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ABSTRACT

 

Road Accidents are on the rise due to the high amount of migration from the rural area
to the urban areas, Urbanization people are now finding it easier to own cars and use it
for their day to day activities. Due to that reason the amount of Road Accident has also
risen to all-time highs with estimate of 2000 deaths in four months around the country.
Although we record such amounts of Accidents we are not able to learn from them and
try to make changes with the same Roads claiming lives all the time. Thus, the need of
an Observatory System, the system was developed to help in the data gathering
process, storage, and visualization of the data to help in decision making and also
knowing how to curb the menace of Road Accident.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ii
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………. viii
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES …………………………………………………………………….x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………… xi
Chapter One ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Problem Statement ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.3 Research Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.4 Motivations ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.5 Research Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.6 Expected Result …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Chapter 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
2.2 Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
2.3 Decision Support System …………………………………………………………………………… 6
2.4 INFORMATION SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.5 CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ……………………………………………………… 11
2.6 DRUPAL CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ………………………………………. 12
2.7 WHAT IS MYSQL DATABASE? ………………………………………………………………. 15
2.7.1 What is a Database? …………………………………………………………………………….. 15
2.7.2 What is Database Management System? ……………………………………………… 16
2.8 Relational Database Management System(RDBMS) ……………………………….. 17
2.9 Related Work …………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.9.1 Road Accident Views(S, 2000) ……………………………………………………………… 19
2.9.2 Dutch Injury Surveillance System (Horan & Mallonee, 2003) ………………… 19
2.9.3 Fatal Injury Surveillance System (WHO & Monash University, 2012) ……. 19
2.9.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
Chapter 3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
3.1 System Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
3.1.1 System Design ……………………………………………………………………………………… 20
3.1.2 Data Modeling ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.2 System Implementation ……………………………………………………………………………. 21
3.3 Implementation Tools ………………………………………………………………………………. 22
ix
3.4 System Study …………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
3.5 Data analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
3.5.1 User Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………….. 23
3.5.3 Non-Functional Requirements ………………………………………………………………. 24
3.6 System Design …………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.6.1 Data Modeling ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
3.6.2 Data Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………….. 26
3.6.3 Modeling relationship between entities ………………………………………………….. 28
Chapter Four ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
Experimentation and Results …………………………………………………………………………. 32
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
4.2 Security of the System ……………………………………………………………………………… 34
4.3 Maintenance of the system ………………………………………………………………………. 34
4.4 Sample code used in creating some of the functionalities of the system ….. 34
4.5 Sample Screen shots from the System ……………………………………………………. 37
4.6 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
Chapter Five ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion ………………………………………………… 41
5.1 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
5.2 Recommendation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
5.3 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
Refrences ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
x

CHAPTER ONE

 

Introduction
1.1 Problem Statement
Observatory System for Monitoring Road Accidents in Nigeria.
1.2 Introduction
What is a Road Traffic Accident? A lot of people would say that RTAs (Road
Traffic Accidents) is when a vehicle or motorcycle collide with either a second vehicle or
hits an individual, but Accident is far more than that, A road accident refers to any
accident involving at least one road vehicle, occurring on a road open to public
circulation, and in which at least one person is injured or killed. Intentional acts (murder,
suicide) and natural disasters are excluded (National Institute of Statistics and Economic
Studies, 2016). Road Traffic Accidents claim more than 1.2 million lives each year and
have a huge impact on health and development they are among the major causes of
deaths in young adults and children between the age of 15 – 29 years (World Health
Organization, 2015).
A total amount of 35,092 people died in motor vehicle crashes in 2015, the United
States Department of Transportation’s most recent evaluation of the yearly financial fee
of crashes was a $242 billion dollars (Highway Loss Data Institute, 2015). According to
a report by WHO, India is the foremost country in number of deaths in RTAs in the world
ranking. According to data for 2007, 114,590 people died in India as an outcome of RTAs.
The second place goes to china with 89,455 deaths RTA wounds are becoming rampant,
their adverse consequences by far surpass results of both transmissible and noncommunicable
diseases (Aubakirova, Kossumov, & Igissinov, 2013). To date traffic
accidents have developed into one of the major sources of injury, disability and mortality
worldwide.
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The Developing Countries tend to have more than developed 1st and 2nd world
countries because they are far underdeveloped and control measures are not well in
place, even if they are there the rate of corruption and lack of care has overshadowed
the control measures. And it also affects the countries the worse as it reduces the major
driving force of the economic population where men are the general breadwinners. and
have the highest frequency in mortality rates in RTAs, A studies have shown that males
tend to have more accidents than women, due to the bad habits they associate
themselves with while driving such as Speeding, Eating or Drinking, risky overtakes, not
wearing on seat belts and so on (Highway Loss Data Institute, 2015).
The cost of accidents between the developed countries and underdeveloped and
developing countries on the GDP is also different a Conservative estimate pegs the cost
of accident on GDP of the Developed Countries at 1% on the other hand the developing
countries are estimated at almost 5%. One mechanism for dropping demise from RTAs
is the so termed “golden hour” and “diamond half an hour”, when vital medical care is
provided to wounded in the first hour after an accident transpires and injury is sustained.
By now we must have noticed that RTAs are not limited to a single part of the
world and the lives claimed by RTAs is not limited to a single range of population. RTAs
also lead to injuries that are sometimes permanent leaving an individual forever disabled.
Nigeria being one of the most populous country on the earth surface, in Quarter two of
2017 recorded 2,503 road crashes with speed violations as the major cause (Source,
Bureau, Road, & Corps, 2017)
1.3 Research Objectives
The Objective of this research is to build and implement an observatory system
to monitor road accidents across Nigeria and be able to visualize the accidents, by their
severity, locations, driver, vehicle type, casualty, and in some cases fatalities. Also, it
would be used to monitor the cause of the accidents and how it would be addressed, the
system can be used to take certain decisions when trying to improve the safety of the
3
roads and when building new roads and bridges. It would be a very good source of data
gathering, as Nigeria lacks a system where road accidents and users are being managed
if properly managed, the system can be used to know and keep the number of vehicles
and drivers in the country whether they have been involved in an accident or not.
1.4 Motivations
The motivation of this topic is the lack of a much needed and comprehensive
source of data and information about road accidents in Nigeria. Without this information,
some critical decision cannot be implemented properly and be addressed. This research
will be able to show the locations with highest frequency of accident in the country. Which
would lead to more research on how to make the roads safer and with the latest
technological advancement the system can be used as a data warehouse where
predictive analysis can be done and mitigate that may occur even before they happen.
1.5 Research Methodology
For this research Drupal content management system will be used to implement
the web interface and source of information. Drupal is used because of its rich content,
it is secured and open sourced, it has also been used for numerous website and
information system and it is reliable, it is also free making it cost efficient, Drupal has a
lot of modules which are also free and easy to use, it is managed by a large user base,
and has security patches updated regularly making it very resilient to attacks. For the
Database, a RDBMS (Relational Database Model) will be adopted and used with MySQL
as the Database engine. I will also use jmerrise as my tool to draw out the Diagrams
and classes for the Database tables and Database as well.
1.6 Expected Result
The online collection and processing of road traffic data and accidents record will
be among the expected result also a robust source of information would be gotten that
will be used, by the agencies concerned and parastatals that might need correct and up
to date information about road accidents. The system can be expanded with sensors to
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be able to immediately report to all the emergency agencies like NEMA (National
Emergency Management Agency), FRSC (Federal Road Safety Commission), and
Nearby hospitals with standby ambulance when an accident occurs. The information
system will also generate infographics for visualization purposes.

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