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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

INEH-DUMBI MICHAEL IKECHUKWU

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: NIGERIA FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (1960-2014)
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [766 KB]
  • Length: [89] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Since independence, the guiding principle of Nigeria‟s Foreign Policy and the pursuit of its national interest in both its bilateral and its multilateral relationship, have remained a reflection of its perception of the international environment and internal structure. Foreign policy as a concept has been referred to as the category of action a government takes which deals with defence, security, international politics relations and international economic relations. Since the advent of the country called Nigeria foreign policy has been in place; this assertion therefore pave way for the topic of this project “Foreign Policy and Economic Development in Nigeria since 1960-2014”. The topic has its focus direction on the interrogation of the relations of both variables on Nigeria based on identified parameters (research objectives). To achieve such, a quantitative survey was carried out amongst 150 respondents within Ado-Ekiti, the state capital of Ekiti state. Also, an examination of Nigeria foreign policy and economic development was carried out under the various federal government administrations from 1960-2014 as well as three theoretical frame adopted as the research underpinnings.
The research finding was that the structure of Nigeria foreign policy is not well-tailored to meet her economic development needs. Also Nigeria needs to refocus on economic diplomacy to utilize her economic status to attract external economic assistance that can aid developments. An nee restructuring of the Principle of Nigeria Foreign policy to suit economic development agenda.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………………………… I
CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………………….. II
DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………………… III
DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………… IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………………… V
TABLE OF CONTENT…………………………………………………………………VI—XII
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………. XIII
———————————————————————————————————————
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM……………………………………………….… 5
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY………………………………………………………. 6
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS…………………………………………………………… 7
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES…………………………………………………………. 8
1.6. RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS……………………………………………………….. 8
1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY………………………………………………….. 9 VI
1.8. SCOPE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………………….. 10
8
1.9. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH STUDY………………………………………….. 10
1.10. DEFINITION OF TERMS…………………………………………………………… 10
———————————————————————————————————————
CHAPTER TWO
2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………… 12
2.1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………… 12
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION…………………………………………………….. 14
2.1.1 MEANING OF FOREIGN POLICY…………………………………………………… 14
2.1.2. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1960-2014 ……….…………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
2.1.2.2. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1966-1975: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.1.2.3 NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1976-1979: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.1.2.4. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1979-1983: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
2.1.2.5. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1983-1985: ………………………………………………………………………………………………..…. 20
VII
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2.1.2.6. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1985-1993: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
2.1.2.7. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT1993-1998: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
2.1.2.8. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1998-1999: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
2.1.2.9. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1999-2007: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
2.1.10. NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 2007-2014: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
2.2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK…………………………………………………….… 32
2.2.1. DEPENDENCY THEORY……………………………………………………………. 32
2.2.2. INTERDEPENDENCY THEORY……………………………………………………. 33
2.2.3. STRUCTURAL REALISM………………………………………………………….… 34
———————————————————————————————————————
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………… 36
3.1 INTRODUCTION: ………………………………………………………………………… 36
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN: ………………………………………………………..………….. 36
3.3 AREA OF STUDY…………………………………………………………………………. 36
3.4 RESEARCH POPULATION: ……………………………………………………………. 36
VIII
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3.5 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES: ………………………………………….. 36
3.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: …………………………………………………………… 37
3.7 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENTS: ……………………………… 37
3.8 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES/ METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION….. 38
3.9 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES ……………………………………………………… 38
———————————————————————————————————————
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION…………………… 39
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS& INTERPRETATIONINTRODUCTION….. 39
4.2. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE DATA……………..… 40
4.2.1. BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS………….…… 40
4.2.2. QESTIONAIRE BIO-DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS………………… 40
4.2.2.1 PRESENTATION AND INTEPRETATION OF SEX OF RESPONDENTS…….. 40
4.3. ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS RESPONSE TO RESEARCH QUESTIONS…… 44
4.3.1. INTRODUCTION……..…………………………….…………………………………. 44
4.3.2. ANALYSIS OF SUBSECTION 1……………………………………………………… 45
4.3.3. ANALYSIS OF SUBSECTION 2…………………………………………………….. 46
4.3.4. ANALYSIS OF SUBSECTION 3……………………………………………………… 47
4.3.5. ANALYSIS OF SUBSECTION-4……………………………………………………… 49
4.3.6. ANALYSIS OF SUBSECTION-5………..…………………………………………….. 50
IX
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4.3.7. SUMMATION OF RESULT OF ALL SUBSECTION………………………………………. 51
