
6. Means and standard deviations of the motivational factors of urban
and rural students. ……………………………………………………… 69

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
In a developing country like Nigeria which is at the verge of changing
from a traditionally agricultural country to an industrial one, the choice of a
vocation is a complex task. The longer years of apprenticeship to the family
trade such as weaving, carving and fishing are being replaced by years of
formal education in primary and secondary school with resultant effect that
the children may not take up their parents’ trade.
Vocation is an activity, trade or occupation and others constituting a
life style expressed in time, energy and activity (Oladele, 2002). It simply
refers to a type work or way of life that an individual believes he or she is
specially suited for. Vocation can be said to reflect one’s calling to a
particular business or profession. It is an occupation to which an individual’s
life is committed to and has inherent liking and feeling for the work (Eze,
2010). For the purpose of this study vocation is a profession, occupation,
employment by which one earns his living especially one for which he has a
period of training in an institution or through apprenticeship.
Occupation was classified into different categories. Classification of
occupation is very important to every nation especially a developing nation
2
like Nigeria (Omeje, 2007). He added that people need to have the
knowledge and information on national manpower resources, requirements,
analysis, trends in employment and unemployment. The occupational
category according to Ochiagha (1995) include the following areas,
professional occupations (medicine, law, clergy, teaching, counselling,
psychology, pharmacy, nursing, engineering), managerial occupation (heads
of state, state governors, federal ministers, directors, managers, proprietors)
business occupations (accounting, insurance, salesmanship, banking
marketing) clerical occupations (cashiers, typists, book keepers, tax
collectors, receptionists) agricultural occupations (farmers, farm managers,
agricultural extension officers, palm wine tapers and palm harvesters)
technological occupations (agriculture and food technicians, engineering and
science technicians, air plane technicians) skilled/semiskilled occupations
(photography, plumbing works, printing, hair dressing/barking, computer
operator). Apprenticeship occupations (welders, electricians, cabinet
makers, vulcanizers, fashion designers, goldsmiths) service occupations
(waiters/waitresses, cooks in hotels, security men, firemen, army, naval
force, police force, air force) unskilled labourers (farm labourers, cleaners.
The choice of a vocation therefore is one of the most important decisions
one makes in life.
3
The issue of vocational preference has attracted the interest of many
individuals and government. Vocational preference or choice is a
developmental process and spans almost through person’s life time
(Ohiwerei and Nwosu, 2009). The choice determines satisfaction one
expects to get from his work and the opportunities he has for promotion and
advancement. Individual social status, income, life style, choice of friends,
mental and physical health is influenced by the type of work he or she does.
In other words a person’s vocational choice or preference plays an important
role in his entire life. It has been observed by (Kemjika, 1995) that most
student have insufficient information about different jobs, courses of study
and other activities. They are thus unable to judge whether their choices are
reasonable. Without detailed and adequate information about occupations,
students many jump blindly into jobs to become frustrated and unhappy later
in life and perhaps at such times when a retreat would no longer be easy or
possible (Omeje, 2007).
There are so many sources from which individuals could get
vocational information. They could be sourced from staff or ministries,
government organization at various level of government, journals, bulletins,
through radio, television and other media source. The locations of the school
in urban or rural areas have influence on vocational preferences of
4
individuals. Schools in the rural areas has limited source of information. The
level of exposure of students in the urban area is higher and more in number
than that of students in the rural area, therefore, the experience they gather in
their different areas or societies will influence their vocational interest
especially after secondary education (Kemjika, 1995).
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004:18) documented in
her National Policy on Education that secondary education is the education
children receive after primary school and before the tertiary stage. The broad
goals of secondary education shall be to prepare the individual for
 Useful living within the society and
 Higher education
In Nigeria and beyond, boys and girls choose their vocation when they are in
secondary school. This is mostly in the adolescence stage of their
development. The adolescence period is characterized by both physiological
and psychological changes in the body. It begins when an individual attains
sexual maturity and stops when independence from adult authority is legally
assured.
Adolescence is a period of life during which the growing individual
makes a transition from childhood to adulthood (Izundu, 1991). The length
of this period varies with differing culture. In Nigeria, this stage could be
5
taken to cover ten (10) to nineteen (19) years of age. Adolescence is the
period in which individuals identify with some significant others in his
environment. Adolescents have a number of desires like the desire of
economic independence, selecting and preparation for an occupation and
developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for good living
(Shertzer and Stone, 1981). The attainment of physical maturity by the
adolescent and his increasing self-consciousness are likely to result in his
given more thought to his future roles and status in the community. He is
therefore likely at this stage to exhibit greater awareness of his desires and
aspiration for the future most especially in area of vocational preference.
Choosing a vocation is not an immediate event but is arrived at
through a series of development process of interest (Sokan, 1996). Interest
plays a very prominent role in vocational preference and competencies.
Definitely, we select a job because we are motivated by the interest we have
in such a job. Motivation according to (Okonkwo, 1998) is defined as a
psycho-physiological or internal process, initiated by some need, which
leads to an activity to satisfy that need. Motivation sustains one’s interest
and rest in the pursuance of set goals. It stimulates students to pursue desired
career. Okonkwo further stated that there are two categories of motivation
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motives are those that arise from
6
with the individual. Action elicited by ulterior purpose. Extrinsic motive
arise from source outside the individual. Action elicited by obvious external
factor. Motivational factors include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that
influence the vocational preference of the secondary school adolescents.
There are many motivational factors that influence vocational
preference of secondary school adolescents, among them are intellectual
abilities, attitudes, family, schooling, personality, sex differences, interest
(Nwamuo, 2001). Furthermore, Kemjika (1995) observed that in Nigeria a
large proportion of students make unrealistic vocational preferences and
appear to fail in their jobs fields after school, since knowledge of their
