NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

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  • Name: NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to provide better understanding of not just Nigeria‟s foreign policy but to also shed more light on problems and prospects of Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation. The general objective being to examine the positive and negative effects of the implementation process on Nigeria and her relationship with fellow African states and states across the globe and how it affects the economic, political, cultural, technological and military development of the country. Textbooks, internet materials and other sources were used to gather information for this study. This study talks about Nigeria‟s role as „Giant of Africa‟ and how the responsibility that comes with this position affects Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation negatively and positively. Because of this role, Nigeria is greatly involved in decision making of regional organizations like the African union and this enables her implement her foreign policies but at the same time her attention is also diverted to the needs of other African states and in attending to these needy state she forgets the needs and requirements of her own home citizens and in extreme cases this causes violent attack and affects both the economic and political sectors of the country. Literature review and the use of content analysis aided greatly to provide better understanding of Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation and its prospects and provide solutions for the problems encountered as well. in all, proper implementation of Nigeria‟s foreign policy have great prospects like economic and technological development through trade relations and increase in status and prestige of Nigeria due to assistance rendered to other African states and fostering of friendly ties between Nigeria and various states. Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation also encounters certain problems before these policies can be implemented causing external interferences, insecurity and in some cases these problems affects the National interest of the country. For better implementation of Nigeria‟s foreign policy, she
needs to involve herself more in the production of nuclear weapons and other economic resources that can help the country and make Nigeria a great power thereby preventing external influence and easy implementation of foreign policies. Nigerian government should not push aside the interest and needs of the citizens at the expense of other African states.
vi.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ………………………………………………..i
Certification ……………………………………………….ii
Dedication…………………………………………………….iii
Acknowledgment …………………………………………iv
Table of content …………………………………………v
Abstract ………………………………………………………vii
CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1.1 Background of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1.2 Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
1.3 Objectives of Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
1.4 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
1.5 Research Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
1.6 Methodology of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
1.7 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
1.8 Scope of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
1.9 Limitations of the study …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
1.10 Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
CHAPTER TWO ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ………………………………………………………………….. 17
2.1 Conceptual Definitions ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
2.2 Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
CHAPTER THREE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
3.1 Content Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
CHAPTER FOUR …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
DATA ANALYSIS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
CONTENT ANALYSIS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
CHAPTER FIVE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ……………………………………………………………………… 39
5.1 Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
5.3 Recommendation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria became an independent country on October 1st 1960 and got into the United Nations on the 7th of October 1960. Since then, the country as a sovereign nation has experienced a meteoric rise and fall in its domestic and external affairs. Nigeria‟s foreign policy could be divided into two periods that is from 1914-1960 when the North and South were amalgamated by the British Empire and post independent period: that is from independence till date. After independence, Nigeria couldn‟t deny the fact that she needed Britain and couldn‟t afford to fully cut ties with her as she was Nigeria‟s ex-colonial ruler. Thus Tafawa Balewa declared;
„….. based on the happy experience of a successful partnership our future relations with the United kingdom will be more cordial than ever, bound together as we shall be with the common wealth by a common allegiance to her majesty queen Elizabeth who we proudly acclaim as queen of Nigeria (hence) we are grateful to have British officers who we have known, first as masters and then as leaders and finally as partners and friends’.
With the booming economy of Nigeria, her vast geographical size, ever increasing population and large number of different natural resources Nigeria soon became „Giant of Africa‟. This was a huge honor that came with a lot of responsibilities and expectations and this influenced the foreign policy of Nigeria. Since the dawn of a new democratic era in 1999, a major trend is clearly discernible in Nigerian‟s foreign policy. It gradually shifted towards more interest in the affairs of other African countries. The interest was more manifest in her assistance
to African countries especially those of South Africa and the rest of the warring African nations. According to Ambassador OlugbengaAshiru, the objectives of Nigeria‟s foreign policy include:
1. Promotion and protection of national interest.
2. Promotion of African integration and unity.
3. Promotion of international cooperation for the consolidation of universal peace and mutual respect among all nations and elimination of discrimination in all its manifestations.
4. Respect for international law and treaty obligations as well as the seeking of settlement of international disputes by negotiation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and adjunction.