4.4. ANALYSIS OF MEASURE OF RELATIONS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE……… 53
4.4.1. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES OF RELATIONS OF THE RESPONSE TO QUESTIONAIRRE TO RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS……………………………………. 53
4.4.2. MEASURE OF RELATIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS 1……………………………….. 54
4.4.3. MEASURE OF RELATIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS 2……………………………….. 54
4.4.4. MEASURE OF RELATIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS 3……………………………….. 55
4.4.5. MEASURE OF RELATIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS 4……………………………..… 56
4.4.6. MEASURE OF RELATIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS 5……………………………..… 57
4.4.7. SUMMATION OF MEASURE OF RELATIONS OF HYPOTHESIS……………. 58
4.5. DISCUSSION OF FINDING OF DATA ANALYSES….…………………………….. 59
4.5.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………… 59
4.5.2. FINDING 1: NIGERIA FOREIGN POLICY ITS AND ROLE ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FROM 1960-2014…………………………………………………………. 59
4.5.3. FINDINGS 2: THE EXTERNAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE DOES AID NIGERIA ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT……………………………………………………………… 60
4.5.4. FINDINGS 3: ON NIGERIA ECONOMIC STATUS HELPS IN HER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT…………………………………………………………………………… 60
4.5.5. FINDINGS 4: ON ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY IS IMPORTANT TO NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT……………………………………………………………… 61
X
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4.5.6. FINDINGS 5: ON THE INTEGRATION OF NIGERIA FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEEDS CAN LEAD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT …………………………..………………………………………………………………………. 61
4.5.7. GENERAL FINDINGS IN ALL FINDINGS 1-5……………………………………… 61
———————————————————————————————————————
CHAPTER 5
5.0. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………………… 62
5.1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………… 62
5.2. SUMMARY……………..………………………………………………………………… 62
5.3. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………… 63
5.4. RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………………………………… 64

CHAPTER ONE

1.3 INTRODUCTION
Since 1960, there have been a plethora of conceptual ideological transitions in the Nigeria foreign policy machinery. Essentially, they all strive towards an epistemological construction and definition of the thrust of Nigeria’s foreign policy. These conceptualizations are often regime specific and borne out of a psychological hunger to carve a regime identity that will create and leave lasting impressions on the minds of Nigerians. They are not necessarily products of deep and profound philosophical reflections, as such a major causative agencies for public policy failures in Nigeria.
The historical antecedents of Nigeria‟s foreign policy owes much to the vision of Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Nigeria‟s first Prime Minister and Head of Government, October 1960 to January 1966, and can be located in his famous speeches during the immediate pre and post-independence periods. These speeches include his statement in the House of Representatives on August 20, 1960; his Independence Day Address on October 1, 1960 and his Acceptance Speech on the occasion of Nigeria‟s admission into the membership of the United Nations in New York on October 8, 1960. From the late 1950s especially from 1958 when he became head of the Self-government and when Nigeria‟s Independence was slated for October 1, 1960, Balewa articulated in these speeches the fundamental principles that would guide Nigeria‟s external relations after independence and the basis upon which the country would relate with other countries of the world, as well as what its posture would be towards international organizations.
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A critical look at the speeches show the paramount importance that the government placed on continental and global issues, it cannot be doubted that an overwhelming and significant emphasis was placed on African issues and problems.
Also, Nigeria‟s foreign policy objectives supposedly are a reflection of the country‟s national interest. As such, its foreign policy is a dynamic process that is determined by the domestic needs and aspirations of the country coupled with certain practical economic, political and socio-cultural forces in the international environment. Therefore, the identified goal of Nigeria‟s foreign policy is to protect and to promote the country‟s national interest.
Therefore, the objectives of Nigeria‟s foreign policy are enshrined in Chapter 2, Section 19 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria under the rubric of Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, thus:
1. Promotion and protection of the national interest.
2. Promotion of African integration and support for African unity.
3. Promotion of international co-operation for the consolidation of universal peace and mutual respect among all nations and elimination of discrimination in all its manifestations.
4. Respect for international law and treaty obligations as well as the seeking of settlement of international disputes by negotiation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and adjudication;-and promotion of a just world economic order.
5. Promotion of a just world economic order.
Foreign policy is the category of actions a government takes which deals with defence, security, and international: political relations and international economic relations. It is the activity
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whereby a State deals with other States, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and certain individuals. Thus, Frankel (1978) defines foreign policy as a range of actions, as well as a set of principles influencing these actions, taken with reference to external situations and factors… the summation of thoughts, actions and principles on external affairs taken by decision-makers with the intention of achieving long-range goals and short-term objectives.
Also, using the irreducible minimum and fundamental components, foreign policy consists of two elements: national objectives to be achieved and the means for achieving them. According to Pham (2007), the interaction between national goals and the resources for attaining them is the perennial subject of statecraft. In its ingredients the foreign policy of all nations, great and small, is the same. In short, the shaping of foreign policy is a dynamic process involving the interaction between a country‟s internal and external environments. The one propels the other.