individual characteristics like interest, aptitude, intellectual ability and
values were not considered before vocational choice was made.
Motivational factors affecting vocational preference was classified
into four broad categories by Bakare in Kemjika (1995). Bakare in his
“motivation” for occupation preference scale (MOPS), classified
motivations or factors and choice into four broad categories namely, external
influence, extrinsic reward-oriented values, self expression values and
people oriented values. According to him, external influence refers to the
source of motivation which are external to the individual such as that of
significant persons, mass media, socio-economic background, school,
7
cultural background, whereas, extrinsic reward-oriented values deals with
reasons associated with economic or material benefits (Prestige and working
conditions) also, self-expression values consist of reasons connected with
individuals desire to express one’s special skills or aptitudes and creative
potentialities. People oriented values deals with reasons associated with the
opportunities which they preferred occupation offers for social, interpersonal
relations and interactions. He further stated that what could motivate
students vocational preference are, what would satisfy basic psychological
needs, what an individual hopes to derive from the vocation and what he
holds very dear.
The consequences of wrong vocational choice were summarized as
adverse effect on physical health, bad life-style, job insecurity and
vocational maladjustment (Gesinde, 1986). These views provide suitable
guidelines for this study which intends to find out the vocational preferences
of the secondary school adolescents and what motivates them to make these
choices.
Statement of the Problem
The current mass unemployment in Nigeria is threatening the career
preference of school leavers. Secondary school students are expected to
choose their careers in the senior secondary school. More often than not they
8
rush to their parents for guidance as to which subject and career to choose.
In some other cases, they resort to careers that they heard of even when they
do not have the potentials for such careers. This seems to be the case in
secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. In these schools, it is not
clear what motivates the students in their preferred vocations. This is the
problem which this study seeks to investigate.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the vocational
preferences of secondary school adolescents and the motivating factors
behind their interests. Specifically, the study seeks to:
1. Identify the proportion of the male and female students who show
preference for various vocational areas.
2. Identify the proportion of the students in the urban and rural areas
who show preferences for various vocational areas.
3. Identify motivational factors that influence vocational preference
of the male and female students
4. Identify motivational factors that influence vocational preference
of the students in the urban and rural areas.
Significance of the Study
9
The findings of the study will be useful to students, teachers, parents,
government and guidance counselors.
Theoretically, vocational theorists like Ginzburg, Axelrade and Herma
(1951) and Super (1953) believed that occupational choices take place at
different points in an individual’s life and is a continuous process which
starts at childhood and ends in early adulthood. These periods are
characterized with series of compromise which the individual makes
between his wishes and potentials. They posit that one’s vocational choice is
influenced by factors such as environmental pressures, educational
attainments, emotional responses and value attachments to vocations. The
theorist, demands an individual to make a rational choice of occupation by
choosing an occupation which fits with his image and abilities. Therefore,
since students are influenced by the motivational factors in their choice of a
vocation the findings of the study when implemented will significantly help
them to make a wise vocational choice.
This study will specifically be of importance to students in making
adequate choice of a life career. The knowledge of motivational factors that
influence their vocational preference provides awareness about fringe
benefits, advancement/improvement opportunities which the adolescents
required for effective and realistic career decision.
10
Findings of this study will help the teachers create class projects that
require students to research a selected occupation and apply the course
content to that particular occupation. This will enable the teachers to sort and
place students according to their subject inclinations and occupational class.
This will provide better orientation, facilitate learning and growth, and
enhance career decision than multiple interest groups.
Moreover, the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to
parents. It will help to guide and counsel parents on matters relating to the
choice of vocation for their children and wards.
Making a good choice of vocation is a major concern of the
government since the aim of education is to help the individual develop his
intellectual, occupational and vocational competencies. The finding of this
study will help the government during the planning of secondary school
curriculum to consider the needs of the students and the socio-economic
needs of the society.
The findings of the study will help the guidance counsellor in the
process of imparting suitable vocational guidance. The knowledge of
motivational factors that influence vocational preference of secondary
school adolescents will help the counselor to provide students with
vocational information and thus help students to obtain information about
11
themselves, their particular abilities, aptitudes and interest and identify
vocations for which they are best suited.
Scope of the Study
This study was delimited to the vocational preferences of secondary
school adolescents and the factors that motivated their interest. There are
motivational factors which can influence students vocational interest. Such
factors include external factors, (family, socio-economic background,
school, urban and rural influence. Religious orientation, cultural
background), rewards/benefits derivable from the job (Prestige and working
conditions) self expression/people oriented values (gender, interest,
intellectual ability, personality, aptitudes, values, self concept). The study
will use only the following vocational areas professional, managerial,
agricultural, technological, business, clerical, skilled and semiskilled,
apprenticeship, service and unskilled labourers. There are six education
zones in Anambra state but this study will be limited to Onitsha education
zone
Research Questions
The following research questions were answered to meet the
objectives of the study.
12
(1) What proportion of male and female students showed preference
for various vocational areas?
(2) What proportion of the students in urban and rural areas showed
preference for various vocational areas?
(3) To what extent are male and female students influenced by
motivational factors in their choice of a vocation?
(4) To what extent are urban and rural students influenced by
motivational factors in their choice of a vocational?
Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05
levels of significance.
1. There is no significant difference between male and female
students who showed preference for each of the various vocational
areas.
2. There is no significant difference between students in urban and
rural areas who showed preference for various vocational areas.
13

 

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