5. Promotion of world order.
From 1960 till date, Nigerian leaders have all pursued the same interest and have had the same problems in implementing her foreign policy. The pressure as the „Giant of Africa‟ and the need to attend to the needs of other African countries has caused problems for Nigeria. These problems are in the area of balancing her foreign policy implementation with meeting her needs and responsibilities to her citizens.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Since attaining independence in 1960, outside and especially in Europe and America, Nigeria has been known as the „Giant of Africa‟ but in reality this is not the case. The main problem to be studied is how Nigeria‟s foreign policy affects the domestic affairs of the country and her people positively or negatively. The implementation of the Afro-centric foreign policy of Nigeria has been affecting the domestic affairs more negatively than positively. There are several domestic issues that have been negatively affected by
the implementation of Nigeria‟s foreign policy. Some of these include; the insufficient availability of financial resources and social welfare for the citizens while billions are spent to restore peace and stability in other African countries like Liberia and Sierra Leone with little or no reasonable economic benefit to the country.
Nigeria offers assistance in every possible way to other African countries without reciprocal treatment from these countries. Although, proper implementation of her foreign policies sometimes produce good result such as fostering trade relations with other countries both in Africa and across the world. But the positive reward accruing from the „Giant of Africa‟ status of Nigeria is a contentious issue. The implementation of Nigeria‟s foreign policy appears to be at the expense of her domestic affairs. It is against this backdrop that this study sets out to examine whether the foreign policy implementation affects domestic affairs negatively or positively.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The general objective of this study is to examine whether Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation has negative or positive impact on her domestic affairs. The specific objectives are:
1. To examine Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation.
2. To uncover the foreign policy implementation problem.
3. To highlight the prospects of Nigeria‟s foreign policy towards her neighboring countries.
4. To examine Nigeria‟s afro-centric foreign policy implementation problems and prospects.
5. To proffer solutions to the problems of the country‟s foreign policy implementation on the socio-economic life of the citizens.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the effects of Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation?
2. What are the problems facing Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation?
3. What are the prospects of Nigeria‟s foreign policy towards her neighboring countries?
4. What are the problems and prospects of afro-centric policy implementation to the domestic affairs of Nigeria?
5. What are the solutions to the implementation problems of Nigeria‟s foreign policies on the socio-economic life of her citizens?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1. H0: Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation does not affect the country
H1: Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation affects the country
1. H0: there are no problems facing Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation
H1: there are problems facing Nigeria‟s foreign policy implementation
2. H0: there are no prospects of Nigeria‟s foreign policy towards her neighboring countries
H1: there are prospects of Nigeria‟s foreign policy towards her neighboring countries
3. H0: there are no problems and prospects of afro-centric policy implementation to the domestic affairs in Nigeria
H1: there are problems and prospects to the afro-centric policy implementation to the domestic affairs of Nigeria
4. H0: there are no solutions to the implementation problems of Nigeria‟s foreign policies on the socio-economic affairs of her citizens
H1: there are solutions to the implementation problems of Nigeria‟s foreign policies on the socio-economic affairs of her citizens.
1.6 Methodology of the Study
This study is an historical descriptive one utilizing content analysis to arrive at deductions and conclusions. Secondary data will be shared from libraries in AfeBabalola University.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will be relevant to policy makers and governments by providing solutions to the implementation problems of the country foreign policy;
Then to researchers, and fellow students, by providing assistance during research and studies. It will offer me, as a student an insight into the country‟s foreign policy implementation.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study covers briefly the period 1960-1975 that is the beginning of Nigeria‟s foreign policy although, much emphasis will be but on the administration of president GoodluckEbele Jonathan. This is because the two periods have witnessed several foreign policy challenges and problems. It is also chosen for this study because it provides both past references and unfolding challenges and problems of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and how it is been tackled by the government. In terms of geographical factor, Africa is the focus of Nigeria hence her policy is described as „Afro-centric. This domain shows the effects the problems have on the domestic affairs of Nigeria.
1.9 Limitations of the study
The encumbrances encountered in this study were mainly in the course of getting primary data. Although there are various sources of information but the validity of these information will not be certain. The inability to discuss with those fully involved in the formulation and implementation of policies also affects the research findings. The change of certain government officials in government will also cause difficulty. For secondary sources, there will be problems with processed data, embellishments, distortions and claims.
However, this study will be able to manage these problems and reduce the effect on the validity of findings.
1.10 Definition of Terms
1. Foreign Policy; range of actions, as well as set of principles influencing these actions, taken with reference to external situation and factors. (Franklin 1978).
2. Implementation; defined as specified set of activities designed to put into practice an
Activity or program of known dimensions.(Meyers and Wandersman,2012).
3. Problems; anything that causes disarray or involves doubt and requires a solution
4. Prospect; the possible happenings of a study or thing.