The economic conditions of Nigeria have advanced over the last few years as a result of the rapid phase of industrialization. The economy of Nigeria also improved tremendously with foreign investment aided by research and development. Nigeria was under the British colonial rule for a considerable period of time. During this phase, major raw materials and minerals were exported to foreign countries along with food grains which in due course of time spearheaded the rise of slavery and exploitation of labor class by the Europeans. After the achievement of independence in Nigeria, efforts were made to revive the economic growth of the country through a set of economic reforms. It’s important to note that before the discovery of oil in Nigeria, the country survived mainly on agriculture.
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Agriculturally, Nigeria has been a fertile land and one of the major cash crop producing lands of Africa. Nearly 70% of Nigeria‟s rural population is dependent on agriculture with it serving as the major source of income for them. The main crops that are widely produced are – beans, cashew nuts, groundnuts, kolanut, melon, palm oil, rubber and rice. Also cattle rearing, grazing of sheep and well-maintained livestock farm are also practiced in parts of rural Nigeria.
The presence of wide natural resources attracted foreigners and traders from different parts of the world in Nigeria. The rich deposits of oil and petroleum have served as the major revenue of income for the country throughout the years. Over the years, U.S.A has remained to be the vital oil consumer of Nigeria’s petroleum and gas. But due to the absence of proper distribution system, this oil enriched reserves are not well marketed even within the country. Other chain of industries include; coal, tin, cotton, rubber, wood, textiles, cement, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, ceramic products, steel and ship construction industries.
Due to the establishment of bilateral ties with other countries, the trade scenario of Nigeria has received a great impetus over the last few decades. An overview of the economy of Nigeria remains incomplete without mentioning its growing foreign investments which have left behind a positive effect on its trade and commercial business. The present Nigerian government has unleashed a set of economic reforms intended to bring about a radical change in its current financial growth. The major trading partners of Nigeria are; China, United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands, France, Germany and Italy. In 1971, Nigeria became a member of O.P.E.C (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) which then made the country one of the important oil production country standing at seventh position.
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Though the defective infrastructure facilities have hampered the constant growth of the country, yet efforts are made to revive those sick industries of the country through foreign collaborations and investment. The agriculture and oil has been on the top of the priority list of economic growth of the country, efforts are made to modify other industries
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Issues that concerned the continent were the primary focus of the Nigerian government. Nigeria played unmatched role in restoring peace to conflict-ridden African countries such as Congo, Sudan, Liberia and Sierra Leone. In these endeavours, Nigeria committed huge human and material resources. Although Nigeria played the role of a big brother, despite its sustained assistance, it has not been accorded the appropriate recognition for its leadership role in the continent. Instead, Nigeria has been the butt of derision by several African states. The poor perception of Nigeria in the international community is attributed to ineptitude in political leadership and economic comatose into which the country has been steeped for several years. This study, therefore, argues that economic diplomacy should be the main thrust of Nigeria‟s foreign policy in that as it will go a long way in solving several of Nigeria pressing economic problems. In a related development, the military regimes experienced in Nigeria grossly affected the nation‟s foreign policy and development economically. This placed constrains on the conduct of Nigeria‟s foreign policy in a reinforcing ways. Such as, the weakness of the economy: one’s foreign rating and influence in a very fundamental sense is a reflection of the health and size of one’s economy. The economy then has been “characterized by mismanagement, neglect and corrupt practices” a major challenge to Nigeria foreign policy. Economic development in Nigeria is still in crisis and has not been robust enough to allow her play the
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critical role she craves for especially within the African continent. To this end Nigeria could not, on a sustainable basis, provide assistance to sister countries if the economy is in poor shape. Citizens themselves need to see the practical results Nigeria foreign policy in the material improvement of their lives otherwise they will see no justification for the money spent on these foreign trips.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Research Objectives are the stated goal or parameters that are to be covered in a research. This allows for precise focus direction as well as specialism for data inquiring and thematical concept preponderance to research. The vast scope of concepts to be considered creates the unintentional fallacy of generalism or incomprehensiveness of research and as such the objectives allows for stringent-focus guidelines for the study of research variables.
It is within the ambits of the aforementioned that the research adopted its broad objective as; the examination of the relationship between Nigeria’s foreign policy and economic development from 1960-2014. While the specific objectives are as follows:
1. To assess the role of Nigeria Foreign Policy on Economic Development since independence till 2014.
2. To evaluate the relationship of external economic assistance as a result of Nigeria Foreign Policy on Economic Development.
3. To investigate the role played by Nigeria foreign policy through her economic status on Economic Development.
4. To examine importance of economic diplomacy aspect of Nigeria Foreign Policy on economic development.
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5. To explore Integrating Nigeria Foreign Policy and Economic Development need as a means of achieving Economic Development.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Research study is based on interrogation of the existing body of knowledge in order to achieve an end result. This could lead to an end-result, development of new findings or further curiosity to be investigated. As such, a research study asks questions relating to the research problems and objectives under consideration.
