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ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C development is a public health concern globally; hence eliminating it has become a major public health goal by various countries. In Nigeria, monitoring Hepatitis C development with the view to eliminate it has faced several challenges such as lack of central national database on the virus, inadequate health intelligence and surveillance systems to monitor and control the incidences and prevalence of disease, manual system of health records collection, storage and access by majority of health care providers, and lack of synchronized records of existing and newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this project is to design and develop an observatory system for monitoring Hepatitis C development in Nigeria. The system will serve as a decision making tool for health care professionals for decisions regarding individual patient management, as well as public health professionals and the general public to enhance the development of public health policies and strategies.
Key words: Hepatitis C; Observatory; Health Information Systems; Public Health Observatory; Medical Observatory System; Decision Support System

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.0. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
1.1. Problem Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1.2. Project Goal ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
1.3. Project Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
1.4. Project Motivation ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
1.5. Expected Outcome ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………… 13
2.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.1 Hepatitis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
2.2 Hepatitis C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.3 Hepatitis C in Nigeria ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
2.4 Information System …………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
2.5 Decision Support Systems (DSS) …………………………………………………………………….. 16
2.6 Health Systems ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
2.6.1 Public Health Systems Versus Medical Systems ………………………………………… 16
2.7 Health Information Systems ……………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.8 Observatory ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
2.9 Public Health Observatory ………………………………………………………………………………… 19
2.9.1 National Public Health Observatory (NPHO) ………………………………………………… 20
2.9.2 Examples of Public Health Observatories ……………………………………………………. 22
2.10 Medical Observatory System ……………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.11 Health Indicators ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
2.12 Data Visualization ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
2.13 Content Management System (CMS) ……………………………………………………………….. 26
Empirical Review ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
3.1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
3.2. Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) …………………………………………………………. 30
3.3. System Architecture ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
3.4. Use Case…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
3.5. Attributes/Feature List ………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
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3.6. Database Modelling …………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
3.7. Technology Used ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
3.7.1. Drupal ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
3.7.2. UMLet ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
3.7.3. PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor ) Programming Language …………………………… 35
3.7.4. MySQL Database Management System ……………………………………………………….. 35
3.7.5. MySQL Workbench ………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
3.8. Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
CHAPTER FOUR: IMPLEMENTATION ……………………………………………………………………………. 37
4.1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
4.2. System Functionalities ……………………………………………………………………………………… 37
4.3. Database …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
4.3.1. Table list ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
4.3.2. Database Population ………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
5.1. Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
5.2. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
APPENDIX 1: SQL CREATE SCRIPT ………………………………………………………………………………. 44
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION
1.0. Introduction
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has been recognized worldwide as a public health challenge due to its effect on morbidity and mortality rates. HCV is a virus infection which is now the leading cause of liver-related diseases such as Liver cancer, cirrhosis, liver failure/transplants and death in the general population as well as death among HIV infected persons (Kumar et al, 2010).
In fighting any infectious disease such as HCV, there are three possible routes that can be taken: eradication (worldwide permanent and complete reduction of incidence to zero), elimination (localized reduction or incidence to zero due to concerted efforts), and control (localized reduction in prevalence, incidence, mortality and morbidity to an acceptable level). In the case of Hepatitis C, the goal is to eliminate the disease to various levels at different geographical locals worldwide.
Since an antiviral treatment already exists for Hepatitis C, Wiktor & Huttin (2016) stresses the need for more accurate and reliable data on HCV to enable formulation of policies to help eliminate HCV as a public health concern. To this end, the 69th World Health Assembly in its Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016–2021 (WHO, 2016), plans to eliminate the public health concern of viral Hepatitis through various strategy directions, first of which is ‗Information for Focused Action‘. The strategy direction emphasizes the need for ―a robust strategic information system that analyses and translates up to date data on viral hepatitis into usable information …‖ to enable unified data for better understanding of the disease and ensure informed national, regional and global hepatitis surveillance, monitoring,
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evaluation and policy making to halting the spread and effects of the disease (Pg. 25 – 28).
According to the WHO (2016) report, few countries have national hepatitis strategies, plans and budgets, and a health information system to monitor the disease. In Nigeria, there is no national program hence no unified country-wide data on Hepatitis C prevalence (Maisanda et al, 2018). This is mostly due to isolated and mostly manual data collection and storage by health care institutions and professionals, lack of up-to-date health records of new and existing patients, as well as the large size of the Nigerian population compared to available health care providers.
The project aims at developing an observatory system for online collection and processing of health data, and access functionalities with information visualization to aid and influence the formulation of policies in the healthcare system in Nigeria.
1.1. Problem Statement
About 130 – 15 million people have Hepatitis C virus worldwide, with West Africa, Central and East Asia, as well as North Africa having the highest casualty figures (WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016–2021, 2016). This prevalence figure is on the increase despite the availability of Hepatitis C cure. Nigeria being a West African nation has a prevalence rate of 0.5% to 15% based on the geographical region (Maisanda, 2018).
Monitoring Hepatitis C development in Nigeria faces challenges such as:
 Lack of central National database on the virus
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 Inadequate health intelligence and surveillance systems to monitor and control the incidences and prevalence of disease (Welcome, 2011)
 Manual system of health records collection, storage and access by majority of health care providers
 Lack of synchronized records of existing and newly diagnosed patients
1.2. Project Goal
The goal of the project is to develop an observatory information system for online collection and processing of health data, and access functionalities with information visualization to aid and influence clinical decision making, monitoring of trends as well as the formulation of policies in the healthcare system in Nigeria with special emphasis on HCV.
1.3. Project Objectives
 Study current Information system on HCV monitoring in Nigeria
 Data collection
 Determine system requirements
 Design and Implement the Information system
o Web portal
o Data querying and visualization (using charts and/or maps)
 Develop a comprehensive system manual
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1.4. Project Motivation
Hepatitis C has become a global public health burden due to its impact on the wellbeing (the mortality and morbidity) of people, its high prevalence rate as well as the increase in the epidemic despite an existing medical solution. In addition, many countries Nigeria included do not have a national strategy and an information system for monitor the spread, advocacy for healthier living as well as response to treatment options.
It has therefore become imperative to develop a medical observatory system to enable proper data collection and monitoring of HCV in Nigeria.
1.5. Expected Outcome
An information system for online collection and processing of health data, and access functionalities with information visualization.
Drupal Content Management System is expected to be used with a dedicated website that will be provided.
Security control to the system is of high importance, hence there will be various levels of access including the administrator who has full access to the system, and who can create users. User groups with various access levels will be determined based on the system requirements gathered.

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