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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON OXIDATIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETER ASSESSMENT FOR ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH METHANOL LEAF EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM.
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- Name: OXIDATIVE AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETER ASSESSMENT FOR ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS TREATED WITH METHANOL LEAF EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM.
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Ocimum gratissimum is a vegetable plant of wide nutritional and medicinal application in Nigeria and some other parts of the world. The aim of this study is to know the effect and efficacy of oral administration of methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum on the level of oxidative and biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were obtained and dried under room temperature, after drying, it was grind into powder and 320.64g soaked in 50ml of methanol for 72hours. After which it was filtered with a Whatsman (no 1) filter paper. The filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator at 37oC. A total of 20 male Wistar albino rats were grouped into the normal group, diabetic not treated, diabetic treated with gilbenclamide and the group treated with the leaf extract, they were all fed orally with the extract for 14days. All the rats were sacrificed and their blood was collected for assaying of biochemical parameters. Result of the study showed a significant (P>0.05) increase in the serum SOD activity compared with the normal control.Vitamin E was observed showing a significant (P>0.05) increase in the group treated with the extracts compared with diabetic untreated. The result also showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in MDA level of test group compared with the diabetic untreated and a non-significant (P>0.05) increase was seen in the HDL level of the test group and also a significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in the LDL level of the group treated with leaf extract. Data of the study suggests that the oral administration of the aqueous methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum may impair naturally generated oxidant/toxicant activity and hereby enhance specific activities of antioxidants in rats.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of contents vii
List of tables viii
List of figures ix
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Aim and Objectives 2
1.3.1 Aim of the study 2
1.3.2 Objective of the study 3
CHAPTER 2: LITREATURE REVIEW
- About the plant 4
- Scientific classification 5
- Chemical constituents of plant 6
- Geographical distribution 6
- Composition of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum 6
- Medical uses of Ocimum gratissimum 7
- Alternative and complimentary medical uses 7
- Published pharmacological properties of gratissimum 8
- Alloxan induced diabetes 8
- Alloxan mechanism of action 8
2.2.1 Chemical properties of Alloxan 10
2.2.2 Impact of Alloxan upon beta cells 10
CHAPTER 3: METHOD AND MATERIAL
- Materials and methods 12
- chemical and reagents 12
3.1.2 Equipment 12
3.1.3 Materials 12
3.2 The plant 13
3.2.1 Extract Preparation 31
3.2.2 Preparation of extract for administration 14
3.2.3 Experimental animal 14
3.2.4 Experimental design 15
3.2.5 Collection of blood sample 15
3.2.6 Determination of the biochemical parameter 15
3.2.7 Glucose level 15
3.2.8 Determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA) level 16
3.2.9 Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Assay 18
3.3 Determination of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level 20
3.3.1 Low density lipoprotein LDL 21
3.3.2 Vitamin E level 21
3.3.3 Statistical Analysis 23
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS
4.1 Results 24
4.2 Effects of Methanol extract of O.gratissimum on malondialdhyde
4.3 Effects of Methanol extract of O.gratissimum on superoxide dismutase
4.4 Effects of Methanol extract of O.gratissimum of high density
lipoprotein (LDL) level 27
4.5 Effects of Methanol extract of O.gratissimum of low density
lipoprotein (LDL) 28
4.6 Effects of Methanol extract of O.gratissimum on vitamin E level 29
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Discussion 30
5.2 Conclusion 32
- BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The use of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract to treat Alloxan induced diabetic rat and its oxidative and biochemical parameter assessments.
In Nigeria, especially in the southern part there is a consumption of plants extracts people consume. They also consume a lot of vegetable in their native diet and some of these plants are believed to cure some aliments. Ocimum gratissimum is one of the many found to lower glycaemia in Type-1 diabetes.
Many components of food such as secondary plants metabolites have been seen to alter biological processes which may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases in human such as diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus has its complications especially diabetes conditions among infected people, Ocimum gratissimum uses against various aliments has gained widespread acceptance in developing as well as developed nations (kolewale et al,. 2011). Diabetes mellitus is an important chronic metabolic disorder of public health concern, it occurs either as a result of pancreatic defects in insulin secretion or the failure of the effectively utilize secreted insulin or both. Hyperglycemia is a common consequence of uncontrolled diabetes, which may over time lead to serious damage to vascular tissue, heart, eye nerve and kidney.
Plants with known and suspected therapeutic potencies have been longed used in the alternative and complementary medicine. Numerous scientific reports exist, describing the relatively low toxicity and effectiveness in selected plants in management of diabetes.
Numerous scientific report exists, descending the relatively low toxicity and effectiveness of selected plants in the management of diabetes. It is unfortunate that a large number of those studies were conducted using either normoglycermeia or animal models.
Inducing of diabetes using either >100mg/kg body weight of Alloxan into these animal models, with recent review showing that Alloxan was one of the most frequently used diabetogenic agent globally.
High dose of the chemical are cytotoxic to the pancreatic beta cells giving rise to insulin deficiency.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The statement of the problem in this research work is that the efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract through assaying of biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
VISION: To determine the effect Ocimum gratissimum methanol leaf extract has alloxan-induced diabetic rats through assaying of biochemical parameters.
ISSUE STATEMENT: Diabetes mellitus has become one of the prevailing health cases people face today, with no or little knowledge on how it can be controlled and managed, it could worsen beyond control and as far as oxidative damage is concerned, it would multiple the generation of free radicals.
METHODS: Apart from modern drugs that can be used to control and manage diabetes, the use of Ocimum gratissimum menthol leaf extract was employed in other to determine the effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats through assaying of biochemical parameter.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
1.3.1 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of the methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum on the oxidative and biochemical parameter of alloxan –induced diabetic rats.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Specifically, the study sort to:
- Determine the effects of the extract on MDA level
- Determine the effects of the extract on lipid profile
- Determine the effects of the extract on antioxidant enzyme activity.
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