This research study inquired to gain understanding of the research topic various dimensions, and as such came up with specific research questions in relations to the research problems and objectives.
It is within the spheres of the above-mentioned that the research topic inquired about the following;
1. What are the roles played by Nigeria Foreign Policy on Economic Development since independence till 2014?
2. To what extent does external economic assistance as a result of Nigeria Foreign Policy aid Economic Development?
3. In what way does the role of Nigeria foreign policy through her economic status influence Economic Development?
4. How important is economic diplomacy aspect of Nigeria Foreign Policy relevant to economic development.
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5. Can Integrating Nigeria Foreign Policy and Economic Development need be a means of achieving Economic Development?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Research hypothesis are the statement of probabilities in the direction a research objective outcome may emerge. This makes them more of conjecture or prediction on the research aftermath. It is either stated in null (no relationship of cause and effect) or alternative (no differences of inferential characteristics) hypothesis format or both.
The research hypothesis adopted here is stated in null hypothesis only, its opposite is the alternative hypothesis.
The hypotheses of this study are:
1. Nigeria Foreign Policy played no role in her economic development from 1960-2014.
2. External Economic Assistance does not aid Nigeria Economic Development.
3. Nigeria Economic Status does not help in her Economic Development.
4. Economic Diplomacy is not important to Nigeria’s Economic Development.
5. Integrating Nigeria foreign policy and Economic Development Needs does not lead to economic development.
1.6. RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS
Research assumptions are statement of the positional value of the research own believes; what the researcher holds to be true. It can also be said to be the confidence value of the research
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opinion that has no experimental and evidence bases. It does not enunciate the researcher as not been objective; as systematic research tools will be used to arrive at a conclusion
The research assumption of the study includes the following:
1. Nigeria Foreign Policy has played a minute role in her economic development from 1960-2014.
2. External Economic Assistance should aid Nigeria Economic Development.
3. Nigeria Economic Status can help her in Economic Development.
4. Economic Diplomacy is important to Nigeria’s Economic Development.
5. Integrating Nigeria foreign policy and Economic Development Need might lead to economic development.
1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The essence of this research is to see how Nigeria Foreign policy is geared towards Nigeria economic development. As such, the research adds to knowledge and at the same time is useful to the government and to policy makers.
Furthermore the study has both theoretical and empirical significance. From a theoretical standpoint, it advances the frontiers of knowledge, especially the dimension of foreign policy relationship with economic development in Nigeria. It has also filled the gap in knowledge on the topic and posited theoretical facet to it.
Yet another is its empirical contribution. In such vein, Policy Makers, Decision Makers, Public officeholders, bureaucrats, the academia, the general public alike, benefits from the study. In all,
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the study is an input to the understanding of the problems of Foreign policy and Economic Development and how it can be addressed.
1.8. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers only Ekiti state of Nigeria to ascertain economic development. The findings result from the field is taken as the generalized population of the research.
1.9. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH STUDY
Firstly, Sourcing for material on the research topic was time consuming and cumbersome. Also, the initial reluctances as well as insufficient knowledge on the research topic of the sample population encountered, restricted the research instruments to be used. Another was the delays and obstacle faced in delivering and retrieving research questionnaires. Yet another was the long scope to cover that proves initially difficult but was surmounted. The cost of the project research in monetary term was a discomfort to me. And finally the presences of varied priority pursuit reduced focus and speed of completing this study.
1.10. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Foreign policy: a range of actions, as well as a set of principles influencing these actions, taken with reference to external situations and factors… the summation of thoughts, actions and principles on external affairs taken by decision-makers with the intention of achieving long-range goals and short term objectives.
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Economic development: Economic development is the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area.
Independence: This is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government free from external rule.
Economic Status: This is a systematic and logical gradation of state or non-state actor into an economical stratification based on stated parameters in proportion to difference in scale size of economic strength. This parameter may be combined or independent, example of the includes GDP (gross domestic product), rate of turnover, resource endowment etc.
External Economic Assistance: This entails a foreign inflow of economic resource into a particular polity. The reason for such can be altruistic or selfish. It can include foreign direct investment, development loans, debt forgiveness, and concessions on trade and so on.
Economic Diplomacy: This is the use of international diplomatic assets to advance the prosperity of a target population. Consensus agrees that the 4 key point of this diplomacy is; promoting trade, encouraging growth, attracting investment and supporting business.
Integration: A system of establishing joint linkages to assimilates various concept or functions.
Real: A value that translate into tangible present with direct relations on its subject felt.
Intrinsic/nominal: A values that translate as intangible present with indirect relations that might not be felt

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